Abbreviations

DOST (A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue)
SND (the Scottish National Dictionary)

Abbreviations used in DOST (A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue)

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

A Top Top

A Asloan Manuscript
a ante
a. adjective (in early volumes)
abbrev. abbreviation, abbreviated
absol. absolute
adj. adjective
adv. adverb, adverbial
adv. phr. adverb phrase
AF Anglo French
AL Anglo Latin
Amer. American
Amer. Eng. American English
AN Anglo Norman
App. Appendix
appar. apparently
applic. application
Asl. Asloan Manuscript
attrib. attributive
Aug. August
aux. v. auxiliary verb
AV Authorised Version (of the Bible)

B Top Top

B Bannatyne Manuscript
Bann. Bannatyne Manuscript

C Top Top

C Cambridge Manuscript of Barbour’s Bruce and Troy-book
c. century
c. chapter (in a reference)
c circa
Cath. Angl. Catholicon Anglicon
cf. confer, compare
Ch. Charteris
Ch. & M. Chepman and Myllar
coll. collective
comb. combinative, combined
compar. comparative
compl. complement
concr. concrete
conj. conjunction
const. constructed with
corresp. corresponding

D Top Top

Dan. Danish
dat. dative
Dec. December
Ded. Dedication
def. art. definite article
demonstr. demonstrative
demonstr. adj. demonstrative adjective
demonstr. pron. demonstrative pronoun
dial. dialect
dimin. diminutive
Du. Dutch

E Top Top

early ME early Middle English
Eccl. L. Ecclesiastical Latin
ed. edition, editor
EIr. Early Irish
ellipt. elliptical
e.m.Du. early modern Dutch
e.m.E. early modern English
Eng. L. English Latin
equiv. to equivalent to
erron. erroneous
esp. especially
espec. especially
etc. et cetera

F Top Top

F. French
f. from
Faer. Faeroese
Feb. February
fem. feminine
ff. following
fig. figurative
Flem. Flemish
f.n. footnote
fol. folio(s)
freq. frequently
frequent. frequentative
Fris. Frisian

G Top Top

Gael. Gaelic (Scots)
gen. generally } written out if
gen. genitive } ambiguous
Germ. German
Gk. Greek
gl. glossed as
Glos. Glossary
Gmc. Germanic

H Top Top

H Harleian Manuscript
h. of ch. heading of chapter
Harl. Harleian Manuscript
Hatz-Darm. Hatzfeld-Darmester

I Top Top

Ib. Ibidem
Icel. Icelandic
Id. Idem
imper. imperative
impers. impersonal
indef. indefinite
indef. art. indefinite article
infin. infinitive
infl. inflected, inflection
instr. instrumental case
interj. interjection
interrog. pron. interrogative pronoun
intr. intransitive
intrans. intransitive (in notes)
Introd. Introduction
Ir. Irish
irreg. irregular
It. Italian

J Top Top

J. Jamieson
Jam. Jamieson
Jan. January

K Top Top

L Top Top

L. Latin
late L. late Latin
LG Low German
lit. Literal

M Top Top

marg. Margin
masc. Masculine
MDan. Middle Danish
MDu. Middle Dutch
ME Middle English
MED Middle English Dictionary
med. L. Medieval Latin
med. L. (Sc.) Scots medieval Latin
MF Middle French
MFlem. Middle Flemish
MHG Middle High German
midl. midlands
MIr. Middle Irish
MLG Middle Low German
mod. dial. modern dialect
mod. Eng. modern English
mod. Lat. modern Latin
mod. Sc. modern Scots
MSw. Middle Swedish

N Top Top

n. note
n. noun
n. phr. noun phrase
n. pl. noun plural
Nat. Mus. Antiq. Scotl. National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland
north. northern
north. e.m.E. northern early modern English
north. Eng. dial. northern English dialect
north. ME northern Middle English
north-western Eng. dial. north-western English dialect
Norw. Norwegian
Norw. dial. Norwegian dialect
Nov. November
num. numeral

O Top Top

obs. obsolete
obs. F. obsolete French
obsolesc. obsolescent
occas. occasionally
Oct. October
ODan. Old Danish
OE Old English
OED Oxford English Dictionary
OF Old French
OFris. Old Frisian
OIcel. Old Icelandic
ON Old Norse
ONF Old Northern French
ONorthumb. Old Northumbrian
orig. originally
Orkn. Orkney
OSaxon Old Saxon
OScand. Old Scandinavian

P Top Top

P. Purvey
p. page
pers. pron. personal pronoun
Pg. Portuguese
phr. phrase(s)
pl. plural ( roman in variant spelling list)
plur. plural
poet. poetic
pop. L. popular Latin
possess. possessive
possess. pron. possessive pronoun
p.p. past participle (italic as paragraph marker or part of speech label)
ppl. adj. participial adjective
pr. printed
prec. preceding
predic. predicative
Pref. Preface
pref. prefix
prep. preposition
prep. prepositional
pres. present tense
pres. p. present participle (italic as paragraph marker or part of speech label)
pres. t. present tense (italic as part of speech label)
presum. presumably
prob. probably
Proclam. Proclamation
Proh. Proheme
Prol. Prologue
Prompt. Parv. Promptorium Parvulorum
pron. pronoun
pronunc. pronunciation
prop. n. proper noun
proverb. proverbial
p.t. past tense (italic as paragraph marker or part of speech label)

Q Top Top

quot. quotation
q.v. quod vide
qq.v. quae vide

R Top Top

redupl. Reduplicated
refl. Reflexive
reflex. Reflexive
reflex. pron. reflexive pronoun
rel. pron. relative pronoun
repr. Representative, representing
rh. rhyming with
Ruddim. Ruddiman

S Top Top

sc. scilicet
Sc. Scots
Sc. and Ir. Gael. Scots and Irish Gaelic
Scand. Scandinavian
Sept. September
Shakesp. Shakespeare
Shetl. Shetland
sing. singular
SND Scottish National Dictionary
south. Eng. dial. southern English dialect
south. ME South Middle English
spec. specialised
specif. specifically
subjunct. subjunctive
superl. superlative
s.v. sub voce
Sw. Swedish

T Top Top

tr. transitive
trans. transitive (in notes)
transf. transferred
transl. translation

U Top Top

ultim. ultimate, ultimately
uninfl. uninflected
usu. usually

V Top Top

v. verb
var. variant
varr. variants
vbl. n. verbal noun
verb. prefix verbal prefix
verb. phr. verbal phrase
viz. videlicet
v.r. variant reading
v.rr. variant readings
vulgar L. vulgar Latin

W Top Top

W. Welsh
W. Wycliffe
WSaxon West Saxon

X Top Top

Y Top Top

Z Top Top

Abbreviations used in SND (The Scottish National Dictionary)

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZSymbolsGeographical Labels

A Top Top

a. (with date) ante = before
A. = Author (after an author’s own note)
abbr. abbreviated, abbreviation
abr. abridged
absol. absolute(ly)
acc. accusative
accord. according
ad. adaptation of
Add. Addenda
adj. adjective, adjectival(ly)
adv. adverb, adverbial(ly)
affirm. affirmative(ly)
Angus Gl. Glossary of the Shetland Dialect, by J. S. Angus (1914)
Anon. Anonymous
ante. antecedent
aph. aphetic
App. Appendix
appar. apparent(ly)
Arab. Arabic
arch. archaic
art. article
assim. assimilated, assimilation
assoc. association
attrib. attributive(ly)
aux. auxiliary
A.V. Authorised Version

B Top Top

B. and H. A Dictionary of English Plant-Names, by James Britten, F.L.S., and Robert Holland (1886)
B.C. Bannatyne Club
Bense A Dictionary of the Low-Dutch Element in the English Vocabulary, by J. F. Bense, Lit. Ph.D. (1926–38)
Björkman Scandinavian Loan- Words in Middle English, by Erik Björkman, Ph.D. (1900–02)
Bk. Book
B.R.S. Burgh Record Society

C Top Top

c. (with date) Circa = about
c. century
cent. century
centr. central
cf. confer = compare
chron. chronological(ly)
Cleasby and Vigfusson Icelandic–English Dictionary based on the MS. collections of the late Richard Cleasby, enlarged and completed by Gudbrand Vigfusson (1874)
C.M. Cursor Mundi
cogn. cognate
coll. collective(ly)
colloq. colloquial(ly)
Colville Studies in Lowland Scots, by J. Colville (1909)
comb. combination
comm. common(ly)
comp. compound
compar. comparative
Concise Eng. Dict. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, adapted by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler from The Oxford Dictionary (1929)
condit. conditional
conj. conjunction, conjunctive
conn. connected
cons. consonant
constr. constructed, construction
contr. contracted, contraction
corr. corresponding to
Cotgrave A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues, compiled by Randle Cotgrave (1611)
Curriehill John Marshall, Lord Curriehill (1794–1868), judge of the Court of Session, who wrote marginal notes in a copy of MacTaggart’s Gallov. Encycl. now in the library of the late Mr. E. A. Hornel, artist, Kirkcudbright. (Gall. a.1868 Curriehill)

D Top Top

d. died
(D) dialect, dialectal (after the county name at the start of a quotation, to indicate particularly strongly marked local dialect)
D.A.E. A Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles, compiled at the University of Chicago under the editorship of Sir William Craigie and James R. Hulbert (1936–)
Dan. Danish
Danneil Worterbuch der altmarkischen platt-deutschen Mundart. by Johann Friedrich Danneil (1859)
dat. dative
def. definition
def. art. definite article
dem. demonstrative
deriv. derived, derivative, derivation
dial. dialect, dialectal
Dict. Dictionary
Dieth A Grammar of the Buchan Dialect (Aberdeenshire), Descriptive and Historical. Vol. I. Phonology–Accidence, by Eugen Dieth, Ph.D. (1932)
Diez An Etymological Dictionary of the Romance Languages; chiefly from the German of Friedrich Diez, by T. C. Donkin, B.A. (1864)
Dijkstra Friesch Woordenboek, by W. Dijkstra (1900)
dim. diminutive
Dinneen Dinneen’s Irish–English Dictionary
D.O.S.T. A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, from the Twelfth Century to the end of the Seventeenth, by Sir William A. Craigie, LL.D., D.Litt. and A. J. Aitken, M.A. (1931–)
D.S.C.S. The Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland, by J. A. H. Murray (1873)
Du. Dutch
Dwelly The Illustrated Gaelic–English Dictionary, by E. Dwelly. F.S.A. Scot., F.S.G. (4th ed. 1941)

E Top Top

E. Early
(E) Eclectic = an artificial form of Scots, sometimes called synthetic Scots or Lallans
e.Ang. east Anglian
ed. edited, editor, edition
E.D.D. The English Dialect Dictionary, by Joseph Wright, in six Volumes (1898–1905)
Edm. Gl. Glossary of the Dialect of Shetland and Orkney, by T. Edmonston (1866)
E.E.P. Early English Pronunciation, by A. J. Ellis (1869–1889)
E.E.T.S. Early English Text Society
ellipt. elliptical(ly)
E.M.E. Early Modern English
Eng. English
Eng.–Welsh Dict. Spurrell’s English–Welsh Dictionary (1926)
erron. erroneous(ly)
esp. especial(ly)
etym. etymology, etymological(ly)
euphem. euphemism, euphemistic(ally)
evid. evident(ly)
ex. example(s)
exc. except, exception
excl. exclamation, exclamatorily
expl. explained
expr. expression

F Top Top

Fær. Faeroese
Falk and Torp Norwegisch–Danisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, by H. S. Falk and Alf Torp (1910–1911)
fam. familiar(ly)
Farmer and Henley A Dictionary of Slang and Colloquial English, by John S. Farmer and W. E. Henley (1905)
fem. feminine
fig. figurative(ly)
fl. floruit = flourished
Flem. Flemish
Flom. Scandinavian Influence on Southern Lowland Scotch, by G. T. Flom (1900)
foll. following, followed
Fr. French
Francisque-Michel A Critical Inquiry into the Scottish Language, by Francisque-Michel (1882)
Franck Franck’s Etymologisch Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal (1912)
freq. frequent(ly), frequentative
Fris. Frisian
fut. future

G Top Top

Gael. Gaelic
Gamillscheg Etymologisches Worterbuch der Französischen Sprache, ed. Ernst Gamillscheg (1928)
gen. genitive; general(ly)
Gen.Sc. General Scots = known generally wherever Lowland Scots is spoken
Ger. German
Gl. Glossary
Gmc. Germanic
Godefroy Lexique de L’Ancien Francais, by Frederic Godefroy (1901 ed.)
Goth. Gothic
Gr. Greek
Gregor D. Bnff. Dialect of Banffshire, by W. Gregor (1866)

H Top Top

Hatz. and Darm. Dictionnaire General de la Langue Francaise, by A. Hatzfeld and A. Darmesteter (1926)
Hebr. Hebrides
(Highland) representation of a Highlander’s speech by the author
hist. history, historical

I Top Top

Ib. Ibidem = in the same place
Icel. Icelandic
Id. Idem = the same person (esp. when referred to as authority for a word)
Idg. Indogermanic
I.E. Indo-European
imit. imitative
imp. impression
imper. imperative
impers. impersonal(ly)
impf. imperfect
indef. indefinitive
indic. indicative
inf. infinitive
infl. inflexion
instrum. instrumental
int. interjection
interrog. interrogative(ly)
intr. intransitive(ly)
Intro. Introduction
Ir. Irish
irreg. irregular(ly)
It. Italian
ital. italics

J Top Top

Jak. An Etym. Dictionary of the Norn Language in Shetland, by Jakob Jakobson (1908 Dan. ed., 1928 Eng. tr.)
Jam. Etym. Dictionary of the Scottish Language, in two volumes (1808), by John Jamieson
Jam.1 Etym. Dictionary of the Scottish Language (abr. ed.) (1818)
Jam.2 Supplement to the Etym. Dictionary of the Scottish Language, in two Volumes (1825)
Jam.3 Etym. Dictionary of the Scottish Language, revised by J. Johnstone (1840–1841), in two Volumes
Jam.4 Dictionary of the Scottish Language, by John Jamieson, abr. by J. Johnstone, revised by J. Longmuir (1867)
Jam.5 Etym. Dictionary of the Scottish Language, revised by J. Longmuir and D. Donaldson (1879–1882)
Jam.6 Supplement to Jamieson’s Scottish Dictionary, by D. Donaldson (1887)
Joyce English as we speak it in Ireland, by P. W. Joyce, LL.D., T.C.D., M.R.I.A. (2nd ed. 1910)

K Top Top

Kilian Etymologicum Teutonicæ Linguæ, sive Dictionarium Teutonico–Latinum, by C. Kilian (1772–1777)
Kluge An Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, by Friedrich Kluge

L Top Top

L., Linn. Linnæus
lang. language
Larsen Dansk–Norsk–Englsk Ordbog, ed. A. Larsen (1910)
Lat. Latin
L.Ger. Low German
lit. literal(ly)
liter. literary, in literary use only
Lith. Lithuanian
L.Sc. Lowland Scottish

M Top Top

m., mod. modern
M.C. Maitland Club
McAlpine Gaelic Dictionary, by Neil McAlpine
MacBain Etym. Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, by A. MacBain (1896)
MacLennan A Pronouncing and Etym. Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, by Malcolm MacLennan (1925)
Macleod and Dewar A Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, by the Rev. Dr. Norman Macleod and the Rev. Dr. Daniel Dewar (1893)
Marw. The Orkney Norn, by H. Marwick (1929)
masc. masculine
Med. (med.) Mediaeval
Med. Lat. Medieval Latin
met. metathetic, metathesis
metaph. metaphor, metaphorical(ly)
Metcalfe Supplementary Dictionary of the Scottish Language, with Introduction by W. M. Metcalfe (1910)
M.H.Ger. Middle High German
Mid. Eng. Middle English
midl. midland (i.e. Eng. dialect of the Midlands)
Mid.Sc. Middle Scots
Misc. Miscellany
M.L.Ger. Middle Low German
M.M.Sc. Manual of Modern Scots, by W. Grant and J. M. Dixon (1921)
Mont.-Fleming Notes on Jamieson’s Scottish Dictionary, by J. B. Montgomerie- Fleming (1899)

N Top Top

n. noun
naut. nautical
n.d. no date
N.E.D. A New English Dictionary, ed. J. A. H. Murray, H. Bradley, W. A. Craigie, C. T. Onions (Oxford, 1884–1929)
neg. negative(ly)
neut. neuter
nom. nominative
Norw. Norwegian
num. numeral

O Top Top

obj. object(ive)
obs. obsolete
obsol. obsolescent
occas. occasional(ly)
O.E. English, before the Conquest; includes the four dialects, West Saxon, Kentish, Mercian and Northumbrian
O.Fr. Old French
O.Fris. Old Frisian
O.H.Ger. Old High German
O.I. or O.Ir. Old Irish
O.N. Old Norse
O.N.Fr. Old Norman French
onomat. onomatopœic
O.North. Old Northumbrian
orig. origin(al)(ly)
O.Sax. Old Saxon
O.Sc. Older Scots
O.Slav. Old Slavonic

P Top Top

p. (with date) post = after
p., pp. page, pages
pa.p. past participle
pass. passive(ly)
pa.t. past tense
perf. perfect
pers. personal
phon. phonetic(s)
phr(s). phrase(s)
phs. perhaps
pl. plural
P.L.D. Phonetic Description of the Language and Dialects in Vol. I., Intro.
pleon. pleonasm, pleonastic(ally)
poet. poetical
pop. popular(ly)
Port. Portuguese
poss. possible(ly)
ppl. participle
ppl.adj. participial adjective
ppl.phr. participial phrase
pred. predicate, predicatively
pref. prefix
prep. preposition
pres. present
pret. preterite
Prim. Primitive
Prim.O.E. Primitive Old English
prob. probable(ly)
pron. pronoun
prop. proper(ly)
Prov. Provencal
Pr.p. Promptorium Parvulorum
pr.p. present participle
pr.t. present tense
publ. published

Q Top Top

q.v. quod vide = which see

R Top Top

reduplic. reduplicative
ref. reference
refl. reflexive(ly)
reg. regular(ly)
rel. relative
repr. representative, representing, etc.
Roget An Introduction to Old French, by F. F. Roget, 1887
Rom. Romance—i.e. Latin and languages derived from it

S Top Top

Sc. Scots (when no indication of a particular dialect is given); Scottish, Scotch
sc. scilicet = that is to say
S.C. Spalding Club, New Spalding Club, Third Spalding Club
Scand. Scandinavian
Scot. Scotland
S.D.D. Chambers’s Scots Dialect Dictionary, by A. Warrack (1911)
sep. separate
S.H.S. Scottish Historical Society
sing. singular
Skeat Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, by Walter W. Skeat (1911)
Skr. Sanskrit
S.N.D. Scottish National Dictionary
Sp. Spanish
specif. specific(ally)
Stat. Acc.1 Statistical Account of Scotland (1791–1799)
Stat. Acc.2 New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
Stat. Acc.3 Third Statistical Account of Scotland (of varying dates from 1951)
St.Eng. Standard English
Sth.Eng. Southern English—i.e. Standard English as spoken in the middle and south of England
Stratmann A Middle-English Dictionary containing words used by English writers from the twelfth to the fifteenth century, by Francis Henry Stratmann (ed. H. Bradley 1891)
S.T.S. Scottish Text Society
st.v. strong verb
subj. subject; subjunctive
subst. substantive(ly)
suff. suffix
superl. superlative
Suppl. Supplement
s.v. sub voce = under the word
Sw. Swedish
Sweet, A.S. The Student’s Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon, by Henry Sweet (1897)
Sweet, H.E.S. A History of English Sounds, by Henry Sweet (1888)
syll. syllable
syn. synonym(ous)

T Top Top

tech. technical(ly)
Torp Nynorsk Etymologisk Ordbok, by Alf Torp (1919)
tr. transitive(ly)
Trans. Transactions
transf. transferred sense
transl. translation
Traynor Gl. M. Traynor English Dialect of Donegal (1953)
trs. transfer
T.S.D.C. Transactions of the Scottish Dialects Committee

U Top Top

Un. Eng. Dict. The Universal English Dictionary, edited by H. C, Wyld (1932)
U.S. United States
usu. usual(ly)

V Top Top

v., vb. verb
v. vide = see
var. variant of
vbl.n. verbal noun
vern. vernacular
v.i. vide infra = see below
viz. videlicet = namely
Voc. vocabulary
v.s. vide supra = see above

W Top Top

Watson W.-B. Roxburghshire Word-Book, by G. Watson (1923)
Webster Webster’s New International Dictionary (end ed., 1935)
Weekley Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, by Ernest Weekley (1921)
Westergaard Studies in Prefixes and Suffixes in Middle Scottish, by Elizabeth Westergaard (1924)
Wettstein The Phonology of a Berwickshire Dialect, by Paul Wettstein (1942)
Wilson, D. Burns The Dialect of Robert Burns as spoken in Central Ayrshire by Sir James Wilson (1923)
Wilson Cent. Scot. The Dialects of Central Scotland, by Sir James Wilson (1926) for Fif., Lth.
Wilson, L. Strathearn Lowland Scotch as spoken in the Lower Strathearn District of Perthshire, by Sir James Wilson (1915) for Per.
Wilson referring to any of the above works (differentiated by the county abbreviation)
wk.v. weak verb
W.-L. Word-List
W.S. West Saxon

X Top Top

Y Top Top

Z Top Top

Zai The Phonology of the Morebattle Dialect (East Roxburghshire), by Rudolf Zai, Ph.D., 1942
Zoëga A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, by Geir T. Zoëga (1910)

Symbols Top Top

* (in etymological notes) hypothetical form.
obsolete.
obsolescent.
[ ] square brackets enclose the phonetic descriptions, the etymological notes, and explanations by editor inserted in quotations. A date in square brackets is sometimes given for the first edition of a book, when that ed. has not been consulted, but when it is known to differ in some respect from the ed. used.
indicates that no evidence for the word in question has been found, beyond that quoted in the article.

Geographical labels Top Top

The geographical labels listed below indicate the dialect districts as they appear in SND. They refer to the traditional counties as they were until the late 20th century, and are therefore those which pertained during most of the period during which SND was compiled.
Abd. Aberdeen
Ags. Angus
Ant. Antrim
Arg. Argyll
Ayr. Ayrshire
Bch. Buchan
Bnff. Banff
Bte. Bute
Bwk. Berwick
Cai. Caithness
Clc. Clackmannan
Cld. Clydesdale
Crm. Cromarty
Cum. Cumberland
Dmb. Dumbarton
Dmf. Dumfries
Don. Donegal
Dur. Durham
Dwn. Down
Edb. Edinburgh
Elg. Elgin
Fif. Fife
Frf. Forfar
Gall. Galloway
Gsw. Glasgow
Hdg. Haddington
Inv. Inverness
Ir., Irel. Ireland
Kcb. Kirkcudbright
cd. Kincardine
Lnk. Lanark
Lnl. Linlithgow
Lth. Lothian
ry. Moray
Nai. Nairn
Nhb. Northumberland
Ork. Orkney
Peb. Peebles
Per. Perth
Rnf. Renfrew
Rs. Ross
Rxb. Roxburgh
Sc. Scotland
Sh. Shetland
Slg. Stirling
Slk. Selkirk
Sth. Sutherland
Twd. Tweeddale
Tyr. Tyrone
Uls. Ulster
Wgt. Wigtown
Yks Yorkshire