Abbreviations – SND



Geographical Labels

A Top

a. (with date) ante = before
A. = Author (after an author’s own note)
abbr. abbreviated, abbreviation
abr. abridged
absol. absolute(ly)
acc. accusative
accord. according
ad. adaptation of
Add. Addenda
adj. adjective, adjectival(ly)
adv. adverb, adverbial(ly)
affirm. affirmative(ly)
Angus Gl. Glossary of the Shetland Dialect, by J. S. Angus (1914)
Anon. Anonymous
ante. antecedent
aph. aphetic
App. Appendix
appar. apparent(ly)
Arab. Arabic
arch. archaic
art. article
assim. assimilated, assimilation
assoc. association
attrib. attributive(ly)
aux. auxiliary
A.V. Authorised Version

B Top

B. and H. A Dictionary of English Plant-Names, by James Britten, F.L.S., and

Robert Holland (1886)

B.C. Bannatyne Club
Bense A Dictionary of the Low-Dutch Element in the English Vocabulary,

by J. F. Bense, Lit. Ph.D. (1926–38)

Björkman Scandinavian Loan- Words in Middle English, by Erik Björkman,

Ph.D. (1900–02)

Bk. Book
B.R.S. Burgh Record Society

C Top

c. (with date) Circa = about
c. century
cent. century
centr. central
cf. confer = compare
chron. chronological(ly)
Cleasby and Vigfusson Icelandic–English Dictionary based on the MS. collections of the

late Richard Cleasby, enlarged and completed by Gudbrand

Vigfusson (1874)

C.M. Cursor Mundi
cogn. cognate
coll. collective(ly)
colloq. colloquial(ly)
Colville Studies in Lowland Scots, by J. Colville (1909)
comb. combination
comm. common(ly)
comp. compound
compar. comparative
Concise Eng. Dict. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, adapted by H. W.

Fowler and F. G. Fowler from The Oxford Dictionary (1929)

condit. conditional
conj. conjunction, conjunctive
conn. connected
cons. consonant
constr. constructed, construction
contr. contracted, contraction
corr. corresponding to
Cotgrave A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues, compiled by

Randle Cotgrave (1611)

Curriehill John Marshall, Lord Curriehill (1794–1868), judge of the Court of

Session, who wrote marginal notes in a copy of MacTaggart’s

Gallov. Encycl. now in the library of the late Mr. E. A. Hornel,

artist, Kirkcudbright. (Gall. a.1868 Curriehill)

D Top

d. died
(D) dialect, dialectal (after the county name at the start of a quotation, to indicate particularly strongly marked local dialect)
D.A.E. A Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles, compiled

at the University of Chicago under the editorship of Sir William

Craigie and James R. Hulbert (1936–)

Dan. Danish
Danneil Worterbuch der altmarkischen platt-deutschen Mundart. by Johann

Friedrich Danneil (1859)

dat. dative
def. definition
def. art. definite article
dem. demonstrative
deriv. derived, derivative, derivation
dial. dialect, dialectal
Dict. Dictionary
Dieth A Grammar of the Buchan Dialect (Aberdeenshire), Descriptive and

Historical. Vol. I. Phonology–Accidence, by Eugen Dieth,

Ph.D. (1932)

Diez An Etymological Dictionary of the Romance Languages; chiefly from

the German of Friedrich Diez, by T. C. Donkin,

B.A. (1864)

Dijkstra Friesch Woordenboek, by W. Dijkstra (1900)
dim. diminutive
Dinneen Dinneen’s Irish–English Dictionary
D.O.S.T. A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, from the Twelfth Century

to the end of the Seventeenth, by Sir William A. Craigie, LL.D.,

D.Litt. and A. J. Aitken, M.A. (1931–)

D.S.C.S. The Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland, by J. A. H. Murray


Du. Dutch
Dwelly The Illustrated Gaelic–English Dictionary, by E. Dwelly. F.S.A.

Scot., F.S.G. (4th ed. 1941)

E Top

E. Early
(E) Eclectic = an artificial form of Scots, sometimes called synthetic

Scots or Lallans

e.Ang. east Anglian
ed. edited, editor, edition
E.D.D. The English Dialect Dictionary, by Joseph Wright, in six Volumes


Edm. Gl. Glossary of the Dialect of Shetland and Orkney, by T. Edmonston


E.E.P. Early English Pronunciation, by A. J. Ellis (1869–1889)
E.E.T.S. Early English Text Society
ellipt. elliptical(ly)
E.M.E. Early Modern English
Eng. English
Eng.–Welsh Dict. Spurrell’s English–Welsh Dictionary (1926)
erron. erroneous(ly)
esp. especial(ly)
etym. etymology, etymological(ly)
euphem. euphemism, euphemistic(ally)
evid. evident(ly)
ex. example(s)
exc. except, exception
excl. exclamation, exclamatorily
expl. explained
expr. expression

F Top

Fær. Faeroese
Falk and Torp Norwegisch–Danisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, by H. S.

Falk and Alf Torp (1910–1911)

fam. familiar(ly)
Farmer and Henley A Dictionary of Slang and Colloquial English, by John S. Farmer and

W. E. Henley (1905)

fem. feminine
fig. figurative(ly)
fl. floruit = flourished
Flem. Flemish
Flom. Scandinavian Influence on Southern Lowland Scotch, by G. T. Flom


foll. following, followed
Fr. French
Francisque-Michel A Critical Inquiry into the Scottish Language, by Francisque-Michel


Franck Franck’s Etymologisch Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal (1912)
freq. frequent(ly), frequentative
Fris. Frisian
fut. future

G Top

Gael. Gaelic
Gamillscheg Etymologisches Worterbuch der Französischen Sprache, ed. Ernst

Gamillscheg (1928)

gen. genitive; general(ly)
Gen.Sc. General Scots = known generally wherever Lowland Scots is spoken
Ger. German
Gl. Glossary
Gmc. Germanic
Godefroy Lexique de L’Ancien Francais, by Frederic Godefroy (1901 ed.)
Goth. Gothic
Gr. Greek
Gregor D. Bnff. Dialect of Banffshire, by W. Gregor (1866)

H Top

Hatz. and Darm. Dictionnaire General de la Langue Francaise, by A. Hatzfeld and A.

Darmesteter (1926)

Hebr. Hebrides
(Highland) representation of a Highlander’s speech by the author
hist. history, historical

I Top

Ib. Ibidem = in the same place
Icel. Icelandic
Id. Idem = the same person (esp. when referred to as authority for a


Idg. Indogermanic
I.E. Indo-European
imit. imitative
imp. impression
imper. imperative
impers. impersonal(ly)
impf. imperfect
indef. indefinitive
indic. indicative
inf. infinitive
infl. inflexion
instrum. instrumental
int. interjection
interrog. interrogative(ly)
intr. intransitive(ly)
Intro. Introduction
Ir. Irish
irreg. irregular(ly)
It. Italian
ital. italics

J Top

Jak. An Etym. Dictionary of the Norn Language in Shetland, by Jakob

Jakobson (1908 Dan. ed., 1928 Eng. tr.)

Jam. Etym. Dictionary of the Scottish Language, in two volumes (1808), by

John Jamieson

Jam.1 Etym. Dictionary of the Scottish Language (abr. ed.) (1818)
Jam.2 Supplement to the Etym. Dictionary of the Scottish Language, in two

Volumes (1825)

Jam.3 Etym. Dictionary of the Scottish Language, revised by J. Johnstone

(1840–1841), in two Volumes

Jam.4 Dictionary of the Scottish Language, by John Jamieson, abr. by J.

Johnstone, revised by J. Longmuir (1867)

Jam.5 Etym. Dictionary of the Scottish Language, revised by J. Longmuir

and D. Donaldson (1879–1882)

Jam.6 Supplement to Jamieson’s Scottish Dictionary, by D. Donaldson


Joyce English as we speak it in Ireland, by P. W. Joyce, LL.D., T.C.D.,

M.R.I.A. (2nd ed. 1910)

K Top

Kilian Etymologicum Teutonicæ Linguæ, sive Dictionarium

Teutonico–Latinum, by C. Kilian (1772–1777)

Kluge An Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, by Friedrich


L Top

L., Linn. Linnæus
lang. language
Larsen Dansk–Norsk–Englsk Ordbog, ed. A. Larsen (1910)
Lat. Latin
L.Ger. Low German
lit. literal(ly)
liter. literary, in literary use only
Lith. Lithuanian
L.Sc. Lowland Scottish

M Top

m., mod. modern
M.C. Maitland Club
McAlpine Gaelic Dictionary, by Neil McAlpine
MacBain Etym. Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, by A. MacBain (1896)
MacLennan A Pronouncing and Etym. Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, by

Malcolm MacLennan (1925)

Macleod and Dewar A Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, by the Rev. Dr. Norman

Macleod and the Rev. Dr. Daniel Dewar (1893)

Marw. The Orkney Norn, by H. Marwick (1929)
masc. masculine
Med. (med.) Mediaeval
Med. Lat. Medieval Latin
met. metathetic, metathesis
metaph. metaphor, metaphorical(ly)
Metcalfe Supplementary Dictionary of the Scottish Language, with

Introduction by W. M. Metcalfe (1910)

M.H.Ger. Middle High German
Mid. Eng. Middle English
midl. midland (i.e. Eng. dialect of the Midlands)
Mid.Sc. Middle Scots
Misc. Miscellany
M.L.Ger. Middle Low German
M.M.Sc. Manual of Modern Scots, by W. Grant and J. M. Dixon (1921)
Mont.-Fleming Notes on Jamieson’s Scottish Dictionary, by J. B. Montgomerie-

Fleming (1899)

N Top

n. noun
naut. nautical
n.d. no date
N.E.D. A New English Dictionary, ed. J. A. H. Murray, H. Bradley, W. A.

Craigie, C. T. Onions (Oxford, 1884–1929)

neg. negative(ly)
neut. neuter
nom. nominative
Norw. Norwegian
num. numeral

O Top

obj. object(ive)
obs. obsolete
obsol. obsolescent
occas. occasional(ly)
O.E. English, before the Conquest; includes the four dialects, West Saxon,

Kentish, Mercian and Northumbrian

O.Fr. Old French
O.Fris. Old Frisian
O.H.Ger. Old High German
O.I. or O.Ir. Old Irish
O.N. Old Norse
O.N.Fr. Old Norman French
onomat. onomatopœic
O.North. Old Northumbrian
orig. origin(al)(ly)
O.Sax. Old Saxon
O.Sc. Older Scots
O.Slav. Old Slavonic

P Top

p. (with date) post = after
p., pp. page, pages
pa.p. past participle
pass. passive(ly)
pa.t. past tense
perf. perfect
pers. personal
phon. phonetic(s)
phr(s). phrase(s)
phs. perhaps
pl. plural
P.L.D. Phonetic Description of the Language and Dialects in Vol. I., Intro.
pleon. pleonasm, pleonastic(ally)
poet. poetical
pop. popular(ly)
Port. Portuguese
poss. possible(ly)
ppl. participle
ppl.adj. participial adjective
ppl.phr. participial phrase
pred. predicate, predicatively
pref. prefix
prep. preposition
pres. present
pret. preterite
Prim. Primitive
Prim.O.E. Primitive Old English
prob. probable(ly)
pron. pronoun
prop. proper(ly)
Prov. Provencal
Pr.p. Promptorium Parvulorum
pr.p. present participle
pr.t. present tense
publ. published

Q Top

q.v. quod vide = which see

R Top

reduplic. reduplicative
ref. reference
refl. reflexive(ly)
reg. regular(ly)
rel. relative
repr. representative, representing, etc.
Roget An Introduction to Old French, by F. F. Roget, 1887
Rom. Romance—i.e. Latin and languages derived from it

S Top

Sc. Scots (when no indication of a particular dialect is given); Scottish,


sc. scilicet = that is to say
S.C. Spalding Club, New Spalding Club, Third Spalding Club
Scand. Scandinavian
Scot. Scotland
S.D.D. Chambers’s Scots Dialect Dictionary, by A. Warrack (1911)
sep. separate
S.H.S. Scottish Historical Society
sing. singular
Skeat Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, by Walter

W. Skeat (1911)

Skr. Sanskrit
S.N.D. Scottish National Dictionary
Sp. Spanish
specif. specific(ally)
Stat. Acc.1 Statistical Account of Scotland (1791–1799)
Stat. Acc.2 New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
Stat. Acc.3 Third Statistical Account of Scotland (of varying dates from 1951)
St.Eng. Standard English
Sth.Eng. Southern English—i.e. Standard English as spoken in the middle

and south of England

Stratmann A Middle-English Dictionary containing words used by English

writers from the twelfth to the fifteenth century, by

Francis Henry Stratmann (ed. H. Bradley 1891)

S.T.S. Scottish Text Society
st.v. strong verb
subj. subject; subjunctive
subst. substantive(ly)
suff. suffix
superl. superlative
Suppl. Supplement
s.v. sub voce = under the word
Sw. Swedish
Sweet, A.S. The Student’s Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon, by Henry Sweet (1897)
Sweet, H.E.S. A History of English Sounds, by Henry Sweet (1888)
syll. syllable
syn. synonym(ous)

T Top

tech. technical(ly)
Torp Nynorsk Etymologisk Ordbok, by Alf Torp (1919)
tr. transitive(ly)
Trans. Transactions
transf. transferred sense
transl. translation
Traynor Gl. M. Traynor English Dialect of Donegal (1953)
trs. transfer
T.S.D.C. Transactions of the Scottish Dialects Committee

U Top

Un. Eng. Dict. The Universal English Dictionary, edited by H. C, Wyld (1932)
U.S. United States
usu. usual(ly)

V Top

v., vb. verb
v. vide = see
var. variant of
vbl.n. verbal noun
vern. vernacular
v.i. vide infra = see below
viz. videlicet = namely
Voc. vocabulary
v.s. vide supra = see above

W Top

Watson W.-B. Roxburghshire Word-Book, by G. Watson (1923)
Webster Webster’s New International Dictionary (end ed., 1935)
Weekley Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, by Ernest Weekley


Westergaard Studies in Prefixes and Suffixes in Middle Scottish, by Elizabeth

Westergaard (1924)

Wettstein The Phonology of a Berwickshire Dialect, by Paul Wettstein (1942)
Wilson, D. Burns The Dialect of Robert Burns as spoken in Central Ayrshire by Sir

James Wilson (1923)

Wilson Cent. Scot. The Dialects of Central Scotland, by Sir James Wilson (1926) for

Fif., Lth.

Wilson, L. Strathearn Lowland Scotch as spoken in the Lower Strathearn District of

Perthshire, by Sir James Wilson (1915) for Per.

Wilson referring to any of the above works (differentiated by the county


wk.v. weak verb
W.-L. Word-List
W.S. West Saxon

X Top

Y Top

Z Top

Zai The Phonology of the Morebattle Dialect (East Roxburghshire), by

Rudolf Zai, Ph.D., 1942

Zoëga A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, by Geir T. Zoëga (1910)

Symbols Top

* (in etymological notes) hypothetical form.
[ ] square brackets enclose the phonetic descriptions, the etymological notes, and explanations by editor inserted in quotations.

A date in square brackets is sometimes given for the first edition of a book, when that ed. has not been consulted, but when it is known to differ in some respect from the ed. used.

indicates that no evidence for the word in question has been found, beyond that quoted in the article.

Geographical labels Top

The geographical labels listed below indicate the dialect districts as they appear in SND. They refer to the traditional counties as they were until the late 20th century, and are therefore those which pertained during most of the period during which SND was compiled.

Abd. Aberdeen
Ags. Angus
Ant. Antrim
Arg. Argyll
Ayr. Ayrshire
Bch. Buchan
Bnff. Banff
Bte. Bute
Bwk. Berwick
Cai. Caithness
Clc. Clackmannan
Cld. Clydesdale
Crm. Cromarty
Cum. Cumberland
Dmb. Dumbarton
Dmf. Dumfries
Don. Donegal
Dur. Durham
Dwn. Down
Edb. Edinburgh
e.Dmf. east Dumfries
Elg. Elgin
e.Rs. Easter Ross
Fif. Fife
Frf. Forfar
Gall. Galloway
Gsw. Glasgow
Hdg. Haddington
Inv. Inverness
Ir., Irel. Ireland
Kcb. Kirkcudbright
Kcd. Kincardine
Lnk. Lanark
Lnl. Linlithgow
Lth. Lothian
m.Dmf. mid Dumfries
Mry. Moray
Nai. Nairn
Nhb. Northumberland
Ork. Orkney
Peb. Peebles
Per. Perth
Rnf. Renfrew
Rs. Ross
Rxb. Roxburgh
Sc. Scotland
Sh. Shetland
Slg. Stirling
Slk. Selkirk
Sth. Sutherland
Twd. Tweeddale
Tyr. Tyrone
Uls. Ulster
w.Dmf. west Dumfries
w.Fif. west Fife
Wgt. Wigtown
Yks Yorkshire