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First published 1952 (SND Vol. III). Includes material from the 1976 and 2005 supplements.
This entry has not been updated but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

DAE, Dee, Du(e), Dow, Doe, , , v.1 Also deu (Ork.). Sc. forms and meanings of Eng. do. [de: (now tending to replace ø, œ, esp. in m. and s.Sc.); di: nn.Sc., mn.Sc., em. Sc.; dø:,dœ: I.Sc. (Ork. + di:), sn.Sc., em. Sc. (a). See P.L.D. §§ 35.3, 86, 93.1, 121, 146]

A. Sc. forms.

I. Indic. mood.

1. Pr.t.

(1) Sc. forms of Eng. do.Ork. 1920 J. Firth Reminisc. (1922) 87:
This is the last cog noo, so drink an' be herty; weel dú I bestow hid, for Jeannie's been a guid wife tae me.
Ork. 1952 R. T. Johnston Stenwick Days (1984) 7:
"Feth," she cried, "that's the test a'm been wantin' tae pit. That's cheust whit a'll deu. A'll mak' them enter for the croonin' contest, an' tell them a'll mairry the winner o'd."
Abd.(D) 1875 W. Alexander My Ain Folk xiv.:
Ye ken the lassie as weel's I dee; an' ye ken that I'm speakin' the trowth.
Abd. 2000 Herald 18 Sep 21:
And could you send half a dozen taxis doon to snarl up the docks? "Nae problem. We usually dae that anyway."
m.Sc. 1994 J. E. MacInnes in James Robertson A Tongue in Yer Heid 13:
I dinny mind my first love. I wis ower young and huv hud ower minny, but I dae mind the wan that gied me the maist actual physical pain.

(2) Affirmative: 3rd person daes (see section (4)), dis (see section (3)), †dise, diz. The form div is used emphatically but in Arg. duv is found (see P.L.D. § 95.2 (1)). The v is due to analogy with hiv, emphatic form of Hae, have.Sc. 1745 in Spalding Club Misc. (1841) I. 430:
Which Im told Lord Lewis dise not admit.
Bnff. 1924 “Knoweheid” in Swatches 12:
Gin a loon diz weel, they claim a' the credit.
Fif. 1894 J. Menzies Our Town 240:
We div look at our tauties on Saubath, div we no?

(3) Negative: formed in the ordinary way or by the addition of the neg. particle -na, e.g. dinna, disna; dunna (Sh. 1924 T. Manson Peat Comm. 172, 1949 J. Gray Lowrie 155); düna (Sh. 1914 Angus Gl.); also daena, disnae, dinnae, dinny, dinnie, doesna, doesnae, doesny, doesni, den no', döna, donna, din-not.Sc. 1721 Ramsay Poems 24:
'Tis an ill Wind that dis na blaw Some Body good.
Sc. 1822 Scott F. Nigel v.:
Donna think to be called Jingling Geordie for nothing.
Sc. a.1894 R. L. Stevenson St. Ives (1898) x.:
For the plain fac' is, Mr. St. Ivy, that I div not ken.
Sc. 1990 Sunday Times 11 Feb :
''Ah'm a Rangers man masel','' he confided. ''Of course, we dinnae hae the problem o' fundamentalism that thae Muslims have.''
Sc. 1994 Scotsman 11 Feb :
To prove who he was, the PC stooped to the letterbox three feet from the ground and peered through to meet a steely octogenarian glare.
"It's the police," he repeated.
"Dinnae be silly. Ye cannae be a polis if ye're only that height."
Sc. 1998 Edinburgh Evening News 13 Feb 11:
Jackie's reply was typical : "Och, dinny be silly, Ian, they didn'ae ken ma name, did they?"
Sc. 1999 Herald 30 Nov 17:
"They dinny huv Buckfast in a place like this.''
Sh.(D) 1898 “Junda” Klingrahool 9:
But I'm no foryat, though I döna blame, — Du cares na what ean may tink or feel.
Ork.(D) 1880 Dennison Sketch Bk. 6:
Ye den no' tell till they hae taen you ower the Firt'.
Cai. 1992 James Miller A Fine White Stoor 121:
Plants die but dinna rot and all the dead stuff piles up through the centuries, a great midden o rottenness that doesna rot, and in the end we cut it wi our tuskars for peat.
Sth. 1996 Eddie Davies in Timothy Neat The Summer Walkers: Travelling People and Pearl-Fishers in the Highlands of Scotland 123:
Dickie said, 'We must tie knots in our pockets to make sure the weight of pearls doesnae break the cotton through.' That's what we did and we came home laidened heavy with pearls.
ne.Sc. 1952 John R. Allan North-East Lowlands of Scotland (1974) xiv:
Against all sensible advice he held on and after thirty-years the oil was proven and paid off. Whenever he was asked how much it brought in, Bob said "I'm an Aberdonian and Aberdonians daena tell, but this I will say, It's been worth waiting for".
Abd.(D) a.1880 W. Robbie Yonderton (1929) xviii.:
“Eh! gold,” she said, “aw din-not believe 'at I can gie ye the cheenge.”
m.Sc. 1987 Andrew Cowan in Iain Crichton Smith Scottish Short Stories 1987 99:
'There's nae difference,' she said. 'Ye can use either wan. Disnae matter.'
w.Lth. 2000 Davie Kerr A Puckle Poems 6:
There's muckle big holes in baith ma shoes,
wi attendin interviews,
but it disnae maitter whaur ye gaan,
or wha ye ken, ...
Edb. 1806 H. Macneill Poet. Works II. 48:
I dinna like to buckle Wi' hours owre late.
Rnf. 1788 E. Picken Poems, etc. 21:
Ane may be hale an' weel in health the day And disna ken the morn gin he'll be sae.
Gsw. 1947 Margaret Hamilton in Moira Burgess and Hamish Whyte Streets of Stone (1985) 51:
'Ach, ye're weel rid o' him if he doesny think enough o' ye to come back.'
Gsw. 1987 James Kelman Greyhound for Breakfast (1988) 61:
'Eh? I'm asking you a question.' Mister McDonald jerked his thumb at Arthur and added, 'Thinks he's a flyman so he does!'
'Naw he doesni.'
Dmf.7 1930:
Dinnie be lang in cummin back, whuther (y)eev an airan or noa, an bring better wather wi (y)ee.

(4) Interrogative, and interrog. neg. diven, divna (emphatic), disnin, dain't.Sc. 1816 Scott O. Mortality xxxvii.:
Div I ken onything o' Lord Evandale! Div I no?
Bnff.(D) 1872 W. M. Philip It 'ill a' Come Richt 132:
Diven ye ken that a lass may be meryt in a natril kin o' wye withoot speerin' the minister's leave?
Abd. 1923 in Bnffsh. Jnl. (17 April) 6:
“O, dinna ye hear it?” exclaimed Highland Jessie at the relief of Lucknow, when the faint sound of the bagpipes in the far distance reached the beleaguered post. “Divna” would not fit the sentence so harmoniously; but one can imagine a subsequent scene when the sharp-eared woman losing patience with her less “glegluggit” companions, exclaims, “Od, divna ye hear't yet? Ye maun be deaf!”
Abd. 1928 A. Black Three Sc. Sketches 7:
Daes he ken aboot the Fiddler?
Abd.(D) 1929 J. Alexander Mains and Hilly 97:
Losh, man, disnin a body see a lang road on a day like this?
em.Sc. 1991 David Angus in Tom Hubbard The New Makars 67:
'Ye'll hae tae pit up wi it.'
Div they no ken whit it's like,
or are they juist that strang?
em.Sc. 1999 James Robertson The Day O Judgement 17:
An yersel, O Pilate, div ye no see
The lourin chynge an thraw o fate,
That thon's the verra Man wis panelled
Afore your coort when ye wis great?
wm.Sc. 1985 Liz Lochhead Tartuffe 55:
Mr Orgon? Live here, diz he?
Gsw. 1935 A. McArthur and H. K. Long No Mean City xi.:
You like me a wee bit, dain't you, Johnnie?
Ayr. 1990s:
Hoo div ye dae that? Ye dinnae loo her, div ye? Div ye like apples?
Rxb. 1916 Kelso Chron. (17 March) 4/6:
Na, na, div ye see whae's away in?

2. Pa.t.: usu. did as in Eng. (Ork. d(e)ud, dood). Occas. the form dune (i.e. the pa.p.) is found, e.g. he dune it, but this is not good Scots and usu. occurs where the speaker has been in contact with vulgar Eng. The neg. is formed regularly or by addition of -na, -nin; didnae, didnie, didny.Ork. 1907 J. T. S. Leask in Old-Lore Misc. I. ii. 63:
Dat waas preuf anouch 'at he waasna far awa, . . . an', boy, whar tinks du dud dey get 'im? [Also deud (Ib. vi. 223).]
Ork. 1911 J. Spence Ib. IV. iv. 184:
Thu war spieran' aboot da ald fok an' deir weys, an' whit dey dood afore dis daes i that oot o' the wey peece, tha Hillside o' Birsay.
Abd.(D) 1871 W. Alexander Johnny Gibb iv.:
Nyod, didnin he tak a gey fling at the 'lectioneerin' the day?
Ags. 1988 Raymond Vettese The Richt Noise 20:
Ye say he didna look,
but it's mair nor that - he didna, wadna, see;
wanted this, needed this, the truth let dwine.
m.Sc. 1987 Andrew Cowan in Iain Crichton Smith Scottish Short Stories 1987 100:
'Spain and that,' said George. 'We wis over there as well, me and Josie. Didnae see you anyplace.'
m.Sc. 1994 Martin Bowman and Bill Findlay Forever Yours, Marie-Lou 5:
Look, ah didnae hiv time tae close the toilet door! Ah hid tae run! Ah didnae hiv time tae close it!
Edb. 1938 Fred Urquhart Time Will Knit (1988) 15:
"Listen now, ye didnie need to be in sich a hurry," . . .
wm.Sc. 1988 Christine Marion Fraser Storm over Rhanna (1990) 252:
' ... Surely Mr James wouldny have told on me, he didny say eechie or ochie at the time or make me feel I had committed a sin.'
wm.Sc. 1991 Liz Lochhead Bagpipe Muzak 26:
Well...it doesny take Taggart to detect it!
Or to jalouse we hate the Government
And we patently didnae elect it.
wm.Sc. 1998 Alan Warner The Sopranos (1999) 5:
And funny though if those last didnie come ashore how come Michelle McLaughlin still managed to get pregnant offof it!
Gsw. 1947 Margaret Hamilton in Moira Burgess and Hamish Whyte Streets of Stone (1985) 51:
'Oh, Peter, you'll need to mind they're rough craters - no' like you. They didny mean ony hairm . . .'
Gsw. 1983 James Kelman Not not while the giro 30:
Didny win much bit enough tae git us a half boattle a Lanny.
Ayr. 1823 C. K. Sharpe Ballad Bk. 15:
Ye didna hold my cruel hand Whan I was in my rage.

II. Imperative Mood. Neg. dinna, dinnae, dinny.Sc. 1818 Scott H. Midlothian xlii.:
“Dinna speak on't, Jeanie,” said her father.
Ork.(D) 1880 Dennison Sketch Bk. 8:
Deu weel an' f'are nee man.
Abd. 1927 G. R. Harvey Shepherds 12:
Be quate, Joseph, an' dee fit yer tell't.
m.Sc. 1998 Lillias Forbes Turning a Fresh Eye 18:
Dinna bide in yon chaumer
Wi the wee, clorty winnock
At the tap o the hoose
Up the kypie stair
I tell ye, ye'll no ken yersel
Aince up in yon chaumer
An the door steekit efter ye.
wm.Sc. 1985 Liz Lochhead Tartuffe 35:
Naw, naw, ye're faur too nice, you winnae!
Ah ken you ken yirsel' the flesh is weak, noo dinnae - !
wm.Sc. 1998 Alan Warner The Sopranos (1999) 7:
Ah, dinnae scum us out! goes Chell.
Gsw. 1985 Michael Elder Stookie 11:
"I canny see a thing," he said.
"Clean your own glasses first, ye grotty little beast, ye, and dinny mess up my good telescope holdin' it to they filthy things o' yours," ...
Kcb. [1897] T. Murray Frae the Heather (1912) 167:
Then dae the best ye can dae wi' him.

III. Infinitive Mood.Sc. 1750 R. Forbes (ed.) Lyon in Mourning (S.H.S. 1895–96) II. 372:
Tomorrow there is to doe.
Sc. 1933 C. Ness in Border Mag. (Dec.) 178:
We've lots to dae, baith you and I, And I maun to the sea.
Ork. 1920 J. Firth Reminisc. (1922) 94:
If hid did nae guid hid could dee nae ill.
Ags.(D) 1922 J. B. Salmond Bawbee Bowden iii.:
But I canna due wi' your bigottit, naira folk ava.
Fif. 1896 D. S. Meldrum Grey Mantle 245:
Weel, it's no muckle guid he's düne to the toon i' his lifetime, and 't's as weel he's to dü something for't noo he's awa.
Edb. c.1883 T. Thomson in Mod. Sc. Poets (ed. Edwards 1883) 6th Series 80:
They nerve ilk he'rt to dae its pairt.
wm.Sc. 1985 Liz Lochhead Tartuffe 15:
That's nice. If your wish to please me is hearfelt
You'll want to dae exactly whit you're tellt.
To please ma daddy is to please masel'.
Gsw. 2000 Carl MacDougall Mozzarella shavings 78:
What'd you want me to dae? he'd asked. Change my name to Bill?
Rxb. 1915 Kelso Chron. (1 Jan.):
Then let us dae oor little pairt, An' wiser grow each day.

IV. Participles.

1. pr.p.: daein', deein', duin. etc. Sc. form of Eng. doing.Sh.(D) 1918 T. Manson Humours Peat Comm. I. 158:
We'll juist geng ta da door an knock an see hoo things ir duin.
Abd. 1873 P. Buchan Inglismill 37:
Man, things are deein' gran' — horn, corn, an' woo.
m.Sc. 1994 Martin Bowman and Bill Findlay Forever Yours, Marie-Lou 10:
MANON Go'n see...
CARMEN How?
MANON Go'n see what thur daein...
CARMEN Naw, ah'll no!
em.Sc. 2000 James Robertson The Fanatic 45:
Whit's the daft laddie daein goavin up at the jail there?
Gsw. 1987 Peter Mason C'mon Geeze Yer Patter! 27:
Gaun lets see ye daein a wee dokey. Let's see you doing a forward roll.
Gsw. 1993 Margaret Sinclair Soor Plooms and Candy Balls 10:
Wee ragged troosers reachin' tae their knees
The rain's no botherin' thame, daein' as they please.
w.Dmf. 1908 J. L. Waugh Robbie Doo (1912) 72:
I really begin to wonder if education is daein' for us a' that some wad claim.

2. pa.p.: dune, deen, dene, dane, din, dtön, do(o)n (Sh.(D) 1898 “Junda” Klingrahool 24, dön; Cai.7 1939, deen, don (obsol.); Abd. 1918 C. Murray Sough o' War 15, dane); †deune (Dmf. 1820 Hogg Winter Ev. Tales I. 274); duin, daen, did. [dɪn wm.Sc., em.Sc. + døn, den; dyn sm.Sc., s.Sc.; din n.Sc.; døn I.Sc.]Sc. a.1802 Lord Ingram and Chiel Wyet in Ballads (ed. Child) No. 66. B. x.:
Gin ye kend what war under that, Your love wad soon be deen.
Sh.(D) 1922 J. Inkster Mansie's Röd 4:
Da tae thing is nae shunner düne den da tidder is ta dü.
ne.Sc. 1929 M. W. Simpson Day's End 22:
An' fain to be, at e'en, Back upon the by-road When the day's darg's dune!
Abd. 1768 A. Ross Helenore 62:
I better wi' less travel meith ha dene, Had I been tenty, as I meith ha been.
Abd.4 1929:
Fat's deen's nae adee.
Abd. 1987 Donald Gordon The Low Road Hame 6:
Remark the academic chiel
Fa's darg is nivver dane.
Abd. 1991 Douglas Kynoch in Tom Hubbard The New Makars 87:
Mount Helicon was heelster -
Gowdie aw dampt aifterneen.
An that's the wye I never
Got my magnum opus deen.
Abd. 1991 George Bruce in Tom Hubbard The New Makars 22:
'Christ then ye're for't. I'v dune wi you.'
Hoo mony gang their weys tae the gowden city?
Abd. 2000 Sheena Blackhall The Singing Bird 2:
Dour Winter's daen. The shepherd Wind
Herds yowes o cloud; birk branches rowe.
Dour Winter's daen. The swackenin yird's
Wi brierin spears o green pierced throwe.
Dundee 1991 Ellie McDonald The Gangan Fuit 27:
Tae win awa, tae courie doun,
tae courie doun, aiblins tae dream
aye that's the fasherie.
For whan the sheilin's duin
the mool maun haud sic wudden dreams
as mak us raither bide sair hudden doun.
Ags. 1994 Mary McIntosh in James Robertson A Tongue in Yer Heid 151:
Still, efter it wis aa ower an dune wi I wis rale plaised that I had made the effort.
m.Sc. 1979 William J. Rae in Joy Hendry Chapman 23-4 (1985) 78:
He had dane Jock a guid turn, and seein Eck's hert wis set on jinin a choir, Jock thocht he micht repey him that wey. You see, Jock's uncle wis the heid-bummer o the Gudgie Burn Croakin Choir.
m.Sc. 1979 Donald Campbell in Joy Hendry Chapman 23-4 (1985) 67:
Like a sexareen that's sailin
wi a keel that's shent and dune.
m.Sc. 1979 Ian Bowman in Joy Hendry Chapman 23-4 (1985) 40:
But the elders, they werena lag nor blate,
aa cryin to stane me for whit I'd din.
m.Sc. 1988 William Neill Making Tracks 9:
I wes feart
o thon sair dunts he micht hae dune tae me,
for he wes Luve made oor discoverie,
an ercher, swippert cam frae Syrian airt
wha cairries at his belt a deidlie dairt,
an here he bides, sae fowk maun shairlie dee.
m.Sc. 1994 Martin Bowman and Bill Findlay Forever Yours, Marie-Lou 4:
CARMEN Ah don't think it, Manon, ah've did it...
LEOPOLD Ah think ah'll hiv that cup ae coffee noo...
MANON Aye, an look what yuv become!
m.Sc. 1997 Liz Niven A Play About St Ninian 8:
Girl: Dae ye ken onie mair miracles? A like hearing aboot them!
Arch: Ay, there's quite a few he's said tae hae duin.
Edb. 1791 J. Learmont Poems 192:
But sober fock whase doon nae feck o' ill, Has houps aboon, lat death come whan he will.
w.Sc. 1932 A. H. Charteris When the Scot Smiles 183:
Ye'll mebbe be weel-advisit tae see hoo the jobe's din.
wm.Sc. 1992 Sheila Douglas ed. The Sang's the Thing: Voices from Lowland Scotland 206:
Feet-washin wis really a common thing when somebody was gettin mairrit. In fact, I got it deen twice. It wis a tradition ye'd tae cairry on.
w.Dmf. 1920 J. L. Waugh Heroes in Homespun (1921) 12:
Davie's dune weel in Glasca.

B. Sc. usages. The Eng. form do is exemplified in Phrs. and Combs. peculiar to Sc.

1. To cause (followed by obj. and inf.). Obs. or arch. in Eng.: except for one arch. quot. in 1886, the last ex. is 1621 (see N.E.D.).Sc. 1806 R. Jamieson Pop. Ballads I. 56:
The tidings will do his heart to break.

2. Refl.: to betake oneself (to); “to hasten” (Mearns 1825 Jam.2, dow). This refl. use of do, = to proceed, has been obs. in Eng. since early 15th cent. (N.E.D.).Sc. 1825 Duke of Athole's Nurse in Jam.2:
Ye'll dow ye doune to yon change house, And drink til the day be dawing.
Sc. a.1823 Gude Wallace in Ballads (ed. Child) No. 157. G. xxvii.:
He's dane him down to yon tavern, Where they were drinking wine.

3. Phrs.: (1) to be daein' (deein', doing), (a) to be content, to rest satisfied (Sc. 1825 Jam.2; Cai. 1905 E.D.D. Suppl.; Bnff.2, Abd.19, Ags.2, Fif.10, Slg.3 1939); (b) with away: getting along (reasonably well), often in reply to a greeting; (c) with with: “to bear with, to exercise patience under” (Sc. 1825 Jam.2), “to put up with” (Abd.4 1930, — deein'); cf. Eng. to do with; (2) to be deen wi't, to be dying (Bnff.2, Abd.9, Ags.2, Fif.10, Slg.3 1939); †(3) to do law upon, to execute justice upon.(1) (a) Sc. 1881 A. Mackie Scotticisms 55:
I'll be doing — “that will do,” or “I have enough.”
Abd. 1930 D. Campbell Kirsty's Surprise 9:
Gin I wis takkin' yer wife's advice, Peter, I'd be on my wey tae dook in the Bay o' Nigg, but seein' I hed a bath twa simmers syne, I think I'll be daein'.
Lth. 1925 C. P. Slater Marget Pow 78:
So you can just bide at home and be doin'.
(b) em.Sc. 1986 Ian Rankin The Flood 146:
"Hello, George. Busy day?" "Not bad, Matt. Yourself?"... "Doing away, George." he said. "That's all we can do, eh?" Just, doing away."
Edb. 1998 Gordon Legge Near Neighbours (1999) 52:
'Aye,' said Sandy, 'doing away. This you off, is it?'
Gsw. 1998 Alan Spence Way to Go (1999) 144:
A few changes. Auld Jack had died, a few years back. Andy still there, doing away. That was about it.
(c) Sc. 1721 J. Kelly Proverbs 150:
He that has a good Crop, may be doing with some Thistles.
(2) Bnff.(D) 1917 E. S. Rae Private J. M'Pherson (1918) 63:
Sair's ma wounds — A doot A'm deen wi't.
(3) Lnk. 1718 Minutes J.P.s Lnk. (S.H.S. 1931) 225:
It is . . . ordained . . . that they be delivered to the King's Sherriffs and that furth with the Kings Justices do law upon them as upon a thieff.

4. Combs.: (1) dae (do)-nae-better, a poor substitute (Sc. 1825 Jam.2, do-; Edb.3 c.1928; Kcb.10 1939); (2) do (dae)-na(e)-gude, dinna(e)good, — guid, a ne'er-do-well (Abd.9, Fif.10 (dae-nae-gude) 1939; Rxb. 1923 Watson W.-B., dinnaeguid).(2) Ayr. 1822 Galt Sir A. Wylie II. xvi.:
I hope the do-na-gude may get over his present danger.
Slk. 1829 Hogg Shepherd's Calendar I. i.:
Saw ye naething o' our young dinnagood?

5. Ppl.adj. daein', “industrious; well-doing” (Rxb. 1923 Watson W.-B.).Ib.:
Hei's a daein' lad.

6. Vbl.n. doing, (1) a deed, event; always (since 15th cent.) used in pl. in Eng. (N.E.D.); (2) a scolding. Also doing off (Uls. 1880 W. H. Patterson Gl. Ant. and Dwn.).(1) Sc. 1816 Scott Antiquary xlii.:
Ye'll do this poor ruined family the best day's doing that has been done them since Redhand's days.
Ayr. 1821 Galt Ayrsh. Legatees v.:
It was not to be expected that their hearts would be daunted . . . by a doing of a civil character.
(2) Lnk. 1936 G. Blake David and Joanna 281:
It's a right doing you'll get for missing the race.

7. Pa.p. dune in phr. to be dune, in children's games: to be 'it,' the player who takes the initiative in seeking, pursuing, guessing, etc. Per. 1969 I. & P. Opie Children's Games 22:
Done. We say a grace to see who is to be done. "You're done" is one of the many terms used at school. It simply means you are "het". This rhyme is said when you are picking one out to be done.

8. With out: to exhaust, wear out. Usu. in ppl.adj. dune out = colloq. Eng. 'done up' (I.Sc., Cai., Ags., Per. 1975). Kcd. 1903 W. MacGillivray Auld Drainie 58:
Ye're baith gey düne oot wi' yer stravaig.
m.Lth. 1906 J. Medwin Crumleyknowe 286:
The lang walk in the efternoon has fairly done ye oot.
Slk. 1899 C. M. Thomson Drummeldale 20:
She had come hame late the nicht afore, so she was gey dune oot like.

[O.Sc. has do(e), du(e), dow, etc., inf. and pr.t.; did, etc., pa.t.; doone, dune, deun, etc., pa.p.; in sense B. 1, from 1438, and sense 2, from c.1400 (D.O.S.T.).]

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