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Scottish National Dictionary (1700–)

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First published 1968 (SND Vol. VII).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

RAISE, v., n. Also Sc. forms raize, raze, raes; †rease (Sc. 1715 Earls Crm. (Fraser 1876) II. 166; Ags. 1759 A. Reid Royal Burgh Forfar (1902) 223). Sc. usages:

I. v. 1. As in Eng. Combs. and phrs.: (1) raise-an'-wand [raisin'-wand], = (4) (Ayr. 1825 Jam.). See millwand s.v. Mill, I. 1. (65); (2) raise coal, see 1845 quot.; (3) raise-net, a type of fixed net which rises and falls with the level of the tide (see quots.); (4) raisin' dwang, raise-an'-dwang, the pole used as an axis in trundling home a mill-stone from the quarry (Sc. 1880 Jam.). See Dwang, n. Cf. (1); (5) raising-spade, a spade used for cutting underneath a turf; (6) to raise metre, to write verse; (7) to raise the dead man, see quot.; (8) to raise the herring, to induce the herring shoals to rise to the level of the herring nets, by magical ceremonies, esp. by a Burry Man, q.v.(2) Ayr. 1795 Stat. Acc.1 VII. 12:
They yield coal of different qualities, all good and quick burning, except the last, the raise coal which is duller than the rest, and chiefly used in making salt and lime.
Ayr. 1845 Stat. Acc.2 V. 445:
Raise coal. — this is a foul sulphureous coal, fit only for lime-burning and salt-making.
(3) Dmf. 1758 A. Steel Annan (1933) 98:
The limits and Boundarys of the said fishing Between the Shoar and the Lake or Raise net fishing.
Dmf. 1771 Session Papers, Petition Marquis of Annandale (28 Nov.) 9:
A new method of fishing on the Solway frith, immediately below the mouth of the Annan, by what is called raise-nets. These raise-nets which run out a prodigious length, will destroy whole shoals of salmon in one tide.
Dmf. 1812 Scots Mag. (Sept.) 690:
Raise-nets, so called from their rising and falling with the tide, are placed in situations where there is a runner or a lake near the shore, with a bank or ridge of sand on the opposite side. A number of stakes, of various lengths, extending from near high-water-mark through the lake, in a curved direction, to the opposite bank, are driven into the beach or sand. The net is fixed at the top of the stakes by ropes, but is loose at the bottom, being stretched on frames which rise in the flood and fall in the ebb-tide, or the reverse, as the ground may require.
Sc. 1826 Scots Mag. (Jan.) 40:
In his youth, those most commonly used were halve, or hand and raise nets; the latter made to rise with the flow of the tide, to allow the fish, as they were ascending, to escape, and to fall with the ebb, so that those only which were on their way to the sea were caught.
(5) Sc. 1808 Farmer's Mag. (June) 149–50:
In the operation of cutting surface-drains, several tools are requisite . . . The 3d implement used is a raising spade, 18 or 20 inches wide, by 18 inches deep, also in the form of a triangle, but rather sharper at the point than the rutting spade.
(6) Dmb. 1844 W. Cross Disruption xxxviii.:
It's counted a great brag to raise metre; but I think it's no brag ava, unless it be sense forbye . . . Here's a sang I made on yon.
(7) Dmb. 1945 Folklore LVI. 369:
A player with the special knack of lifting a prone whip-top from the ground with a single quick stroke, so that it fell spinning, was said to “raise the dead man.”
(8) Bnff. 1881 W. Gregor Folk-Lore 145:
When the herring-fishing is not succeeding, the fishermen sometimes perform certain ceremonies to “raise the herring”. Several years ago the following charm was enacted in Buckie: — A cooper was dressed in a flannel shirt, which was stuck all over with burs, and carried on a handbarrow in procession through the village.
Abd. 1914 J. Cranna Fraserburgh 263:
The favourite method which the fishermen adopted in appealing to “the gods” to “raise” the herrings, was the bringing forward of the “Burry Man.”

2. Sc. Law: to bring, institute an action in court. Specif. in deriv. raiser, with regard to an action of Multiplepoinding: the person who institutes the action. For the distinction between nominal raiser and real raiser see 1946 quot.e.Lth. 1701 Rec. Sc. Cloth Manuf. (S.H.S.) 262:
Orders a summonds of multiple poyndeing to be reased against Mr. David Drummond.
Sc. 1722 W. Forbes Institutes I. ii. 139:
A Summons is raised in the King's Name, directed to Sheriffs in that Part, and Messengers.
Sc. 1752 J. Louthian Form of Process 85:
Criminal Letters, raised at the Instance of D.F. his Majesty's Advocate.
Sc. 1838 W. Bell Dict. Law Scot. 663:
The arrestee . . . may raise an action of multiplepoinding, calling the different parties who claim the fund in medio, and all others, to settle their respective claims judicially.
Sc. 1877 Act 40 & 41 Vict. c. 50 § 8:
Actions relating to questions of heritable right . . . raised in a Sheriff Court.
Sc. 1890 Daily News (30 Jan.) 4:
In the action of Multiplepoinding defending before the Lords of Council and Session, at the instance of Henry Calder . . . acting under the Trust Disposition and Settlement, granted by Alexander Robertson, . . . and Mrs. Catherine Robertson, . . . Pursuers and Real Raisers.
Sc. 1918 Scotsman (6 April) 2:
Notice is hereby given, That an Action of Multiplepoinding and Exoneration has been raised in the Court of Session in Scotland . . ., at the instance of David Fergusson, Solicitor.
Sc. 1946 A. D. Gibb Legal Terms 58:
In a multiplepoinding the holder of the fund in medio, when not he but a claimant initiates proceedings, is called the nominal raiser: when the holder initiates, he is called the real raiser.

3. To set cut and partially-dried peats up on end in groups to complete the drying process (I.Sc. 1967). Vbl.n. raising, the communal work involved in this (Sh. 1967), a group of peats set on end to dry (Sh. a.1914).Ork. 1884 R. M. Fergusson Rambles 182:
After a few weeks the peats are set on end so that they may dry more thoroughly, and arranged in small heaps. This operation is known as raising the peats.
Sh. 1934 W. Moffat Shetland 93:
At this stage, the peats are dry enough to handle and they are now set up, or raised, on end, leaning against each other, and so they are formed into little pyramids. The wind blows through these “raisings”, and the sun shines upon them, hastening the drying process.
Sh. 1949 P. Jamieson Letters 214:
The peats are laid on their sides, in the shape of daeks . . . Lying like this, to a height of three or four feet, the daeks dry in a few weeks, and then da paets are raised, or set upon end, in little roogs of three, four or five peats. Left like this for a time, they are later roogd in small heaps, the wettest paets being laid on top.
Sh. 1959 New Shetlander No. 51. 12:
Though most of the peats were roogit long ago, a last few raisings stood, like a toonship of trows' hooses.

4. To iron lace so that the pattern may stand out clearly.Sc. 1781 Caled. Mercury (3 Feb.):
She also clear-starches Muslins and Crapes, and washes and raises Brussels and Point Laces.

5. Curling: to strike and move forward (another stone of one's own side) towards the tee.Edb. 1844 J. Ballantine Miller i.:
All the important and scientific movements connected with guarding, inwicking, raising, and chipping the winner.
Sc. 1858 Chambers's Jnl. (17 April) 250:
Instead o' raising (which as you know, means striking it fair — your own stone lying).
Sc. 1911 B. Smith “Shilling” Curler 14:
To raise a stone is to play it up towards the Tee.

6. To arouse, alarm, to make to get out of bed (I.Sc., Abd., Ags., Kcb. 1967). Vbl.n. raising, an alarm.Sc. 1729 Ramsay Poems (S.T.S.) III. 115:
By break of Day up frae my Bed Of Dirt, I'm raised to draw the Sled.
Abd. 1801 W. Beattie Parings (1813) 35:
Syne he'll gang forth and look about, An' raise the lads, ye needno' dout, To yoke them to the flail.
Sc. 1816 Scott Antiquary xi.:
I would hae skreigh'd out at once, and raised the house.
Dmf. 1820 J. Johnstone Poems 112:
Soon the house shall get a raising, For thy tricks.
ne.Sc. 1888 D. Grant Keckleton 47:
Mary's proposal wis to gang to his hoose an' raise either him or some of his sons.

7. To infuriate, enrage, inflame, drive into an extreme state of frenzied excitement (Abd. 1790 A. Shirrefs Poems Gl.; Sc. 1808 Jam.; Gall. 1824 MacTaggart Gallov. Encycl. 403; Cai. 1903 E.D.D.; Per., Fif., Lth., Ayr. 1915–26 Wilson; Uls. 1953 Traynor; I., n., sm. and s.Sc. 1967).Ayr. 1786 Burns To his Auld Mare ii.:
He should been tight that daur't to raize thee, Ance in a day.
Dmf. 1794 B. Johnston Agric. Dmf. 86:
“Raise”, that is, render furious, the black cattle.
Sc. 1802 Scott Letters (Cent. Ed.) I. 165:
To raise a horse with the spur would be an expression perfectly legitimate in Scotland.
Sc. 1829 H. Miller Poems 87:
When he breath'd ye durstna' raise him, Wretch begone! nor blame nor praise him.
Abd.7 1925:
To inflame one's temper: to arouse anger in one. “I raiset Broon fin I taul' 'im so-an' so”.

Hence ppl.adj. rais(e)d, raest (Mry. 1911 Trans. Bnff. Field Club 109), and rose (irreg. by confusion of conjugation with rise), infuriated, irascible, wild, frenzied, over-excited (Sc. 1808 Jam.; Gall. 1824 MacTaggart Gallov. Encycl. 403; Cai., Gall., Uls. 1903 E.D.D.). Gen.Sc. Also raised-like, id.Fif. 1704 P.S.A.S. LVI. 54:
She seemed to be strangely distempered. 2dly, Her eyes raised, and could drink none.
Sc. 1736 Crim. Trials Illustrative of “H. Midlothian” (1818) 310:
At this time he thought the pannel in drink, because he looked raised like.
Abd. 1768 A. Ross Helenore (S.T.S.) 24:
Up there came twa shepherds out o' breath, Rais'd like, an' blawing, an' as haw as death.
Sc. 1795 Edb. Mag. (Aug.) 155:
He said he was afraid he was very raised, and would turn insane.
Kcd. 1823 J. Burness Ghaist o' Garronha' (1887) 37:
His horse took fleg at a raised stot, Wha frae some butchers gat awa.
Sc. 1828 Scott F. M. Perth xix.:
His countenance was wild, haggard, and highly excited, or as the Scottish phrase expresses it, much raised.
Gsw. 1863 St. Andrews Gazette (6 June):
After he had gone out, she said, — “Mr Fleming is very raised like to-day, and has on his best clothes.” Daniel Paton . . . said he saw nothing “raised” about the old man on the Monday.
Ork. 1880 Dennison Sketch-Bk. 24:
Bit Lord help the t'ing at cam' i' his wey, whin he wus raised; for whin he wus i' a firry, he wus as mad as the de'il.
Fif. 1900 S. Tytler Jean Keir xv.:
She was a raised wife at the best.
Uls. a.1908 Traynor (1953):
He was a bit raised lookin'.
Abd. 1928 P. Grey Making of a King 20:
Bit ye lookit a bit razed kin' fan I cam' in. Fat wis the maitter?
Edb. 1948:
“The bairn's fair rose,” said when a child has reached the noisy, almost berserk state of excitement.
Ags. 1952 Forfar Dispatch (2 Oct.):
Ye're raized cos we didna bid ye come wi'z.
Bnff. 1966 Banffshire Jnl. (26 April) 7:
He insulted my father by swearing at him and that got me raised.

8. With refl. force, with (up)on; to turn upon in anger, to attack (ne.Sc., Ags., Fif., Ayr. 1967).Nai. 1828 W. Gordon Poems 22:
His stick sare made the dog to snarl, And since he rais'd upon the carl, He mark'd him in the list o' dogs.
Per. 1915 Wilson L. Strathearn 205:
She raised on me like a lion.

II. n. 1. A state of extreme bad temper, a frenzy (Ags., Per., Slg. 1967).Ags. 1894 J. B. Salmond My Man Sandy (1899) 41:
What a raise Sandy got intil! He was that kankered.

2. A practical joke, a piece of fun and horseplay at another's expense (Bnff. 1967). Cf. Rise, id.Bnff. 1866 Gregor D. Bnff. 139:
We hid a richt raise wee 'im aboot's gaan hame wee's lass.

[O.Sc. rayse, to rouse from sleep, 1438, raise, to draw up or institute an action or summons, 1429, rais-net, 1564, raisit-, wild, 1590. For I.Sc. usage v. 4., cf. Faer. reisa, id.]

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"Raise v., n.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 26 May 2024 <>



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