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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1963 (DOST Vol. III).

Kind, Kynd, n. Also: kinde, kynde, kyind(e, keynd, kyne. [ME. kind(e, kynd(e, west midl. cunde, cuinde, kund(e etc., south-east. kende, OE. (ᵹe)cynde, (ᵹe)cynd.]Much the most usual rhyming words are mynd and strynd (both from OE. -nd). Rhymes with the name Inde, Ynd and with past participles such as defynd, dynd, inclynd, pynd also occur. Among words which had ĭnd in OE., rhymes with hind (female deer), rind (bark of a tree), tind (point of an antler) are prob. regular (since these words appar. had the ī pronunciation). Occasional irregular rhymes with other words which had ĭnd in OE. (behind, bind, blind, find, lind and wind) also occur.

1. Nature, in general or in the abstract; the natural order of things.(1) a1400 Leg. S. x. 35.
Thame [the Ethiopians] kynde blak had made
Ib. xviii. 470.
To fil myn flesche sa ȝed I wod; … Quhare-in I mysded maste to kynd
c1420 Ratis R. 1775.
The fyrst wertew of al moving, That sterys kind in al degre
1513 Doug. iv. Prol. 209.
Fy on dissait … Contrar to kynd with fenȝeit cheir smylyng
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xlvi. 37.
Agane the law of kynd thow gois expres, That crukit aige makis on with ȝewth serene
1560 Rolland Seven S. 10254.
The naturall cours and kinde, … The hartlie lufe … Quhilk nature geuis in the mother to be

b. In phrases. Agane or aganis kynd, contrary to nature. Be (by), efter, in, of, throw kynd, according to nature, naturally.(1) a1400 Leg. S. ii. 754.
His wame bolnyt ner and rafe, A-ganis kynd for that he strafe
Ib. xxxvi. 121.
The barne in hyre wame but bade Againe kind mad joy in haste
c1400 Troy-bk. i. 458.
The see To weltyre in wawis, without wynd All playne agane the course of kynd
(2) c1420 Wynt. vi. 969.
Nest hym foure Papys had thaire det Payd off kynd, and tane thare dede
c1450-2 Howlat 462.
Off commoun nature the cours be kynd to fulfill
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2200.
That euer tuke lyfe throw cours of kynd man dee
c1508 Ch. & M. Prints ii b. 1.
Things in kynde desyris thingis lyke
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 555.
Quhen wardlie joye be werray cours of kynd Thow levis for euer
1513 Doug. vii. Prol. 136.
Scharp hailstanis, mortfundit of kynd [:rynd]
Ib. ix. v. 2.
The othir bestis all, … Ful sownd on sleip did cawcht thair rest be kynd
Ib. xii. Prol. 154.
Swannys … Seirsand by kynd a place quhar thai suld lay
a1568 Bann. MS. 229 a/36.
All fische with fyn That creat wer be kynd [:mynd, rynd, hynd]
1584-9 Maxwall Commonpl. Bk. Prov. No. 203.
Nature will have cours efter kinde
a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 853 (Wr.).
By kinde ay, we finde ay, Few lackes them [the senses] at the least

2. Hereditary, inherent or natural character or quality; the nature (of a person, animal or thing); freq., human nature. a1400 Leg. S. xxxii. 307.
Manis kynd it mon excede Here lifand to kepe madynehede
Ib. 518.
He wes borne of a vergine A-ganis the kynd of manis lyne
c1420 Ratis R. 441.
Heil and generacioune Is turnyt in corrupcione And fordois nobilnes of kind
Ib. 939.
For commonly thai [women] folow kynd And gretly to the moderis strind
1456 Hay I. 29/14.
A maner of bestis callit Lungoutis, the quhilkis war of the kynde of scorpiouns with stangis
Ib. II. 103/6.
Quhasa slais ane othir creature of his awin kynde and nature slais him self
Ib. 108/5.
With the cause of conjunctionis … and the kyndis of the constellaciounis
Ib. 139/1.
The gude water … sone will be hate and sone cule agayne to the propre kynde
a1500 Henr. Fab. 189.
The mouse … knew hir voce, as kynnisman will do, Be verray kynd
Ib. 391.
Brutall beistis … ilk ane in thair kynde naturall Hes mony diuers inclinatioun
a1497, 15.. Gray MS. iv. 30.
To tak thi kynd nathing I dreid, I left my macht & tuke mekenes
Ib. v. 5.
Oure kynde is brukle
a1500 Prestis of Peblis 534.
Than war monie [midge and fly] … Throw kynd of ȝeir and hait of that regioun
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xlix. 32.
Off the fals fox dissimvlatour, Kynd hes every theiff and tratour
1513 Doug. Æn. Comm. i. Prol. 97.
Innatyve is alsmekil to say as inborn or that quhilk cumis till ony person be thar natural inclinatioun of kynd throw thar forbearis
1535 Stewart 59656.
Than sperit he The cours and kynd of his infirmitie
1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 162.
It is my kynd to clym, aye, to the hycht
a1605 Montg. Misc. P. xli. 18.
Nou hairtis with hyndis, Conforme to thair kyndis, Hie tursis thair tyndis
1590-1 Bruce Serm. 124.
For the mind has the awin assent … in the awin kind als weill as the heart has

b. Be, of, on, throw kind, by birth or descent, hereditarily; by native constitution, constitutionally or naturally. c1420 Wynt. i. 49.
The name of angelys for to dewys, Is noucht of kynd bot of offys
Ib. ii. 524.
Thareoff, he says, be kynd we ta For tyll be dowre
Ib. v. 3022.
On hys modyr halff, a Brettowne He wes be kynd off natyowne
Ib. ix. 2679.
His ayre, that was of kynd king
c1420 Ratis R. 1573.
Men of kind mychty
a1500 Henr. Fab. 798 (B).
This fox, bastard of generatioun, Off verrye kynd behufit to be fals
Ib. 2648.
Thy language rigorous Cummis thé of kynd
c1515 Asl. MS. I. 161/21.
The red se is nocht red on kynd bot throu … wesching on red cragis
a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 403.
It cumis of kynde to thé to be a traytoure
c1500-c1512 Dunb. lx. 22.
Theiffis of kynd
1513 Doug. vi. iv. 87.
The slottry sleip, Dedis cousyng of kynd
1567 Sat. P. iv. 110.
O wickit wemen, … Serpentis of kynde, thocht cumlie seme ȝour statuire
proverb. ?1438 Alex. ii. 4366.
Gif my father be fell of thocht, It cummis him of kynd, he coft it nocht
1563 Ferg. Tracts 63.
For, as we vse to say, thay had it be kynd and coft it not
Id. Prov. MS. No. 1624.
Ye ar stout throw kynd your goodschir drew a sword to a plaitful of pottag
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 1358.
Sche taks it of kynd, her mother had the same falt when she was young

c. Out of kind, contrary to, in violation of, one's natural character. 1513 Doug. xiii. iii. 136.
Thai sal nocht behald thé … degenerit owt of kynd
1637 Rutherford Lett. (1891) 534.
Our soul goeth out of kind so far as to make an idol of this earth

d. What properly belongs to or befits one by inheritance. c1475 Wall. i. 217.
Ane Ersche mantill it war thi kynd to wer
c1650 Spalding I. 199.
Thay took ane of the tounes cullouris of Abirdein and gave it to the toune of Abirbrothokis soldiouris … quhilk wes not thair kynd to cary

3. The physical nature or constitution of a person or animal. a1400 Leg. S. xviii. 888.
Gud modyr, quhat met cane thu fynd, Sa lange to sustene thi kynd
1113-1567 Liber Calchou 449.
Hawntyng of lychery that bath infebyllys the kynde & oppynys the poris
c1500 Crying of Play 154.
I am of mekle quantite, Of gyand kynd as ȝe may se
1533 Boece iii. i. 90 b.
Febill persons be fragilite of kynde or age war slane
c1600 Montg. Suppl. xxxiv. 120.
The bodie of all beistis grow les, … Thairby may ȝe planlie ges, Thair kynd is feblit soir

b. To use (or abuse) one's kind, to act according (or contrary) to one's nature in performing the sexual function. c1552 Lynd. Mon. 3238.
It bene the Lordis mynde, All creature tyll vse thare kynde
Ib. 3396.
[They] like brutall beistis … Unnaturally abusit thare kyndis by … abhominabyll sodomie
a1568 Scott xxxiv. 108.
The mull frequentis the anis And hir awin kynd abusis

c. Sex, gender. c1420 Wynt. viii. 1842.
Off elde, na kynd, nane sparyd thai
a1538 Abell Chron. fol. 23 b.
I grant me ane weman of the quhilk kynd I cannocht denude me
1603 Philotus cx.
Conuert my kynde

d. The semen. c1420 Wynt. i. 1026 (W).
From thaim [horses] sa haboundandly There kynd eschapis fervently

4. A mode of behaviour, a manner, way or fashion, of doing anything; a condition or state, of anyone or anything. Common in adv. phrases, as in this, sic, no kind.(1) 1456 Hay I. 265/4.
His witness is approvit be the grete juge in quhat kynde God wate
Ib. II. 6/32.
Als sone as that the knycht sawe in syk a kynde, sik ane honourable man [etc.]
Ib. 29/36.
Gif a knycht mysgovernis him in syk kynde that he be outhir thef, or traytour [etc.]
c1475 Wall. viii. 898.
Bot in this kynd we sall be bundyn yow to, Sum part off gold to gyff you with gud will
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2222.
I counsell mychtie men to haif mynd Of the nekhering, interpreit in this kind
1496–7 Edinb. B. Rec. I. 71.
[The mills] to be delyuerit in sic stait and kynde as thay ressauit thame
1513 Doug. iv. i. 15.
Ful evil at eys Queyn Dido on this kynd Spak to hir systir
Ib. xii. i. 46. Ib. xiii. x. 40.
Ressaue thir godly syngis in bettir kynd
1535 Stewart 48869.
Sone war tha cordit on that samin kynd, Ilk ane of thame syne pat in writ thair mynd
a1568 Scott iii. 4.
Cast ȝow to conqueiss luve ane vthir kind
a1605 Montg. Sonn. lxi. 6.
Provyding that … sho that bure me, euen of sik a kyn[d] That in hir birth hir persone war not py[nd]
1643 Argyll Synod I. 75.
That he desist from incroaching in that kynd upon the Churches patrimony
1649 Elgin Rec. II. 434.
The examinators … sall … exerceise them in the same kynd, the master lookeing on
1661 Rothesay B. Rec. 69.
[He] desyred to know of his men who refuset in no kynd to obey the judges ordouris
(2) c1450-2 Howlat 236.
[To] kyth … The kynd of thar cummyng, thar companys eike, The maner nor the multitud

5. A group of persons sharing a common origin; a race or kindred. c1420 Wynt. i. Prol. 101.
As of angell and of man First to ryse the kynd began
Ib. vi. 2 162.
He is na man, off swylk a kynd Cummyn, bot of the Dewyllis strynd
?1438 Alex. ii. 623.
Thow knawis nocht our kynd, Na quhen we come, na of quhat strynd
1456 Hay I. 47/3.
A kynde of men callit Sannes
c1500 Crying of Play 29.
I … Quhilk generit am of gyandis kynd Fra strang Hercules be strynd
c1500-c1512 Dunb. lxiii. 43.
Innopportoun askaris of Yrland kind
1513 Doug. vi. xii. 12.
Fra … thir elementis seir Baith kynd of man and best cummys
Ib. xii. xiii. 111.
The kynd of men discend from thir Troianys Mydlit with kyn of the Italianys
1567 Sat. P. iii. 100.
And ȝe defend the cruell Jesabell, Than Baallis Preistis will cal ȝow verray kynde
a1585 Maitl. Q. lxi. 28.
Ȝour Quene had pruif that Mortounis race To covatice wes hoill inclynde, And so … Addrest hir onlie to that kynd
1596 Dalr. I. 76/18.
The affectione that ilk [tribe] had to his awne kynde quhen the ane kynd wald haue the king to be chosen of his generatione, the vther of his
1611-57 Mure Dido & Æn. i. 157.
His [Aeneas'] kinde she hates

b. A kinsman. 1576 Bann. Memor. 338.
The king wald soult, except he gat that goud fatheris sone and gude kynd on the motheris syde to accumpany his grace

6. A race or species of animals; (a particular animal's own) species or a member of it. a1400 Leg. S. xvii. 30.
A fel beste of the kynd of thai That ar generyt in Asya
1513 Doug. vii. v. 200.
Twa stern stedis … Cummyn of the kynd of hevinly horssis
1531 Bell. Boece II. 450.
Ravinnis, [etc.] … clekit thair birdis in winter, contar the nature of thair kind
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 1398.
Of all foulis of the air Of euerilk kynd enterit ane pair
1568 Skeyne Descr. Pest. 6.
Euerie brutall is maist infectand … to thair awin kynd
a1605 Montg. Misc. P. xviii. 4.
Evrie leving creature Ay covets comounly thair kynd, As buk the dae, the harte the hynd

7. A Class of persons or things having characteristics in common; a particular variety, type or sort (of anything).(1) a 1350 Facs. Nat. MSS. II. 40.
Sextum decimum vas de omni genere [gl. kynd o] bladi
c1450-2 Howlat 586.
In a feld of siluer … Of a kynde colour thre coddis I kend
1540 Lynd. Sat. 738 (B.).
Quhat kynd a man schaip ȝe to be
Ib. 4143.
Ane kynde of aill they call harns-out
15.. Dum Wyf 41.
Quhat kynd of taill … That thow … reqwyreis, Scho sall spek out
1556 Lauder Off. Kings 311.
Godds trew wourd … To euery kynde of creature
1596 Dalr. I. 50/5.
This kynde of fishe abhorris frome mudie water
1609 Breadalbane Doc. No. 385.
To schute with na gwnis nor with na uther kynd of fyre wark
(2) 1456 Hay I. 209/5.
Sayand that mark is in sum part haldyn as a kynde and maner of were
1606 Birnie Kirk-b. xix.
It breedes a kynde of contempt of the secluded sorte
(3) 1580 Fam. Innes 138.
That he suld never … seick ony kynd off rycht intres or claime [etc.]
1587-99 Hume 74/190.
The censor is impropre to correck, That in himselfe hes ony kinde of bleck
(4) a1400 Leg. S. x. 533.
Of synnis kyndis are thre, & the formaste pride ma be
1585 James VI Ess. 69.
Thir kyndes of ballatis of haill verse
1596 Dalr. I. 97/7.
The falcoun, the sparhalk, and diuersh vthiris kyndes of halkes
(5) a1500 Henr. Fab. 2706.
Thre kynd of uolfis in this warld now ringis
1531 Bell. Boece I. 74/24.
Sa mony as … couth induce him to new kynde of vicious lustis
1533 Boece ix. xiii. 320 b.
Rymouris, … skaffaris, and sic kynde of men he causit … devode the realme
1576 Crim. Trials I. ii. 53.
Sche saw na proffeit to gang thai kynd of gaittis
1599 Acts IV. 180/2.
To sell or by ony … herroun, buttir or ony sic kynd of foullis
1596–7 Misc. Spalding C. I. 97.
The Dewill … playing befoir yow on his kynd of instrumentis
1638 Dundonald Par. Rec. 522.
The maniefold haynous crymes committed by that … inordourlie kynd of people
(6) c1460 Wisd. Sol. 70.
Orchardis with all froyt treis of diuers kyndis
a1500 Henr. Fab. 891.
The asse, the mule, the hors of euerie kynd
a1500 Seven S. 295.
A fair orchard … Of frutfull treis of mony kynd
1513 Doug. viii. xii. 59.
The monstruus goddis figuris, of all kynd That honorit ar in Egipt or in Inde
1528 Lynd. Dreme 821.
Fysche of sindry kyndis
(7) 1473 Reg. Cupar A. I. 189.
With plantation of frote treis of the best kynd
a1500 Quare Jel. 457.
Thir jelousyis full diuerse ar of kynd
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 422.
So in thair kynd gois manly successioun, Now seike, now hale, now glad, now in grevans
1571 Inverness Rec. I. 203.
That all cottaris … keip the keynd of cornis that beis sawin in thair maisteris tackis
1580 Ib. 282.
The said William haveand ane dog of the keynd of sleutht hwnd to await on his chalmer
1596 Dalr. I. 6/16.
Beare mairouer it bringis, nocht only ane kynd, quhairof commoune drinke is maid to the hail ile
1597 James VI Dæmonol. 47.
[Frenzy and mania] are but naturall sicknesses: and so he may lay on these kindes, aswell as anie others
1606 Birnie Kirk-b. xix.
There is a crafty sort that pretends reason from the causes nature; next, there is a combersome kynde that [etc.]
1625 Justiciary Cases I. 29.
That na uther met or measour of that nature or kynd sall haif curse
1631 Ib. 177.
The most proper judgement for trying and censuring materis of this kynde
(8) 1614 Misc. Abbotsf. C. 275.
Some stiffe opposition will be geven unto your majestie's profitt in that kinde
1630 Aberd. Council Lett. I. 335.
The merchant tred in that kynd both outward and inward

b. Freq. in the phrases all (also alkyn), na (no) kind (of anything).(1) c1420 Wynt. ii. 576.
Alkyn kynd off gleggys
c1450-2 Howlat 337.
A cot armour Of all kynd of colour
c1460 Consail Vys Man 329.
Fle exces in al kind of thinge
1490 Irland Mir. I. 58/18.
This element of erd … has within jt … all kynd and nature of metall, stanys, colis
1564–5 Inverness Rec. I. 122.
Ane large skayr of all keynd of thair fischis
1572 Ib. 218.
All keynd of tymmer, sic as ralis [etc.]
1575 Bk. Univ. Kirk I. 335.
All kinde of licht … hewes in cloathing, as red, blew, ȝeallow
1570 Leslie 265.
Gret quantitie of gold and silver and of all kinde of sortes of conye
a1585 Maitl. Q. xv. 5.
Ay hait all kyind of covatice
Ib. lxix. 9.
Depaintit wer the feildis with all kynd hewis
1605 P. B. McNab Hist. Incorp. Gardeners Glasgow (1903) 73.
Every burgess … shall use all kind of handling and trade that is lawful
1610 Crim. Trials III. 104.
Ȝea, with all kynd of hosteill maner, invaidit … the saidis tua schipes
(2) ?1438 Alex. ii. 2947.
Na man forsakes na kynde of thing Fra thay se it be his lyking
c1500-c1512 Dunb. lxxii. 64.
Na kynd of torment he ganestude
1513 Doug. vi. ii. 51.
Virgyn, na kynd of pane may rys Onknaw to me
1560 Rolland Seven S. 9909.
Ane chalmer … Was weill preparit, wanting na kind of thing
1556 Lauder Off. Kings 231.
Thay suld nocht … for no kynde of fauour fleche
a1570-86 Maitl. F. xxi. 57.
Na kynd of feir of God haue thai
a1585 Maitl. Q. xvi. 11.
Haunt na kyinde of harlatrie
a1605 Montg. Sonn. vii. 11.
Jumpe not with justice for no kynd of thing
1643 Strathbogie Presb. 43.
Shoe … ought to be reputed so [as a stranger], as having no kynd of being heir

c. In the phr. under (of) baith the kyndis, ane kynd (of element, bread or wine, of the Eucharist).Also e.m.E. (1539– ) (= med. L. species). — 1562-3 Winȝet I. 98/3.
That thai be daylie mony to communicat with the preist sacramentalie, gif thai may be had, and that vndir bayth the kyndes
a1578 Pitsc. II. 76/25.
Gif I might haue it [the sacrament] as Christ institutit of baitht the kyndis
1588 King Cat. 83.
Christ … institut this sacrament, and gaue to the Apostles vnder baith the kynds, bot efter … in Emaus … he gaue the sacrament vnto tham vnder ane kynd onlie

d. In grammar: see the quots. 1522 Grant Burgh Schools 54.
[The eight characteristics of a pronoun:] qualite, gener, nouwmyr, figure, kynde, persone, cais and declinatione
How mony kynde of pronownes is thare? … ane pronowne primitiue and ane pronowne deriuative

8. a. Payment in produce or kind, as opposed to money. b. (Payment) in kind. 1521 Selkirk B. Ct. fol. 88 b.
To renunc … his assedation … that he hes to the bailȝery of the landis of Mynto, quhilk he hes of Robert Stewart … with all kind and ferme
1677 Rothesay B. Rec. 352.
Yeirly payment of ane gallon aile, ane creill of peitts and ane hen to be payed out of ilk house, … if the shireff hes a right therto the toune is content to pay it in kyne

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