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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1963 (DOST Vol. III).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Levand, pres. p. and ppl. a. Also: leveand, levan(t, lew(e)and, lewant; leiv(e)and, leiwand; leaveand. [North. ME. levand (15th c.); f. Leve v.4 Cf. Lefand, Livand, and Leving.]

1. Pres. p. (predicative or following the noun, etc.) a. Living, alive. Also transf., = existing, in existence, and fig.(1) c1420 Wynt. vii. 1639.
The fadyr wes lefft lewand
1477 Stirlings of Keir 251.
Be ony vther persone or personys lewande nor ded
1513 Doug. viii. i. 19.
The nycht come, and all thing levand sessit
1531 Bell. Boece I. 86.
For apperandlie wes nevir sene sa mony … poetis levand at anis
1566 Anderson Collect. Mary I. 36.
Oure Soverane, quhame unto, of all utheris levan, the cais is maist grevious
1567 G. Ball. 45.
Leuand he rais on the thrid day
a1578 Pitsc. I. 55/26.
Innerquartie was … brocht lewand to Feniven
1629 Justicuary Cases . 135.
Quhan Bessie Dobie was leveand
(b) 1597 Misc. Spald. C. I. 106.
Thre doughteris … quhairof ane yit leiwand … is comptit a vitch
(c) 1631 Justiciary Cases I. 156.
Ane woman to haif tua husbandis leaveand togidder
(2) 1554 Misc. Bann. C. III. 82.
Of this thing thar bene faythfull witnes as ȝit leweand on lyfe
1571 Sat. P. xxviii. 25.
I was … ane lord leuand on lyfe
(3) c1420 Ratis R. 1286.
Thow sal se few of gret outrage Oucht lange in gud heil lewande be
(4) transf. 1583 Wemyss Corr. 101.
Of all thing leivand secrasie is the best
(5) fig. 1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 20.
Thocht thay be ded, thar libells bene leuand
a1586 Maitland Ho. Seytoun xi.
Thair fame is yit levand

b. Passing life in a certain manner. c1460 Consail Vys Man 242.
The consaill of thi traist frendis Dispis nocht that weilllevand is
1531 Bell. Boece II. 41.
Knawing thaim bot ane hethin pepill, levand efter the lawis of Gentilis
1639 Banff Ann. I. 82.
The idle people … within the toune without service and leivand unlegallie

c. Dwelling in a certain place. 1497 Acta Conc. II. 89.
The … schirefis officiaris to distrinȝe the persons levand and havand gudis within thair saidis boundis

2. attrib. That live(s); also, that remains alive, that survives. Also absol. 1431–2 Newbattle MS. (Reg. H.) 20 Mar.
Agayn all leuand man or woman
c1420 Ratis R. 1513.
Na man sal thi rutis ken In to the land of levand men
c1460 Vert. Mes. 45.
Fore ilke mes … sindry saulys ar … fred out of … purgatory and mony levand men ar turnyt … to gud lyf
c1460 Consail Vys Man 414.
A levand mannys benefyce … our his hed to tak … Desyr nocht
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. Prol. 112.
Saw neuer man so faynt a leuand wicht
a1538 Abell 6 a.
To offir the first lewant creature that met him eftir this wictorye
a1578 Pitsc. I. 140/11.
To put hand in ane lewand prince
1596–7 Misc. Spald. C. I. 88.
Gif he hed lent to thé his kill … he wald hef bene ane lewand man
c 1641 Soc. Ant. XXV. 54.
In the quhilk … thaire is foure dead and foure leivand witnesses
absol a1500 Gol. & Gaw 954.
Lord, as thow life lent to levand in leid
1490 Irland Mir. fol. 132 b.
And sal cum … to juge baith levand and deid

b. Said of the Deity (after Biblical use). 1562-3 Winȝet I. 129/9.
Adurnand the leueand God thre tymes euery day
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. clxxiv. 76.
O lewand lord, support this ciwell seit

c. transf. and fig. a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 1229.
O levand deid euerlestand in langour
1567 G. Ball. 16.
The power spirituall Of Christis blude … Quhilk is ane leuand well celestiall

d. absol., in the formula the (langar or langest) levand (of thaim etc.), the survivor. (Cf. also Levar n.2 1). 1391 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 23.
And to the langare levand of thaim
1516 Reg. Privy S. I. 420/2.
The langest levand
1536 Ib. II. 324/2.
To the langer levand of thame thre
1539 Reg. Cupar A. II. 9. 1576 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. 13. 1581 Edinb. Test. IX. 294 b.
The haill to accres to the levand of thame
1661 Irvine Deeds MS. 12 Aug.
To the langest levand of us twa

Levand pres. p., ppl. adj.

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"Levand pres. p., ppl. adj.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 16 Jun 2024 <>



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