A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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Lede, Leid, v. Also: led; leide, leyd(e, leed, lead, lied; lade, laid(e. P.t. led, ledd(e; lede, leid(e, lead(e; lad. P.p. led(d, (let); lede, leid, leyd, lead; laid. [ME. lede(n, ledde, leede, e.m.E. lead, p.t. ledde, ladde, p.p. led(d, lad(d, OE. lǽdan, p.t. lǽdde, p.p. lǽded, lǽd.] In 14–15th c. verse the pres. t. form rhymes most commonly with the words bred (bread), dede, deid (death, dead), hede (head), steid (stead, place) and others which are assumed to have had the pronunc. , but in Leg. S., Alex., Wall. and other pieces it rhymes also with deid (deed), speid (speed) and ȝeid p.t. and other words supposedly with the distinct pronunc. in : see espec. W. Heuser in Anglia XVIII. (1896) 116, 122–4, XIX. (1897) 335, 342, 346–7, examples quoted below, and the following: Leg. S. i. 48 (: dede dead), ii. 627 (: presthed), xviii. 104 (: brede), xli. 155 (: dede deed); Wynt. ii. 19 (: dede dead), vii. 270 (: dede death), viii. 1600 (: plede); Alex. i. 336 (: neid need), 1969 (: deid dead). 2544 (: deid death), 2491 (: steid place), 2705 (:steid steed). ii. 2767, 3220 (: deid deed), 7967 (: neid need), 8238 (: rede direct); Gol. & Gaw. 880 (: reid read, speid speed); Rauf C. 508 (: feid enmity, remeid, deid dead); Wall. ii. 198 (: speid speed), vi. 638 (: steid stead, place), ix. 700 (: deid deed); Seven S. 367 (: deid dead); Colk. Sow i. 396 (: heid head). In various senses answering to L. or med. L. ducere.

1. tr. To take or bring (a person) along with one, to conduct (to a place, etc.); also, to do so as a guide. (a) Gyf thu wil I dele with thé, Led me quhare it is maste priue; Leg. S. xxxv. 46.
He fyndis ane othir baroun … the quhilk … he ledis with him till hunting and hauking; Hay I. 179/24.
Quhethir gif ambassadouris … brocht with thame the kingis inymyes, gif thai may leffully lede thame with thame throu his realm; Ib. 235/1.
The myghty gret Enee Within hys narrow chymmys ledis he; Doug. viii. vi. 126.
Thai … desirit him effectuislie to lede thame agane to the tentis of inemyis; Bell. Livy II. 190/11.
He will leid him in the myre Thocht he hecht to defend him; 1570 Sat. P. xvi. 51.
(b) Sancte Petyr … his deuocione to bete, Hyme led to the monte of Olyvete; Leg. S. xvi. 621.
[They] led thaim to gret Ilioun And gaif thaim entre thar in haist; Troy-bk. ii. 3105.
Thay turned and ȝeid thare gate, Cassamus led thame to the bate; Alex. ii. 3536.
This wickit woman … till his chalmer led Weill armit men; Stewart 8077.
He … led hir to the dure with him; 1576 Crim. Trials I. ii. 52.
That Angus … led her with him quhair euer he gaid; Dalr. II. 173/30.
(b) Sanct Machor till his herbry Sanct Ternane leid full reuerndly; Leg. S. xxvii. 1081.
Thane leid thai hyme in the ton; Ib. xxix. 668.
(c) Thomas … me in paradice has lede; Leg. S. vi. 269.
The Kingis thrie war lede … Out of the kirke, with septour, sword, and croune; Clar. iv. 2424.

b. To take another person with one under the protection of (apon, in, under) a safe-conduct to oneself. In Hay. Gif a man … has a sauf condyt, quhethir he may lede a gretter man na him self in his sauf condyt; Hay I. 179/16.
A symple knycht may nocht lede a baroun … apon his sauf condyt; Ib. /32.
Under the sauf condyt of the king, he and all the lave that I have power to lede; Ib. 180/18.

2. To take along with one by going ahead as leader; to lead (an army etc.) along a certain course, to a certain destination, etc. The forsad byschapis of that stede Al hale the puple with tham lede; Leg. S. xi. 408.
As scheip that for the wolf takis flicht, He led the folk before him was; Alex. i. 997.
Thair leder was auld Cassamus, That led thame to Tempill Marcus; Ib. ii. 410.
To Venus chalmer the ladeis ȝeid And the Bauderane thame can lede; Ib. 3928.
As gif a capitane knycht of Lumbardy cummys in Fraunce … and ledis with him fifty men of were; Hay I. 141/13.
God sal leid thaime vp to the heuine with hime quhilk ar deid in Christ; Gau 70/31.
Agricol maid ane brig of tre our Tay and sa led our his armyng; Abell 25 a.
In Italiam ducendos, that wer to be led with Aeneas to dwell in Italie; Buch. Comm. on Virgil Æn. iv. 626.
Alluret throuch this hope … he leidis ane armie till Northumbirland; Dalr. II. 332/28.
Quhair ever thow dost leid, We follow thé; Mure Dido & Æn. i. 89.

b. To go first in or lead off (a dance): cf. sense 15 b. See also Ledar n. 3. For to lede the ring (= ring-dance) and fig., to take the lead, act as ring-leader, see Ring n. and Ring-ledar n. Swanky And … Copyn Cull … Led the dance and began; Colk. Sow i. 298.
Ib. 396.

3. To lead (a person) by the hand or arm or the like. Also fig. This little maid … That leiddis me now sence my self may nocht se; Colk. Sow ii. 36.
Quhen thay wer entrit in the dance … All led [M. lad] thay vthir by the tersis; Dunb. xxvi. 88.
Ane blynde man is led furth be ane uther; Ib. xc. 35.
Syne me … he ledis by the hand Onto thi tempil; Doug. iii. vi. 35.
Quhen the blynde ledis the blynde, baith fallis in the fowsie; Q. Kennedy Tract. 151.
The cruikit leidis the blinde; 1570 Sat. P. xvi. 6.
They were led by the sleeves as children; 1668–9 J. Fraser Lawfulness of Separation (1744) 189.
fig. The devill … schupe … him to wirk with suteltee of ypocrisy, … ledand with him bath emperouris and patriarkis; Hay I. 18/5.
Sum led is lyk the belly blynd With luve; Dunb. App. iii. 24.
Men that is led up and doune with affectionis, blyndnes, and errour; 1563 Davidson Misc. Wodrow Soc. 227.
Bennet but pintle may be the hand thé leid; 1581 Sat. P. xliv. 262.

b. To take to (in to) wife. Answering to med. L. ducere in (husband or wife) in the same sense. At Jorge … lord of Angus sall led into wyfe a dochtyr of ovre lorde the Kyngys; 1397 Douglas Chart. 38.
Huchon Fraser … sal lede in to wyf Jonet of Fentoun; 1415 Reg. Great S. (1430) 39/1.
Ane honorable woman, Dame Crystyane of Douglas, … the quhilk I think … to lede into wiffe; 1423 Wemyss Chart. II. 47.

c. To take (a maiden) as wife. To ioys lufe of lady fre, Na lede maydin maryit to be; Alex. ii. 10249.

4. To take or lead as a prisoner or by force. Also to lede (one) the way. Also fig. (1) (a) To wekit dede I sall ȝow lede [: ewill dede]; Leg. S. i. 596.
To bynd and led away Sampsone; Wynt. iii. 262.
Thaire presoneris wyth thame led and; Ib. viii. 6580.
His fa sum by the oxtar leidis; Dunb. xiii. 17.
To revische hir persoun, and leid hir to Dunbar Castell; 1568 Anderson Collect. Mary IV. ii. 65.
The howlat sall leid the beir to his baine; Bann. Memor. 62.
(b) Men lede hyre to the stede Quhar schow suld be put to dede; Leg. S. i. 63.
Thai tuke the sade Thomas Watsone … to … Edinburgh … and led him planlye in the sicht of the commone peple as he had bene … a theiff; 1496–7 Acta Conc. II. 68.
The forsaid Sir Gilbert … harllit & led thaim away rycht dispytfully; Asl. MS. I. 223/22.
Ane companie of airmed men … leade thame out to the castell hill and … straik thair heidis fre thame; Pitsc. I. 45/17.
(c) [He] saw be led fra the fechting Schir Philipe; Barb. xviii. 124.
Be the armys led wes he With twa men; Ib. 127.
Ane chyld is … went To tell the maydins, … How the Bauderane was tane and led, Vnarmed and syne cled; Alex. ii. 1993.
Quhen he has tane him and led him hame; Hay I. 157/23.
On the morne the empriour bad To the gallhous his son be led; Seven S. 2238.
I was tane withouttin test, And led furth as a presoneir; Dunb. xlii. 8.
In bondage away was thou nocht led; Doug. iii. v. 83.
Bund as ane theif so wes thou harlit & led, Till Herod had; Arundel MS. 255/19.
[The same priests, friars, & others,] ledd in halters like fals prelettes; 1547–8 Cal. Sc. P. I. 82.
Hou the King was leid out of the feild; Pitsc. I. 269/h. of ch.
(2) Thre knychttis … quhilkis ledand hym the way Praide hym ȝarne [etc.]; Leg. S. ii. 203.
(3) fig. Blyndnes and … arrogance, leidand all peruersit erroneus men as captiuis; Winȝet I. 37/21.
Scho … assayt Quhow that scho mycht in luifis leice him leed; J. Stewart 74/52.
To tak kingis and princes be the lug, and leid them to Christ; 1599 Rollock Wks. I. 414.

5. To lead (an animal, or a person as one leads an animal) by halter, bridle, leash or the like; also with the vehicle drawn by an animal, the rider, or the bridle, as object. b. Freq. fig. Scho … mekly led hyme [a beast] as a schepe Tovart the folk, that hyme can kepe; Leg. S. xvii. 71.
Ta thi belt, & hyme [the dragon] lede, & about his hals knyt it sone; Ib. xxxiii. 274.
Gif ony … lattis his bestis thris enter in the forest … the forster … aw till … thris blaw his horn, efter that led the bestis to the kingis castel; Acts I. 323/2.
The Inglis knawis thai gart thar caryage leid [: dreid] To Clidis forest; Wall. iii. 213.
Bettir thow ganis to leid ane doig to skomer; Dunb. Flyt. 113.
Thocht he dow not to leid a tyk; Id. xviii. 14.
Diomeid … till hys tent gan leid The mylk quhite horssis; Doug. i. vii. 96.
In the bridell he wes leden the quene in a ring with mony othir men & women; Abell 93 a.
Evin sic as suld leid filthie dogis to thair vomit agane; Knox III. 182.
The said erle Bothwill leidand the quenis majestie by the bridill; Diurn. Occurr. .
Ane may lead ane horse to the water, bot four and tuentie cannot gar him drink; Ferg. Prov. MS. No. 87.
fig. Allace I can bot ballattis breif Sic barnheid leidis my brydill reynȝe; Dunb. xxii. 49 (M).
Ane laird hes with him bot a loun, That leidis him eftir his devyce; Ib. xxxix. 15.
Prelattis … Off conscience than the brydill had to leid; Doug. Conscience 3 (M).
Dame Prudence hes thé be the heid And temporance dois thy brydill leid; Lynd. Compl. 388.
Of the law thow leidis the reyne; Maitl. F. lx. 27.

6. Commonly, To convey (goods or produce) by horse (or other animal) and cart or sled, or by packanimal, to cart or carry; also, to bring in (produce, teind-produce etc.) from the field to the yard In this way. Also absol., to bring in or transport goods. With various complements or without complement. See also Lade n.1 1 b. (1) (a) He vith his vayn suld ga Till lede thaim hay in-to the peill; Barb. x. 165.
The quhilkis [ambassadors] … hyris … hors and cartis … to lede thair gere with to Paris; Hay I. 235/5.
The Scottis all as swyne lyis droukyn thar, Off our wycht wyne ȝe gert ws thidder led [: ded = deed]; Wall. vi. 659.
The said induellaris … hes castin batht pettis turffis and dailie ledand away; 1511 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III. 107.
That vmquhill Dauid Tullocht … haid passage … to … led the thack from the said comontie; 1615 Shetl. Sheriff Ct. 13.
(b) Yt was ordanyt that ilk nychtbur swld lay vj laid of stanis at the Kow furd, and that na man sal leid na clay fra thin; 1468 Peebles B. Rec. 158.
Thai gert the king cry all thar merket doun, … That in thai boundis na man sould wittail leid [: deid = death]; Wall. viii. 714.
He ordanit at ilk man suld leid his teyndis to the kirkmannis barnȝard; Abell 48 a.
It sal be lesum to any nychtbor to leid the samyn quhair tha ples as thair awin propir guidding; 1541 Elgin Rec. I. 65.
At na man … beyr wrek or leyd wrek out of the se or se sand quhyl the sone rys; 1567 Prestwick B. Rec. 70.
My Lord Regentis Grace will direct sum … servand … to teind and leid the teind schaves of the saidis landis; 1569 Reg. Privy C. II. 56.
That thai leid away all the middingis thairto presentlie thairupon; 1583–4 Elgin Rec. I. 173.
To uphald the hous, leid out his muck, … and teile his yairde; 1660 Melrose Reg. Rec. I. 297.
Thomas McGoune … cam to the said moss to leid home sum peits; 1668 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 21.
(c) The samyn Sounday his servandis and hors war apprehendit laiding coillis to his pannis; 1584 Kirkcaldy B. Rec. 102.
(d) I … saw my nighbour begin to lead in his beer; Hay Diary 142.
1682 Peebles B. Rec. II. 106.
1686 Dunkeld Presb. II. 469.
(b) To ane man that led ane dosane of aisler stanes … frome the kirk ȝaird to the buriall ȝaird vj s. iiij d.; 1591 Edinb. D. Guild Acc. 460.
(c) Frae the corne be lede of the erde; 1402 Reg. Panmure II. 184.
Al owre gudis … to be distrenȝit, away led, and sald; 1423 Wemyss Chart. 48.
Thai sal haf all thair gratht redy … within viij dais eftir thair corne be led in; 1508 Reg. Cupar A. I. 274.
The spulȝe led away was knaw full rycht; Doug. ix. vii. 193.
Ane haill crop … to … be led to yard or barne to be thrashin, windoit, and dycht; 1547 Blackfriars Perth 240.
The rest of the parochiners who had not ledd in stones for a mending of the West Kirkyaird; 1632 Culross 174.
(2) (a) Ilkane a draucht in the ȝere to led, tymmer, or burd; 1478 Reg. Cupar A. I. 212.
To the cartaris that ledis the Kingis treis, in drinksilvir, v s.; 1505–6 Treas. Acc. III. 186.
Full pover to him … to cast led vin and away led the samyn [peats]; 1595 Douglas Bequest 85.
(b) Dicson suld tak … his hors and his weid, … a drawcht off wod to leid; Wall. ix. 1610.
I … leidis coilis to sell; Rauf C. 49.
Leidand coillis he ȝeid To Paris the way; Ib. 595.
His gait quhair he suld leid his mwyk within his delt daill; 1511 Alloway Baron Ct. MS.
The inqueist ordanis to gar gadder stanis to Peblis brig egis, … and gif ony wantis to leid maa; 1556 Peebles B. Rec. 235.
And to leid sa mony of the teindis as presentlie ar unset; 1565–6 Reg. Privy S. V. ii. 30/1.
That nane bring in cornes to thair stabillis, nor yet leid with slaiddes in the nycht; 1607 Peebles Gleanings 24.
[After the corn has been teinded] the owners … may leid the stock, leiving the teynd upon the ground; Hope Major Pract. I. 222.
(c) I must haue the teind hay to my horssis and they most lied it and stak it into the barneyard to me without anay expensiis of me; 1644 E. Loth. Antiq. Soc. IV. 32.
(d) To caus value the tithes which they wer accustumed to lead; 1630 Stirling's Royal Lett. II. 450.
That none within this barrony lead any of their cornes unteynded; 1662 Stitchill Baron Ct. 25.
Quhen they are leading faill or clay; 1682 Peebles B. Rec. II. 103.
(b) Of all his teyndis … I have discharges for a yeir; He gart me pay thame or I ledd thame; 1584 Sat. P. xlv. 874.
Alexander Cuming is bruitit … that he lead burne on Sonday last; 1603 Elgin Rec. II. 113.
Newlandis … led corne in harvest on the Sabboth daye; Ib. 117.
To Ja : Black for meat to his horse and man that ledd stones to the leaping-on-stone, 4.0; 1675 Cunningham Diary 53.
(c) The cornez now being one the thride of Reras sall be led and wonnyne be the said Thomas and stakkit in the ȝard of the Hilhous; 1491 Acta Conc. I. 205/2.
Fra the tyme the cornis be sawin quhill it be schorne and led; 1530 Aberd. B. Rec. I. xxxix.
Thair arr few heritors amangest us, … sum of thame hes thair teinds set to thamsellfis, … bot the teinds of sum arr ledd; 1627 Ch. in Orkney 279.
To give him his hous … to duell in, and burne the peites led standing in the cloiss; Spalding II. 290.
Teynd led, bot not exacted so long as my lord hes richt; 1644 Lochwinnoch Par. 171.
The toun furnishing rough stones att the shore quherof some is led and the rest lying in the kei; 1676 Rothesay B. Rec. 345.
(b) The lardis pettis was in radynes to be leyd; 1604 Urie B. Ct. 6.
Leid; 1614 Ib. 13.
(c) Having … caused cast my kain peats in the moss properly belonging to me; and being intended to have lead them this day; 1698 Maxwell Lett. II. 347.
(3) absol. The cairters to yoke at 6 hours in the morning and leid till 1 hours; 1645 S. Leith Rec. 63.

b. To bring in, in this way, the produce of (certain land). The maillers they ar obliged ay and while the goodman take the land in his owne hand, … to leid in alse muche land as will sow sixtine bolles, which he reserves in his oune hand; 1656 Craig-Brown Selkirkshire II. 390.
[To pay the minister the sum of ¥700 Scots yearly, with privilege to] draw or leid the aikers [belonging to the town of Urr]; 1667 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Deeds I. 112.
480 aikers about St Andrews, called the prior aikers … led in by the heritors and tenents themselves; Martine Reliq. Divi Andreae 171.

c. Said of the animal or the vehicle: To carry or draw (goods or produce). (1) Ane medow that the Kingis hors eit quhen tha led treis to the poll of Erth; 1507–8 Treas. Acc. IV. 103.
To xv hors leidand faill fra the commone myre to the abbay; 1533 Ib. VI. 163.
The said John sall furnis … as many colis burges leidis as tua hors may leid; 1546–7 Stirling B. Rec. I. 46.
And four horse on day to lead corne in harvest tyme; 1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Deeds I. 366.
(2) To Patrick Kowis cart ledand aistlaris of Colrois fra Leitht sandis; 1529 M. Works Acc. (ed.) 2.

7. To bring, take or carry, more generally. That bred He gawe the batwartis hym to lede, And on the sowth half him to sete; Wynt. vi. 1992.
Gif a man be tane apon ane otheris sauf condyt, traistand in it that it suld sauf him and lede him seurly to and fra his trystis [etc.]; Hay I. 181/8.
[Five] of hys awne to berynis he gart leid [: deid = dead]; Wall. iv. 498.
Wp was he [a bird] takin and in a garding led, Amang thir herbes thai haf maid him a bed; Fyve Bestes 151.
In case any schip past furth nocht … haifand the said seillis … the vicount … may leid theme with him as thingis forfalt to iustice; Bisset II. 234/18.
Robert Dickie … deponit … there was water vsed and bread led in the house dores; 1629 Dundonald Par. Rec. 280.

b. To lede ane lawar saill: see Law a. 1 b.

8. a. Of a road, passage, ladder, etc.: To lead in a certain direction, to a place, etc. tr. and absol. or intr. Gyf he … wald Kene me the gat that mycht me led To the flume Jordane in mast sped; Leg. S. xviii. 843.
Than lukit he wp agane And saw … ane ledder wp for to leid [: hed = head]; Seven S. 2060.
To lyf that leddir sall thé leid; Montg. Devot. P. iii. 26.
To caus calsey the croce gaitt that leidis throw the laird of Lugtouns lands; 1598 Edinb. B. Rec. V. 215.
Guide … me in the way of veritie that laides to the gloire of heavvin; Hamilton Facile Tr. Pray. 3.
I found a gallery which ledde from the kitchen to your owne lodgingis taken away; 1624 Misc. Abbotsf. C. 259.

b. tr. Of a water-channel: To conduct (water) from one place to another. Ane dam … throw the quhilk ane water passage cumis, leidand and conduceand the water fra the dam to the miln; Balfour Pract. 493.

9. tr. To guide or direct; also, to pilot. lit. and fig. Thai … rowit … apon the fyre That thai saw byrnand … It wes bot auentur that thame led; Barb. v. 27.
‘Ga we furth than,’ said the king, ‘Quhar he, that maid off nocht all thing, Lede [C. leyd] ws’; Ib. viii. 263 (E).
As to this … God gave us ane ensample quhen he led his peple in the desertis; Hay I. 211/6.
The sycht … makis thé knawleginge, And ledis thé; Ratis R. 125.
Profettis … Says prayer ledis vengans by; Ib. 1356.
His awne ressoun that is … his bowat to leid him fra myrknes; Irland Mir. fol. 201 b.
Pluto thy hede of kyn … To hell to leid thé; Kennedy Flyt. 536.
It becumis ws nocht to leid the religioun quhat way we wald, bot that we reather suld follow it, quhat way it wald leid ws; Winȝet II. 26/1, 3.
Ane loidisman undertaketh to leid and convoy ane schip to ane place; Bisset II. 258/6.

10. fig. a. To guide or direct, influence or sway, in respect of behaviour, to induce (to something, to do something). Said of persons and of non-personal agencies. (a) Na radnes micht thame leid [: dreid] … to fle the preis; Alex. i. 2612.
So me our Lord leid [: deid = death, steid = place, reid = direct]; Howlat 457.
The end … sall … put vs to confusioun, Ȝone seuin maisters leidis ȝow in sic abusioun; Rolland Seven S. 6776.
Leid vs not into temptation; G. Ball. 4.
Gif thai heir not the law, quhilk suld thame leide, Than sall thay not in ony wayis beleif; Ib. 41.
Kirkmen that vyceis hantis And leidis ws arreir; Maitland Maitl. F. xv. 28.
Lat never harlat cum ȝou neir That wald ȝou leid to leychorie; Id.
Ib. xciv. 79.
To ane godlye … lyfe … throuch his exemple … he walde leid thame; Dalr. I. 221/11.
(b, c) Nocht trocht dwt na awe led bot frely & wyd gude wyl; 1389 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 16.
Who may [be] led by meknes That so wykede o traytour He may spar; Troy-bk. ii. 1514.
Quhare that mercy tays na stede Bot all wyth awe and grew is lede; Wynt. v. 2744.
That sche wes nocht coackit nor witht drede led be hir sade husbande; 1501 Dunferm. B. Rec. 338.
For the weir thai clepe and call, Led by the power and frawart godhed Of cruell Juno; Doug. vii. ix. 93.
Comperit Johne Makquillespi … nocht … led with errour weil and maturlie aduisit; 1538 Breadalbane Doc. No. 49.
He wes … Withwemen counsalit and led; Lynd. Mon. 3328.
To be iugeit wylfull and led be sum phrenesie; Winȝet I. 4/8.
How be tha iuglours tha [princes] haue bene blindlynes led; Lauder Minor P. i. 331.

b. To bring (to a certain condition). Nothyr dede, na dreid, Till sic discomfort suld thaim leid, That thai suld eschew the fechting; Barb. xi. 414 (E).
It mytht happyn sone one hand … To led ws in-to syk distres; Troy-bk. i. 90.
The reule off resowne … Sall thé noucht lede [W. Sall nocht be led] in that straytnes; Wynt. iv. 1950.
For his yowthed To that nature wald hym lede; Ib. viii. 5946.
His men him hates as the dede; To his tynsall thay will him lede; Alex. ii. 1550.
For desyre of thy will … sall lede it till ane end be the will of almychty God; Hay II. 78/15.
Quha ledis man to sik knawlege that he knawis the thing that sal be in tyme to cum? Wisd. Sol. 208.
Destanye … That led men in langour ay lestand inly; Gol. & Gaw. 1227.
He chesis the seiknes of the saull that is syn and ledis to the deid eternale; Asl. MS. I. 64/17.
Idolatrie … hes had dominioun Lang ledand to distructioun The maist part of this warld; G. Ball. 173.
Death … dois lead the saule vnto saluatioun; Lauder Minor P. i. 701.

11. a. To guide (a pen), to write. With Romaine hand he could weill leid ane pen; 1567 Sat. P. iii. 49.

b. To guide another s hand in writing, esp. in p.p. in the formula accompanying the signature of an illiterate person. (1) The said Mertyn Myllar has subscribyt this writin wyth his hand, the pene leid, befor thir vytnesis; 1513–14 Prestwick B. Rec. 45.
With my hand leid at the pen be Robert Merser, noter; 1545 Grant Chart. 94.
I, James Stewart, … with my hand at the pen, and led with the hand of Maister Thomas Briden, notar; 1552–3 Lochwinnoch Par. 42.
The said Johne has subscriuit the pairt remanent with the said abbot, with his hand at the pen led be Den Peter Trent; 1558 Reg. Cupar A. II. 268.
Alexr Forbes of Bruchtis, at the pen laid be Maister James Forbes; 1559 Grant Chart. 283.
Louk Wilsoun, with my hand led be Alexr Guthre, clark; 1560 Edinb. Old Acc. II. 116.
With my hand let at the pene; 1574 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. 268.
Thomas Robertsoun and Robert Millar with our handis led at the pen be the notaris undirwrittin at our command becaus we can nocht wreit our selfes; 1589 Edinb. Archit. Assoc. Trans. IX. 133.
(2) The maister most lead the hands of yong beginners; 1640 Dundonald Par. Rec. 467.

12. tr. To govern, rule (a country etc.); to command (an army, party of men etc.); to rule, have the tutelage of (a person). Also intr. or absol. This sense appar. chiefly or only Sc. Cf. Gyde v. 2. (1) Alexander … , That Scotland haid to steyr and leid [: deid = dead]; Barb. i. 38.
Fortrassis that war then Gouernit and led vith Ynglis men; Ib. x. 156 (C).
[God] grant … that thar ofspryng Lede weill the land; Ib. xx. 615.
Titus … Off Rome lord and empryoure … lede thre yhere wytht honoure; Wynt. v. 832.
Howthe byschapys … led thare state and thare poware; Ib. vi. 1346.
I rede we … ask leif at the lord ȝone landis suld leid [: meid = reward] That [etc.]; Gol. & Gaw. 49.
Ane barne … Is nocht ganand ane kinrik for to leid; Stewart 1518.
(2) Ynglis men … Till the battall that schir Eduard Gouernyt and led held straucht thair vay; Barb. xii. 499.
Persianis … That Marciane had to leid and steir That couth thame weill and wourthy lede [: deid = death]; Alex. ii. 1614, 15.
Ib. i. 336, 2491, ii. 377, 2767, etc.
The thrid heght Schir Bantellas, the batal to leid [: manhede, reid = read, leid = people, nation]; Gol. & Gaw. 655.
Thair … was chossin the Earle of Angus to leid the wangaird; Pitsc. II. 92/13.
ij m Frinchemen leid be Monsr Dosuell ane thowsand Scotismen leid be my lord duik; Ib. 152/19, 20.
(3) Decest scho was, God tuk hir spreit to leid [: sted = place]; Wall. ix. 1532.

13. To manage (one's faculties); to conduct, manage (affairs). Cf. Gyde v. 2. For-thi is profytable to led [: ded = death] Sa weill and warly thi spekinge; Ratis R. 204.
The tueching of thi handis … suld be led with gud kepinge; Ib. 230.
[God] Sa evynly ledis al about That with a balance baith haldis hee, To wey baith caus and qualytee; Ib. 1183.
Ay the gretar senȝory Suld leid thar stat mar mesour by; Ib. 1473.
Scho wrait him to so that he wald hir wed Baith hous and all suld at his will be led; Bk. Chess 662.

b. reflex. To conduct oneself, behave, act; also, to manage one's affairs. Only in early works. Cf. Gyde v. 3. In vertuise … He … sa can hyme-selfe leyde [: dede = death] That … thai … Mad hyme abbot; Leg. S. xxx. 833.
Now sen sa gud [men] before oure dayis Thus led thame; Wynt. v. 2760.
The pepill of Ireland … led thame all be fretis wyle, Nowcht be the lauche off the ewangyle; Ib. vii. 1410.
Thai … can nocht weil thaim selwyn led [: deid = deed], Bot infortune thaim in-grewys; Ratis R. 1174.
Ib. 1016.
I traist thou may come to … haboundaunce … of wisdome to … lede thé the rycht wayes; Hay II. 85/19.
Scho … Hummylly hyr led, and purchest a gud name; Wall. v. 601.

14. tr. To deal with, treat (a person) in a certain way. Only in early verse. (1) Tharefore … suld thai [preists] Be tretyd and led honestly; Wynt. v. 3968.
Malcolm … than gert he Be throwch the land traweland … Wyth honest curt and cumpany To lede and trete hym honestly; Ib. vii. 1170.
Be scho [one's wife] in langour led and blam Scho wyll forȝet quhat is scham; Ratis R. 945.
To kirk-men do thai euir honore And ledis thaim in al fauore; Thewis Wysmen 248.
At thar come Arthurs folk so led, That thai war ay abaysit and adred; Lanc. 2661.
(2) He sa hard his fais led That he baith blude and harnes shed; Alex. i. 1065.
Thare schewit wele in to that stound That he ane hard pais can thaime leid; Ib. 1139.

b. Also said of impersonal agencies and in the passive: To afflict, to be afflicted. Bot the great blude that he hes bled And the heit als sa hard him led That he suouned; Alex. i. 3258.
Ib. ii. 10204.
He lyes at home into my bed, Right as I were with sickness led; Sir Eger 2066.

15. a. To conduct (warfare). = L. ducere bellum. This is nocht the noble fassoun of the weris that worthy knychtis … was wount to lede in the anciene custumes; Hay I. 241/32.
I … With a pepill sa feill ȝheris weir sall lede; Doug. i. i. 83.
O Latyn folkis … na weirfar with ȝour pepill led I; Ib. xi. iii. 28.
We intend to lede this batall with oure awne expens and surname alanerlie; Bell. Livy I. 214/24.
The saidis Equis … couth leid batall bettir quhen thai war skatterit in mony handis; Ib. 243/15.

b. To perform, take part in (dances): cf. sense 2 b. Common in this use in ME.: cf. also L. ducere choros. Sum sang ryng sangis, dansys ledys and rovndis, With vocis schill; Doug. xii. Prol. 193.

16. To go through, pass, live (one's life or a portion of it); espec., to lead a certain kind of life, to spend one's life in a certain manner or condition. (1) For quhill a thryll his lyff may leid [: deid = death] It merrys him, body and banys; Barb. i. 270.
Vith warldis fud was scho nocht fede In al the tyme that scho thare led; Leg. S. xvi. 797.
Quhethyre thu be man or wyfe, That in that cawe ledis thi lyfe; Ib. 871.
Fyfty ȝhere hys lyff he lede, And mekyll off sakles blwde he schede; Wynt. ii. 11.
His sone as of bounte … passit all that lyfe micht lede [: dede = dead]; Alex. ii. 4247.
Quhen his awin him hates as deid [I] ask how lang he lif may leid; Ib. 6699.
Ib. 8238.
The savage citizens, which life did leed In wods and waters; Mure Dido & Æn. iii. 123.
(2) (a) Hir lyfar had bene ded Than sic lyfe ony tyme to led; Leg. S. xlvi. 84.
Quhar he sicker his lyf mycht leid [: sted = place]; Troy-bk. ii. 2872.
[They] Leddys thare lyff on ferly wys; Wynt. i. 672.
And leid thi lyf with thaim that thé louis for the day of the vnstedfast lyf; Wisd. Sol. (S.T.S.) 424.
I leif forsuyth, and ledis lyfe as ȝe se, In al hard chance; Doug. iii. v. 66.
Leidand ane langsum lyfe; Stewart 20244.
Than sal I … for ay my life in langour leid; Rolland Seven S. 9223.
Ȝe lusty ladyis, luke The rakleslyfe ȝe leid; Scott iv. 2.
Leyd nocht thy lyf lyk ane elf That our the feild can slyde; Maitl. F. lxxvi. 51.
Thay walde leid a lang lyfe frie from al seiknes with a verie smal portione of kitschine meit [etc.]; Dalr. I. 91/26.
(b) [They] led thar lyff in gret trawaill; Barb. i. 23.
Manis conuersacione He fled, … & strat lyf leide; Leg. S. xxxvi. 277.
Scho … led hyr dayis a quhile in pyne; Wynt. iv. 145.
Scho … langit … To se quhat lyf scho led wnder the wand; Henr. Twa Mys 18 (Asl.).
Thar was a wretchid wyf Gaderit gret gold and led a wretchid lyf; Bk. Chess 1589.
(c) Thai fand … twenty thousand men … that in pyne lang quhile Had leyd thare lyf in that exile; Leg. S. xxi. 802.
Saynct Nynyane … Led hys lyff in halynes; Wynt. v. 3490.

b. To live a life of, endure (distress). c. To enjoy, possess (high station, dignity). Some sueris … That he will de … Bot gife that he hir freindschip feill: That garris him sic langour leid [: speid]; Mersar Bann. MS. 269 a/10.
To be his son in law, and forto led Equale dignite with him in that ryng; Doug. vii. iv. 142.

17. To administer (the law or laws). See also Law n.1 4 a (2) and Lauch n., for further examples; and cf. also Ledar n. 6. The jwrysdyctyowne he lede hale And punysyd exces and trespas; Wynt. viii. 3286.
Thi jugis als that is [v.rr. as, hes] justice to lede [: fede = enmity]; Regim. Princ. 197.
At Litusstratus, quhar thai led thar law; Makc. MS. iv. 24.
I pray to Jesu Chryst verrey, … To be our help on Domysday Quhair lawis are straitly led; Henr. III. 100/112.
Dissimvlance that dois ȝour lawis leid; Stewart Bann. MS. 88 a/45.
Within this realme to leid iustice and law; Rolland Seven S. 1323.
Maitland Maitl. Q. li. 44.

18. To conduct (legal proceedings) as judge or as party; to hold a court or conduct a cause, bring an action, deliver a judgement. Also transf. Appar. only Sc. Gywe thare be ony that lykis The lawch for to se led off this, … To Cowpyr in Fyffe than cum he: Welle led that lawch thare sall he se; Wynt. vi. 2294, 98.
The decrete than sene and red, And the electyown in lawch all led; Ib. vii. 1846.
How he made hym his court to lede Qwhen this Makduff entryd in plede; Ib. viii. 1599.
For and I had gevin power to my procuratour in parlement to lede a process for me [etc.]; Hay I. 179/35.
The actioun … tuiching the inordinate process quhilk thai led as schereffis in that part direct be the Kingis lettrez in the action depending betuix [etc.]; 1474 Acta Aud. 32/2.
Without prejudice of the richt [of] the said Schir Johne Sandilandis proces led or to be led apon the said Andro Dure of the landis of Wester Corswod; 1482–3 Acta Conc. II. cxiv.
That a perambulacioun beled one the saidis landis this day xx dais; 1495 Ib. I. 416/1.
That the breif of ydeotry quhilk is to be led on the said Thomas … be full seruit apoun him; 1510 Stirlings of Keir 295.
Be resoun of eschete throw dome of forefatour led upoun the said Andro; 1516 Reg. Great S. 418/1.
The said process being lede to this cowrt … he … comperit nocht; 1524 Reg. Episc. Aberd. I. 390.
Compeirit Mr. George Young … and producit ane proces of recognitioun, ordourlie led at thrie sindry heid courtis; 1544 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 207.
That how sone the sentence and dyvors led betwix him and Isobell Balfoure, … that he sall … complete the band of matrymonie with the said Gryssale; 1550–1 Lochwinnoch Par. 28.
That … ye … leid na proces therintill aganis the saidis complenaris quhill the returning of oure saidis airis; 1551 Boyd Fam. P. No. 31 (30 June).
[The] sentence … was declared wicked, ungodly, and wrangusly led; 1563 Act General Assembly 25 June.
For fauour of freindis, nor fois feid No wrang decretis thay aucht to leid; Lauder Off. Kings 442.
The censowris of the Kirk to beled aganis thame; 1590 Edinb. B. Rec.V. 340.
The forfaulter led against Jon Earle of Lenox is rescinded as inorderly led without any furder proces; Hope Major Pract. I. 275.
Commission was given to some brethren to lead processe against a number of these bishops and commissioners; Scot Narr. 55.
It shall not be lawfull to any persone to be clerks to the deduceing of compriseings which are led by dispensation within the toune of Edr or to services led befor the macers, except they be writers to the signet; 1672 Acts VIII. 87/2.
transf. Quha will befor thire bukys rede, This proces as I hawe led in dede Fra Adam throwch the Yryschery Sall fynd [etc.]; Wynt. vi. 2312.

b. (Whatever legal proceedings an attorney, executor etc.) ledis to be done. Hafand … ferm and stabyl quat thyng so euer the saydis Adam … in thaire ofis of procurature ledis to be doun; 1423 Buccleuch MSS. 33.
I haldand … ferme and stablis quhatsumever … my schyreff-depute in the said office in my name lauchfulli ledis to be done; 1447 Reg. Great S. (1450) 71/1.
Quhatsumever my … balye ledis or dois richtwisli in my name; 1450 Ib. 84/1.
All and quhatsumevir thingis … my procurator in the said matir ladis to be done; 1481 Instr. H. Scheves MS.
All … thingis the saidis procuratouris lauchfully leddis to be done; 1493 Acta Aud. 174/2.
He … to do hant and excerce … quhatsumevir his saidis executouris … dois or leddis to be doin; 1580 Prot. Bk J. Scott 98 b.
Quhatsumevir oure saidis counsalouris … leidis to be done; Bisset I. 81/16.

19. To bring forward, produce (witnesses, testimony or evidence). Also earlier north. ME. (Cursor M.): otherwise appar. only Sc. He that ledis wytnes in ony playnt; Bute MS. 158.
Gif ony man … be jugit … to bring furth witnes or pruff again his perty aduersar … the perty deffendour beand absent the pruff may [nocht] be lede withoutyn sacrament; Acts I. 377/2.
Maister Andro renuncit to impreif the said instrument or led ony preif agane it; 1491 Acta Conc. I. 201/1.
My ressons and richtis to schaw, my pruffis witnes writtis and documentis to produce and leid; 1500 Ib. II. 473.
The richtis, ressonis and allegacionis of batht the said parties … led, herde, sene and understandin; 1503 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 430.
[George Yong] accusyt Thome Greif of iiij b. of beyr, he allegyt to leid a knawlage; 1508 Prestwick B. Rec. 40.
The inquest … fyndis the prufis leid be Thomas Sandersone clerlye prefis that [etc.]; 1514–5 Selkirk B. Ct. fol. 38.
The laird … decernit faltis that was giffin up in the grandrie … without ony preiff led thairupon; 1576 Orkney Oppress. 45.
He is leading witnesses and fitting processes and discovering the truth and falsehood of everything; Durham Comm. Rev. 24.
The persewar haveing led Neill M'Neill, [etc.] … as witnesses; 1668 Rothesay B. Rec. 148.
Full power … to conveen all such Scotts merchants and factors … as he hes to lead as witnessis; 1669 Conv. Burghs III. 620.
Absolves Robert Carsan elder [etc.] … be legall probatioune led and received be William Maxwell of Caigtoune aganist them; 1678 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. MS. (13 Nov.).

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"Lede v.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 8 Jul 2020 <https://www.dsl.ac.uk/entry/dost/lede_v>



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