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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1963 (DOST Vol. III).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Kepe, Keip(e, v. Also: kep; keipp, -pt, keyp; kyp, kip(e, -pp, kyep, kiep; keep(e, -pp, keept,; keap(e, -pp, -pt; kepp-; kayp. P.t. and p.p. kep-, keip-, keepit, -ed, etc.; kepte; keipt, keept, keapt; keipd, keepd; kepe, keip, keep(e. [ME. kepe(n (imper. kep, p.t. kepte, also (14th c.) kipte, p.p. i)kept), OE. cépan (c 1000), of obscure ulterior etymology.Some, chiefly early, examples of the spelling kep are included here, being regarded as standing for kēp (and in some instances confirmed as such in rhyme), and having other senses than those exemplified under Kep v.]

To keep.Illustration of the forms (see also senses 3 and 6):(a) 1425 Acts II. 11/2.
The schiref sal … ger kep thaim in festynance
c1475 Wall. ix. 1201.
Send [= sent] furth a man, thair horsis put to kep [: sleip]
1517 Acta Conc. MS. XXX. 25.
That the followar ay kep the diet
1567 Dundee B. Laws 366.
To observe irreuocablie, kep inviolablie … the acts [etc.]
(b) c1420 Wynt. vii. 1670.
In that castelle, Quhare thai gert kepe hym wondyr welle
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 84.
Justice to kepe without excepcioun
1560 Rolland Seven S. 325/11.
This quair … now kepand meteris feit
(c) 1469 Acts II. 97/2.
[To] keip na ma haly days na is biddin
1543 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 192.
That euerie nychtbour keyp his awin bak yett
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 926.
It is ill to gar a cow dance and keip all the stots
(d) 1456 Peebles B. Rec. I. 118.
A sartan som … the qwylk he had geyfyng hym … to kyp
1518 Chart. Coupar A. II. 118.
Gyff the saidis abbot [etc.] … war in possessioune … to kyp thaim thair in
1564 Inverness Rec. I. 119.
To relyf and skaythles kyp the sade Donald
15.. Misc. Spald. C. II. 193.
God kyep yow
1599 Reg. Great S. 306/2.
Kiepand the mairche-stanes … quhill it cum [etc.]
(e) a1578 Pitsc. I. 168/6.
The duke … fled out of his said castell and left men to keipt it
1647 Edinb. B. Rec. VIII. 138.
That the janitor keipt clos the utter gates
(b) a1400 Leg. S. xxvii. 343.
He kepyt ay his innocens
c1420 Wynt. I. 461.
Thare fadyr … Wytht eys and honowre thai hym kepyd
a1500 Seven S. 443.
The torris foure His face wele kepit fra the erd
c1500-c1512 Dunb. lxxxiii. 13.
Ȝe keipit tryst so winder weill
1600-1610 Melvill 137.
Bischope Adamsone keipit his castle
1659 Rothesay B. Rec. 285.
In regaird sho keipet not hir day
(b) 1648 Hope Diary 149.
[In a dream] I keeped his [a lion's] body in my neive
1665 Lanark Presb. 104.
If they keeped the anniversary day
1672 Kirkcudbr. Skeriff Ct. Processes No. 159.
The fourtnight he kepped them [cows] in ane unlawfull pondfald
(c) a1598 Ferg. Prov. MS. No. 120.
Smug the smith … Sold al his toolis & yit he keipt his vice
1682 Fraser Polichr. 184.
If they keept not their own meaths and marches
(d) 1611-57 Mure Misc. P. xxi. 56.
Heavens … Thy royall person from the cradle keap'd
(e) a1500 Doug. K. Hart 279.
Desyre lay stokkit by ane dungeoun dure Ȝit honestie keip him fair farrand
(c) 14.. Acts I. 362/2.
He that is actor folowand aw to be kepyt withoutyn scath
1467 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV. 403.
That ale … thir accordans … sall be … keippite
1530–1 Maxwell Mem. I. 260.
A now … frendschip to be obseruit and kypit betoux the saydis erles
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. clxxv. 5.
Kipit is na auld kyndnes
1624 Justiciary Cases I. 18.
Our burgh … quhairin our said justice court was keipit
1670 Aberd. B. Rec. IV. 262.
Ther wer severall defunct persons put in the chapill … and keepit ther for ane nights tyme
(b) 1570 Leslie 21.
Quhill this order was keiped in Scotland, thair was gryit trubillis in Fraunce
1649 Lamont Diary 12.
[She] was … caried to Edenbroughe wher she was keiped fast
1651 Strathbogie Presb. 209.
That the sessioune was not well keepped by some of them
1668 Kirkcudbr. Skeriff Ct. Deeds I. 226.
[Six cows] to be … keeped and walked with the said John … his awne kyn
(c) 1549 Soc. Ant. XI. 88.
Dauid Sinclar … inordourlie keipt within his firmans
1558-66 Knox I. 103.
Upoun promes … which, as it was keapt, the ishew will witnesse
1584-9 Maxwall Commonpl. Bk. Prov. No. 22.
Fyre the more it is keipt doune the more it flameth wpp
1614 Fraser P. 116.
Quhair the marcatt is keept
1677 Inverness Presb. 85.
Shee was … keipt in a most drumly condition
1686 Stuart Joco-Ser. Disc. 70.
Sike a hubby-shew was keep't
1691 Conv. Burghs IV. 130.
The measurs keept by Jedburgh
1736 Stirling B. Rec. II. 236.
[A field] keept and sett apart for grassing the milk cows
(d) 1672 Brodie Diary 332.
Thes that ar laid by, and thes that ar keipd and admitted
a1686 Turner Mem. 20.
Upon a very ill made accord, or a very ill keepd one
(e) 1513 Doug. i. vii. 93.
The quhite tentis of Kyng Rhesus, evill kepe [Sm. keip], Betraisit war apon the first sleip
a1568 Bann. MS. I. 43/73.
Thocht a man be keip in pressone [etc.]
c1600 Montg. Suppl. xxxiv. 40.
That bothe the heven and eik the arthe Ar keip in stor for fyre
c1650 P. Gordon Brit. Dist. 128.
They could not be keepe longer togither
1670 Dunkeld Presb. II. 80.
The congregational fast was keep this day
a 1700 Haigs of Bemersyde 476.
Which marches are trewly keepe on each syd as each uther's propertie

1. tr. To meet or receive (a person). a. To meet in resistance, encounter. b. To receive amicably, welcome, greet.Only in early verse.a. 1375 Barb. xiv. 158.
His battalis he arrayit then, And stude arayit in battale To kep thame, gif thai vald assale
Ib. 197.
Soyn with thair fayis assemblit thai, That kepit thame richt hardely
b. c1420 Wynt. vii. 2126.
Rychard … come … In till Ingland agayne hame, And thare hym kepyd the Kyng Willame
Ib. viii. 6864.
Syne to Lwndyn browcht wes he, And kepyd wyth gret solempnyté Wyth lordis and mony Inglis men That blyth was off his cummyn then
c1475 Wall. ix. 314.
Quhat nedis mor off curtassy to tell? Thai kepyt weill that to the Scottis befell
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 178.
The knight kepit the king, … With lordis and ladyis of estate, Met hym furth on the gate

2. intr. a. To have regard or care for, to care about (const. of, also trans.). b. To concern oneself, care to do something. c. To give careful attention to, till. d. To take care (to do something, that something is done).Only in early texts (chiefly verse).a. c1409-1436 Kingis Q. cxli.
More joy in erth kepe I noght bot your grace
?1438 Alex. ii. 2031.
I kepe na lufe, loud na still, Bot Cassamus, quhill at he will
Ib. 3749.
I keip nocht of sic messinger
c1460 Regim. Princ. 265 (M).
Justice kepis nocht of no cosingnage, Off hie lordschip nor ȝit of greit linage
b. c1475 Wall. viii. 544.
Yhe may knaw weill that rycht ynewch we haiff, Off his souerance I kep nocht for to craiff
a1500 Colk. Sow i. 120.
I keip nocht now to commoun, All beistes for to blasoun
c. c1420 Ratis R. 1019.
And, gud sone, serue a mychtty man And kep weil to thi labour than
a1570-86 Maitl. F. cxxx. 41.
He kepand eftir syne Till his honour and myne, Bot now he gais ane vther gait
a1570-86 Shaw Maitl. F. cxlvi. 29.
Keip weill to ȝour cours and rewle ȝour rudir
d. a1400 Leg. S. iii. 216.]
[The juge … dange hym in a dongeone depe, That he na schapit, bad to kepe
1456 Hay II. 99/21.
Draw to thé … the hertis of thi subjectis … and kepe to be nocht irefull na injurious aganis thame
Ib. 104/23.
Kepe wele that thou failȝe never of thy hechtis
Ib. 108/28.
Kepe wele that thou have na traist in wommenis werkis

3. tr. To observe, comply with, adhere to or abide by (a commitment entered into, an obligation imposed by authority, or a principle of action or living); to fulfill.With the objects exemplified below and such others as allegance, allia, (one's) aith, (a) band, bidding, (a) command, concord, equite, faith, fidelite, (one's) hecht, hospitalitie, lawté, mariage, mesure, pece, (the Kingis) protectioun, sauff condyt, temperance, vowis, etc., examples of which are to be sought under the nouns. The opposite of Brek v. 6 a. Sometimes coupled with observe.(a) a1400 Leg. S. xxvii. 896.
That he Wald … cristine fay Fra thine furth treuli kep alvay
c1460 Thewis Wysmen 270.
Thar obseruans to God thai kep [: sleip]
1501 Dunferm. B. Rec. I. 118.
Vrangvislie scho deferris to kep him nychtburhede
(b) 1375 Barb. xix. 190.
And eftir syne war trewis tane … The Scottis men kepit thame lely
c1450 Cr. Deyng (S.T.S.) 268.
He … that treuly kepys this informacione … he beis sauit
1515 Treas. Acc. V. 44.
To cause gud reull to be kepit
(c) 1424 Acts II. 5/2.
That thai ger keip the lawis anentis the Setterday slop
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 647.
Quhow that we suld keipe commandiment
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xxi. 55.
The kirkmen keipis na professioun
1622-6 Bisset II. 159/29.
He keipis na guid congruitie in his alleged concordance
(d) 1427 Peebles B. Rec. 120.
That he sal kyp the samyng ordenans
1451 11th Rep. Hist. MSS. Append. vi. 26.
Al thir condecionis lelely and trowly to be kyepit
1516 Thanes of Cawdor 127.
Failyeand that we … or our aris kippis and fulfillis all thir poyntis above wrettin
1617 Conv. Burghs III. 45.
The … burgh to sie good ordor kiped at the said fisching
(e) 1558-66 Knox II. 297.
To keap wourd of that quhilk thei promeisse
Ib. 298.
That the quenys majestie wold keapt promeisse made unto thame

b. To comply with or conform to (a prescribed weight, price, measure, verse metre, etc.).(1) 1471 Peebles B. Rec. I. 166.
Scho that keppis nocht prys and brekis it
a1500 Bk. Chess 2118.
Euer the alphyne kepis colour ay
1529 Edinb. B. Rec. II. 17.
At thai keip the wecht and pais of the ij d. laif
1585 James VI Ess. 57.
Ȝe sall keip iust cullouris
(2) 1487 Acts II. 178/2.
That the barell bind … sulde kepe & contene the assise & mesour of xiiij gallonis
1521 Selkirk B. Ct. fol. 89 b.
Quhar the bred kepis nocht the wycht, the baxter to be in viii [s.] unlaw

c. To abide by, abstain from encroaching upon (a boundary, etc.) (Cf. sense 6 d.) 1437 Reg. Dunferm. 285.
Thai sel kepe the wateris lauchfully vnskathand vthir
1451 Reg. Brechin I. 163.
At he obserue and keipe the landymeris and merchis of the said landis as thai war deuidit betuix thaim

4. a. To attend punctually at, to keep (an appointed meeting, time or place). a1400 Leg. S. xxx. 332.
Scho kepyt the trist wele scho hicht
1498–99 Acta Conc. II. 322.
To keip the sade place at the day of warnyng
a1500 Bk. Chess 1576.
Thir folk suld kepe thair terme
1579 Edinb. B. Rec. IV. 109.
The … counsale foirseing … the appointit dayis and houris … to be ouersene and nocht keipeit
1604 Elgin Rec. II. 122.
The minister to keip the glas and no farder
1628 M. Works Acc. XXI. 18.
[Workmen] keiping thair houres fra Lambes to Hallowmes
1681 Red Bk. Grandtully II. 256.
I hav … keept my time to yow in sending your annual rents

b. To give due or regular attendance at.(1) 1513 Selkirk B. Ct. 28 a.
To schaw one the morne … quha kepis nocht the wach
1607 Lett. & St. P. Jas. VI 118.
Chois wes maid of twa of thair number to keipe the colloque at Halyruidhous
1662 Soc. Ant. XXII. 262.
She had kepit severall metings with the divill
1700 Misc. Spald. C. III. 181.
Being knowne … to be … wagabonds, and keeping the mercats in their ordinary manner of theiving and purse-cutting
(2) 1570 St. A. Kirk S. 337.
Decernit … to observe and keip his paris kirk
1606 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 55.
The … officieris and seriandis … kepis not the sermones
1663 Moray Synod 133.
My L[ord] B[isho]p to write the Laird of Altar to keep at Raffart now his parish church

c. To observe or celebrate (any religious or other ceremony or festival or other special occasion). 1456 Hay I. 165/35.
I se nocht that men of were settis thame to kepe the haly day
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xliii. 14.
Thay do no mis bot gif thay kis And keipis collatioun
1562-3 Winȝet I. 84/25.
Nothir keipand the ceremonie expressit in the euangel
1602 Bk. Univ. Kirk III. 993.
If ther be any superstitious dayes keipit, be setting out of banefires
1623 Elgin Rec. II. 179.
That Tuysday nixt ... be keepted as a day of thanksgiving [etc.]
1662 Stitchill Baron Ct. 23.
It is statute … that the brydell be made and keiped within this barrony in all tym cumeing

5. a. To keep (faith, friendship, peace, or the like) to, till or with another. c1475 Wall. vii. 34.
Thai men to me has kepit treuth sa lang
Ib. xi. 316.
That king till him kepit kyndnes and luff
1483 Acta Aud. 119/1.
Ilkane sal kepe frendschip & kindnes to vther
a1538 Abell Chron. 54 b.
He kepit pece with the Saxonis and Pichtis
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. cvii. 6.
With thi nychthour keip chirrite
1650 Misc. Spald. C. V. 230.
That they keip gud nichtbourheid ilk ane to wtheris

b. To kepe (a) gude (lele, honest, etc.) part to or towardis a person: see Part n.

6. To guard, defend or protect, actively by force of arms or by keeping guard or watch over; also, to provide security for, to keep safe, safeguard.a. lit. Also reflex. and absol. Freq. said of God, an angel or a saint, as in the invocation God keip ȝou. b. transf. and fig.a. (1) 1375 Barb. xi. 445.
That him-self suld wele Kepe the entre with his battale
?1438 Alex. ii. 3796.
The Bauderane drew his feiris on ane To kepe the poun [in chess] or he war tane
c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 217, 219.
And now allone ... It is not kepte ... But of o prest the which that ay It kepte with ryght crafty cure
1456 Hay II. 163/19.
Thy subjectis suld be kepit as thy tresouris
c1475 Wall. iii. 91.
His face he kepit, for it was euir bar, With his twa handis
Ib. vii. 967.
That toune thai may nocht kep; The wallis ar laych, suppos the dyk be depe
a1500 Bk. Chess 1230.
Scho was so kepit euery daye & nycht That to this woman come no erdlye wicht
Ib. 1760.
To thair gestis suld thir folk be leile, Thar gudis kepe
a1500 Seven S. 1956.
I sall fande to kepe him now, For with me sall he sit [etc.]
(b) c1500-c1512 Dunb. li. 20.
He is an mastive mekle of mycht To keip ȝour wardroippe ouer nycht
1543 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 192.
The consell ordanis … ane new port of stane … to be wachit and keypit be the four quarteris of this burght
1560–1 Edinb. Old Acc. I. 344.
To the foure officiars that keipit the Newe hevin that na battis suld pas furth
a1578 Pitsc. II. 251/9.
Edinburgh was … keepit be fyve hundreith men of weir
(c) 1558-66 Knox II. 44.
The Inglis schippis … war able to keape the whole Firth
Ib. 271.
The doorwas keapt that nane should have entres
(2) reflex. c1475 Wall. iv. 246.
The wachman … At Wallace strake, bot he kepyt hym weill
(3) absol. ?1438 Alex. ii. 10320.
How he couth baith assail and keip
c1475 Wall. ix. 336.
Rycht few may kep, quhar nayn is to assaill
(4) a1400 Leg. S. xli. 152.
Goddis angele … That kepis me bath nycht & day
1401 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 380.
God kepe yhur estate as we desir
1490 Irland Mir. 144/9.
Oure humyll fadere, … kep ws, deliuer us
c1515 Asl. MS. I. 193/23.
Our souerane lord … quhom God kepe and conserf
1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 58.
Fairweal and God keip ȝou
1567 G. Ball. 197.
Preistis, pray na mair … to Sanct Bryde to keip thy cow
b. a1400 Leg. S. xxxi. 95.
Sancte Paule That tacht men to kepe the saule
1412 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 389.
Ilke man … sal stand gaird and … kepe the comone profite of the tovne and the fredomys of it
c1420 Wynt. iii. 876.
Gyve yhe wyll yhoure lyvys kepe
a1500 Bk. Chess. 249.
The wand … of iustice … Kepis a king his crovne of maieste
Ib. 1537.
Deformit was his face … to keipe his chastite
1549 Compl. 3/31.
[Your ancestors] hes kepit and deffendit the liberte of ther subiectis
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 1235.
Na mair a doe, bot saul to keip and honour to luke to

c. Const. fra, frome : To guard, defend, protect, preserve, save (from). Also reflex. lit. and fig.(1) 1375 Barb. xvii. 176.
All that fell till stuff of toune, Thai kepit that fra distroying
1456 Hay I. 295/29.
To help to defend and kepe it [the church] fra all temporale inymyes
c1460 Dietary i.
For heill of thy body, kep wele fra cald thi hede
1472 Peebles B. Rec. I. 168.
Thai sal kep the sayd hill … fra all bestis and gudis bot hors and calwys
1533 Douglas Corr. 141.
That I sal kep the sad hows frome awl dengars
15.. Wyf Awcht. 32.
Keip weill the gaslingis fra the gled
1585 Edinb. Test. XIV. 246.
Gif scho kepis hir bodie frome huredome
reflex. c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 118.
To keip me fra the cummerans of that carll mangit
1538 Lynd. Justing 28.
Now keip thé fra my knokkis
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 1014.
Keip yow weil fra the Devill and the lairds bairnis
(2) a1500 Henr. Fab. 350 (A).
Allmychti God kepe me fra sic ane feist
Ib. 2764 (H).
God keip the lamb … Frome wolfis byte and fell extortioneris
15.. Sym & Bruder 124.
God saif him, … And keip the man fra manting
1533 Gau 96/25.
O heuinlie fader, keip vs fra diplesour of thé and fra the euerlestand payne of hel
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 606.
God keip us fra untymouse kitching

d. To protect or maintain against encroachment or claims. = Defend v. 2. Chiefly const. to, till (= for) another. (Cf. 3 c.) 1406 (1427) Reg. Great S. 17/2.
To kep and warand and defende tha said landis to the said Jon … agayn al men and wemen dedlyk
c1420 Wynt. v. 3054.
Deputys behynd hym he lefft To keipe Brettayne till hym tharefft
1500 Acta Conc. II. 433.
To kep and warrand til him the mariage of the sade Robert
1529 Reg. Episc. Aberd. I. 396.
Kepand and obseruand commond passage be the said brig … to all pepill
1550 Reg. Cupar A. II. 94.
Thai sall kepe to the pure men at ar tenentis now thair takis and malyngis
1674 Reg. Privy C. 3 Ser. IV. 239.
[It is ordained] that all common highgates frae the dry borrowes to the ports … be observed and keeped, and that none make them … stop thereintill

e. To uphold or maintain (justice, peace, and the like). 1456 Hay I. 217/20.
But Fraunce has ay kepit and manetenyt the faith our all Cristianitee
a1500 Bk. Chess 1071.
The prince suld aye attend To keipe iustice & his pepill defend
1513 Doug. ii. vii. 115.
Ane the maist just man … Amang Troianys best kepand equite
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xx. 6.
Keip justice, peax and vnitie

f. To keep a check upon, guard (one's hands or tongue). c1420 Ratis R. 201.
Thi tunge … may do gret amendment And it be kepit wertuowsly
Ib. 266.
A gracious thing … Is to kep weill thin handis tway
1540 Lynd. Sat. 2241.
Lat every man keip weill a tung, And every woman tway
a1538 Abell Chron. II* a.
Tung suld be weil kepit

7. Said of things: To serve as protection to, to protect or preserve. Also with clause complement or fra.(1) 1456 Hay I. 142/28.
Bathe armouris … to kepe thair corps, with armes invasives as spere, suerd … to defend the corps with
Ib. II. 45/25.
The stelyn hat kepis the knychtes hede
c1475 Wall. iv. 226.
The bryg was doun at that entre suld keipe
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xi. 29.
No castell sall thé keip, nor touris
1558–9 Edinb. Old Acc. I. 296.
For ane bois lok and bak band to keip the dure
1570 Leslie 27.
In his tyme he causit the rashe bushe keipt the cow
(2) 1456 Hay II. 46/13.
Sa kepis the sadill him that he be nocht lychtly put fra his hors
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. cix. 23.
Warme claythis ar bettir for me To keip fra cald Nor in dame Venus chamber be

b. To withstand, be durable or proof against. 1644 Aberd. B. Rec. IV. 16.
Ane thousand weycht of the best sort of metal that keips fyre best

8. To watch over (sheep, cattle, etc.) as a shepherd or the like. Also fig. b. To mind or have charge of (an animal) as a keeper.(1) 1456 Hay I. 114/2.
The knychtis ar nouthir ordanyt to labour cornis … na to kepe bestis othir na hors
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2492.
Swa war he [the wether in the dog's skin] wes and walkryfe thame to keip
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxii. 66.
Jok, that wes wont to keip the stirkis
1603 Reg. Privy C. VI. 527.
His hirdis that wer keipand his guidis
a1598 Ferg. Prov. MS. No. 442.
Give never the wolf the wedder to keip
(2) fig. a1400 Leg. S. xl. 152.
I wyl thu mad bischope be & hird, to kepe goddis fe
1626 Garden Worthies 95.
Thow keept the congregatione whill it calm'd
b. 1506 Treas. Acc. III. 200.
To Andro Broun that kepit the lioun in the Abbay
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xxi. 11.
Lordis … scant hes ane to keip thair mule
1666 Sel. Biogr. (W.S.) I. 137.
The boy that waited upon me and keeped my naig

9. To attend to the well-being of, look after, tend, have the charge or tutelage of (a person). a 1400 Bute MS. fol. 174.
Of a schipman falland seke, … the maystyr … aucht to get hym a woman or a man to kepe hym
c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 1625.
Thir two sonnes … War gevin in tutory and keping To king Teuteus to kepe and weild
c1420 Wynt. III. 1022.
Thir twynnys twa he … bade hyr kepe thame tendyrly
1456 Hay II. 109/12.
Quhen thai [sc. women] thé kepe in thair cure thou art nocht wele kepit
a1500 Doug. K. Hart I. 82.
With feistis fell … This cumlie court thair king thai kast to keip
1524–5 Selkirk B. Ct. 110 b.
That she vas kepand Jhone Brydin quhen he vas seik
1639–40 Misc. Spald. C. V. 105.
To sum sogeris that war keiped in the craftis hospitall

b. To maintain and provide for, to have as a guest or dependant. a1400 Leg. S. xxxvi. 827.
[They] hyme askit ful angrely The dekine that to kepe tuk he
1570 Leslie 47.
The King … causit him to be keipit and intertyneid honourablie all his dayis in the Abby of Lundoris
1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 28.
The Quene and hir moder wer kepit be him rather lyke presonaris than princessis
1594 Bk. Univ. Kirk III. 826.
Jesuits … keipit, huirdit and intertenyit in sindry pairtis

c. To keip table to (a person), to provide with daily meals, to board. 1564 Edinb. B. Rec. III. 184.
The stewert … to keip table to him [Goodman] vpoun the townis expensis [and the treasurer to pay the same weekly]

10. To have the care of (a thing). a. To look after, attend to, tend. b. To have under one's management, control or command; to supervise or govern. c. To have the charge or custody of.a. c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 217, 219.
And now allone ... It is not kepte ... But of o prest the which that ay It kepte with ryght crafty cure
c1420 Ratis R. 122.
Thi fyve wyttis … Thow kepyt thaim nocht tendrely
1609 Skene Reg. Maj. II. 82.
Ane man rydand vpon horse sould keipe the forther feet of the horse that they doe na skaith
b. ?1438 Alex. ii. 8076.
Thow sall haue, to keip and steir, The ferd battale
1440 Acts II. 55/2.
The castel of Kildrummy … to be kepit be the said lord of Erskyne to the kingis … age
1456 Hay I. 268/1.
Thus aw the lord to kepe the felde [of combat] and se that rycht war done till every part
1622-6 Bisset II. 211/7.
Frauchting and laidnyng of schippis suld be keiped be the maisteris and officeris of burrowes
c. 1444–5 Peebles B. Rec. I. 9.
That thai sal kepe and gar kepe at thair gudly power buke, vestment [etc.] … left … til the said altar
1483 Acta Aud. *123/1.
[He is to] serch seke ressaue kepe & intermett with the gudis of the said Robert
1514–15 Selkirk B. Ct. 37.
Stewyne of Lawder to kep the commoun seil
1570 Peebles B. Rec. 319.
Vnto the tyme he deliueris all the scrowis that is in his hand kepand to the commoun clerk
1591 Edinb. Test. XXIII. 275 b.
The lord Jesus … is abill to keip my gagis quhilk I haue committit to him

11. To keep in proper order, to keep up, uphold.(1) 1375 Barb. iii. 712.
It wes gret cunnannes to kep Thar takill in-till sic a thrang, And wyth sic wawis
1472 Peebles B. Rec. 168.
Thir four personis sal kep and huphald the sayd dikyng
1506 Treas. Acc. III. 330.
To Caldwell that kepis the furnes of quinta essencia in Strivelin
1547 Reg. Privy C. I. 73.
That bales be set and kepit … apoun the places following
1682 5th Rep. Hist. MSS. App. 610/1.
To a man keips the bouling grein
(2) 1550 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 277.
That tha may caus mak inuintour thairof to be keipit
1629 Aberd. Council Lett. I. 299.
For not seing if thair clerkis keipe ane register of thair infeftments
(3) a1500 Rauf C. 960.
Than Schir Rauf gat rewaird to keip his knichtheid
1592 Edinb. Test. XXIV. 59 b.
The said Johne … sould gif him ȝeirlie to keip his purs with in honestie the sowme of tuentie pundis
1662 Haigs of Bemersyde 473.
Given … to learn him the tylor trad 03, 00, 00; item, to keep his pokit 00, 05, 00

12. a. To carry on, conduct (an establishment, business or the like). b. To conduct, hold (a court, meeting, market).A more common synonym is Hald v. 7 and 8.a. 1507 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 437.
That nay onefreman keipe oppin butht within the burgh
1575 Misc. Maitl. C. I. 126.
To put ordour to ane bordaill allegeit kepit be ane Urquhart in Grayis clois
1633 Lithgow Poet. Remains 93.
These latepast dayes, when … nobles keept good houses
1639 Glasgow B. Rec. I. 397.
That nae mae Inglisch scoolles be keipit or haldin … bot four only, with ane wrytting schooll
b. (1) 1518 Elphinstone Mun. 10/1.
I … Archibald Erle of Angwissche schall not … keipe her courtis, nor medle in the same
1629 Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. III. 92.
James Maxwell … hes laitlie keeped and haldin twa courts at the brigend of Dumfries
1679 Kirkcudbr. Skeriff Ct. Processes No. 281.
Whoe tooke upon him to presume in ane maner to keep court upon the said Samwell and therby finded him
(2) 1513 Dunferm. B. Rec. I. 192.
That the mercat day of the said burch be kepit oukly
(3) 1650 Aberd. B. Rec. IV. 116.
James Ritchie sall keip and haue on dyet of catecheising wpon the Sabboth day

13. To keep (animals or things) for one's use as part of one's establishment. 1509 Prestwick B. Rec. 41.
Gif it be t[h]ocht expedient to kep ingres, mak ane hird to the ingers
1609 Skene Reg. Maj. i. 1561.
Gif stallangers … keipes or halds hand mylnes
1639 Acts V. (1870) 606/1.
That it shall be lawfull … for all persones to keip horsis for hyring

14. a. To have in use or practice, and b. To continue to practise, sustain, keep up (an action, practice, state of mind or body, etc.) c1460 Thewis Gud Women 122.
Kep feris of women at are wys
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxix. 18.
Quhen men … Passis to drynk or to disione Than mon I keip ane grauetie And say, that I will fast quhill none
1513 Doug. 909/93.
Kepand na facund rethoryk castis fair
a1538 Abell Chron. 2 a.
Abstinens in meit Scottis men kepit lang tyme
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 1364.
With ma woundis … Nor euer had man that keipit lyfe
1560 Rolland Seven S. 215.
Ȝe ar conionit ane fflesche and saulis twa, Than keip guide lufe
1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 48.
Yit he tareit with the regent to keip ane cullour of honestie
1581-1623 James VI Poems I. 211/81.
The chylde … did ueip To sie thaire motheris geuing milke suche dulfull gesture keip
15.. Cath. Tr. 249/3.
The hail doctrein allowed be the general concils and keiped be lineal succession from tyme to tyme
1591 Warrender P. II. 165.
I … now to long keped silence till your fame … have interpelled me
1674 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. MS. 24 Jan.
John Sproat and Helen Ewart ther being discharged to keep societie except in kirk and mercat
1689 Reg. Privy C. 3 Ser. XIII. 536.
The corospondancie keeped by some of the officers … with the Viscount of Dundie

15. With complements. a. To maintain or preserve, in the condition specified.See also sense 25.(1) a1400 Leg. S. xxxvi. 466.
Virginite That ay vnuemmyt kepit he
1461 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 22.
That man … sal … kepe the toun vnscathit … of all dettis
(2) c1420 Wynt. vi. 1075.
The tend part thai kepyd qwyk, The lawe thai wald all sla
1499 Dunferm. B. Rec. I. 99.
The vrangvis deferryne to kep him wattertycht
1530 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 130.
That ther be alanerlie thre portis kepit opyn
1602 Conv. Burghs II. 152.
To sie that the watter of Clyid … be keipit clene
(3) 1564 Reg. Privy C. I. 281.
[To] be clengeit and kepit apart be thameselffis for ane tyme
1590 Welwod 67.
The victuals quhilks were keepit apart
(4) 1643 Acts VI. 8/2.
Kiped captives or sent away quyte naked
(5) 1700 Aberd. B. Rec. IV. 328.
The entrants to be keeped reading Latin the first quarter
(6) a1500 Seven S. 1038.
Thus in all way was Janot kepit
1535 Stewart 35777.
Richt closlie ȝit tha keipit all this thing, Ȝit unreveillit
1583 Reg. Privy C. III. 603.
Ane sufficient dyke, able alsweill to keip [cattle] in as to hald owt
(7) a1400 Leg. S. xxix. 829.
God … But filth of syne me kepit has
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Flyt. 221.
Than carlingis cryis, Keip curches in the merk
1543 Corr. M. Lorraine 41.
Quhat pyne I may indure to keip the contreth at rest
1583 Reg. Privy C. III. 602.
To keip his cattell furth of the said wod
1641 Glasgow B. Rec. II. 46.
How the books ar keeped to the fore from yeir to yeir
1641 Acts V. 591/2.
To keip the saides wayes and passages in thair bread and integritie

b. refl. To maintain or keep oneself, as specified. 1456 Hay II. 109/19.
Kepe thé … out of the handis of a medicinaire
a1500 Prestis of Peblis 16.
For company thai kepit thaim so coy
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 3304.
Sardanapalus … in huredome … Did keip him self so quyetlye
1558-66 Knox II. 356.
They that fled keapt thame selfis apart from the few nomber that war marching … in ordour
1584 Colville Lett. 50.
Quhat restis moir bot to preserve thair lyif, … keping thame self, as the auld E ll of Angus said, to be loos and levand

16. To maintain one's place in or at, to remain or stay in (a place).To kepe rowme, to keep one's place in order, take one's turn. To kepe the crown of tke causay, to occupy the centre of the road, hence fig., to occupy the dominant position; to kepe the causay, to remain on the street, to show one- or itself openly.(1) ?1438 Alex. ii. 10244.
Here mon thow duell, … And keip this land quhill domisday
1456 Hay I. 175/6.
Sen he gerris him first mak him faith to kepe [supra hald] prisoun
a1500 Doug. K. Hart 389.
Our lang, madame, ȝe keipit thir hie towris
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xlii. 58.
Ay the wawart kepit Thocht
1534 Prot. Bk. J. Cristisone (S.R.S.) No. 146.
To keip his chalmer … and pas nocht furcht of it
1581-1623 James VI Poems I. 167/505.
Soldatis, suearlie keiping home
1678 Kirkcudbr. Skeriff Ct. Processes No. 264.
Nor dar I keip my oun bed leist he com in to me … and stab me unawars
1679 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. MS. 19 July.
Evrie fisher … sall evrie twa boatis of them keep ther poollis ordinarlie
(2) 1522–3 Edinb. B. Rec. I. 216.
Anent the keiping of thair rowmes … The first myln that he gryndis on he sall pas and tak furth the laif of his quheit … and gif he takis it nocht furth, it sall kep na rowme and nocht to be ground quhill his nixt rowme cum about
1615 Urie Baron Ct. 15.
Quhasoewer cwmis to the mylne first with their corneis sall keip their rowm
(3) 1635 Rutherford Lett. (1862) I. 149.
Truth will yet keep the crown of the causey in Scotland
1661 Wodrow Hist. (1828) I. 254.
Now profanity and dissoluteness lift up the head … and keep the crown of the causey
?1661-5 M. Bruce SoulConfirmation (1709) 16.
I do not doubt but the soul-confirmmed that keeps Gods way shall gete the crown of the causay keeped before their days end
(4) 1661 Wodrow Hist. I. 125.
Gross profanity … retired from the streets and durst not keep the causey
1686 Reg. Privy C. 3 Ser. XII. 200.
The petitioners pay … is exhausted … and he run in debt and not being able to keip the causay unless something be allowed bim

17. To continue on or along, to keep to, to follow (a course, route or way). b. transf. To keep or adhere to. 1504 (1584) Reg. Great S. 239/2.
And thairfra keipand the said burne of Lochtie quhill it cum to the Thiddeiphauch
a 1568 Sempill Sat. P. xlvi. 52.
Steir be the compas and keip hir rowt
a1599 Rollock Wks. I. 435.
Can ane wod man keip the hie gait? Na, bot ay he mon go to ane side or other
1624 Misc. Abbotsf. C. 144.
Ȝe … keipit not the hie gait but went in throught the cornes
b. 1587 Aberd. Council Lett. I. 31.
Ane contract to be extendit heiron … keipand the substanciall heids

18. To hold as a captive or prisoner, to confine or detain; also, to keep or confine in concealment.(1) 1375 Barb. xviii. 512.
He … bad … luk he kepit war stratly
a1500 Seven S. 263.
Schir, garris kepe him quhill the morne
1545 Douglas Corr. 157.
I vos put ... in preysone and ther kaypit long
1609 Skene Reg. Maj. ii. 801.
Ane furious man should be keiped by his friends or imprisoned be the … schiref
1670 Kirkcudbr. Skeriff Ct. Processes No. 71. (22 Nov.).
Ignorant whither the hous could have keeped hir that night or not but that the door was broken
(2) c1475 Wall. ii. 277.
Rycht couertly thai kepe him in that caiff Him for to sawe
Ib. iv. 259.
Wemen and barnys … He gert be tayn, in clos hous kepyt weill
Ib. ix. 1387.

19. To hold back, detain, delay. b. fig. To hold back from prospering. 1622-6 Bisset II. 257/18.
Gif the merchand … keipis the maister … fyftene dais … the merchand is … to mak the maister ane amendis
1638 Johnston Diary 339.
I praysed God … that he had keiped me in this toune by my wil
1666 Laing MSS. I. 352.
As shonne as I came my Lord Commissioner gave me his Majesties letter to read, which keept me till all had spoke round
b. 1650 Brechin Presb. 23.
Marat said to him, Because ye have stricken my daughter I shall keep thee. Ye shall not t[h]rive this yeir

c. To restrict or limit to. 1622-6 Bisset II. 225/12.
The spulȝe … of cleithing [etc.] … that beis fundin upoun … men of weir in the saidis prysis … sall appertene to the … men of wear takeris thereof, and gif there beis fundin any mair it salbe keiped to the buitting of the said ten crownis

20. a. To keep one person or thing fra (= away or apart from) another. Also reflex. c1420 Wynt. 12 15.
He gert dissewyr fyrst and kepe … the gayt fra schepe
1535 Stewart 1949.
Scho suld be keipit closlie vnder cuir Baith fra hir sone and hir progenitour
1567 Sat. P. v. 21.
Had thay keipit thame self fra ȝow And langer taryit in thair strenth
a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 881.
Keip thyne then frae myne then, And ilk ane vse thair awin

b. To keep back, restrain, prevent, fra or from (doing) something. 1471 Peebles B. Rec. I. 167.
Swyn … [to be] kepyt fra thair nychburis skayth
1554–5 Edinb. Old Acc. I. 140.
To lay the haill knok [etc.] … all ouer with reid leid to keip thame fra rousting
c1650 Spalding I. 92.
Thir thrie covenanting ministeris intendit to preiche, bot the tounes ministeris kepit them therefra
c 1680 Macfarlane's Geog. Coll. II. 211.
He could not be keept from thift

21. reflex. To preserve or restrain oneself, to refrain or abstain. Also intr. Const. a. fra, from, or out of something or doing something, b. infin., and c. clause. d. To be on one's guard, to beware (of (for) something).b, c, and d only in early texts.a. 1375 Barb. III. 200.
Kepys ȝow fra disparyng
1456 Hay II. 130/15.
Kepe thé than fra grete travalis that hetis mekle
a1500 Bk. Chess 1764.
Thir folk suld kepe thaim out of glotony
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 187.
A still man is a castell and keips him from wo
intr. c1460 Wisd. Sol. 846.
Al wysmen suld … kep fra ill and do gud
b. 1456 Hay II. 85/10.
To kepe hym to do or say … vilany till ony person
c1460 Thewis Gud Women 165.
And our al thing kep hir in kirk To kek abak
c. 1456 Hay II. 130/7.
Than suld folk kepe thame that thai ete nocht excedandly
c1460 Consail Vys Man 59.
And als thu kep thé our al thinge, Thow be neuer taynt with a leisinge
1461 Liber Plusc. I. 387.
God [h]as gevyn ws wyt … To keip ws that we eir nocht opinly
d. c1460 Wisd. Sol. 347.
Men suld … kep thaim and beware fore the ill day

22. To retain hold or possession of, not to give up, to retain. In various lit. and transf. uses. c1475 Wall. ix. 1935.
Off ryches he kepyt no propyr thing, Gaiff as he wann
1487 Acts II. 183/2.
That … oure said souerane lord obserue & keip his priuilege foresaid
a1500 Bk. Chess 83.
He couth nocht kepe Intill his mynd the dremes of his sleipe
1513 Doug. vii. xvi. h.
Eneas nurys, Caieta can deces, Quhar ȝit the place kepis hir name
1535 Stewart 3423.
For to caus their lawis keip the strenth
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xcviii. 58.
Castell toun or land Thai will it not restoir Bot keip it thair sell
1585 James VI Ess. (S.T.S.) 69/8.
With memorie to keip quhat he dois reid
1590 Edinb. Test. XXI. 323 b.
Incais the said Margaret keip nocht hir wedowheid
1591 Aberd. B. Rec. I. viii.
Four ald … buikis … to be keipit for a monument
1597 Misc. Spald. C. 187.
Thow … bad hir kep that tablet and hing it about hir dochteris craigis
1600-1610 Melvill 86.
Ther he falles in a phrenesie and daffing, quhilk keipit him to his deathe
c1616 Hume Orthog. 14.
The sound of it we … also keepe befoer a, o, and u; as canker, conduit, cumber

b. To keep (a secret, counsel). c1515 Asl. MS. I. 275/28.
Tell neuer thi counsall to wemen for thai can kepe nain
a1500 Seven S. 696.
Kepe ȝour secretis
a1540 Freiris Berw. 449.
It salbe kepit counsale as for me
1560 Rolland Seven S. 8463.
Thairfoir I wald ȝe keipit all counsell

23. To withhold from present, keep back for future, use; to conserve, save. b. To keep back, reserve, to (for). a1500 Bk. Chess 1969.
Fer mor werteu it is To kepe a pund than wyn ten pund
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 369.
I full craftely did keip thai courtly wedis, Quhill eftir dede of that drupe
1596 Dalr. I. 6/22.
Ale … of quhilke sort nocht only is keipet for ane ȝeir … bot evin for fyue ȝeirs
1630 Aberd. Council Lett. I. 317.
I leave to the toun … sex hundreth merks … to be kiepit, used, bestowed or imployed … at their pleasure
b. (1) 14.. Burgh Laws vi (B).
Playntys ... the qwhilkys sa be kepyt to the commyng of the iustyce
1472 Peebles B. Rec. I. 168.
To kep Kadmowr to kow and kapyll, … and the wester hill to chep
1491 Acts II. 227/1.
That the commoun gud of all … burrowis … be obseruit and kepit to the commoun gude of the toun
a1500 Seven S. 236.
It was … to ȝour swet ȝouthhed That I haf kepit my madinbed
1597 Misc. Spald. C. I. 101.
Thi mother … desyrit the said Margret Leyis to keip to hir ane pint of the beist of the said cw eftir scho was calfit
(2) 1531 Reg. Soltre 104.
He sall put nay bestiall vpon the inland girs bot to be kepit for the provestis bors

24. To keep in store or deposit, to store; also, to store up, hoard. a1447 Bower Chron. II. 232 n.
In strait placis gar keip all stoire [= cattle]
1483–4 Edinb. B. Rec. I. 49.
That na fische be haldin nor keipit into houssis
1513 Doug. viii. Prol. 97.
Sum trachour crynys the cunȝe, and kepys corn stakkis
1540 Treas. Acc. VII. 397.
Ane boist to keip hoistis in
1598 Aberd. B. Rec. II. 168.
That na inhabitant … by victuall in smallis … and gadder the same in gryt and keip the same to ane darth
1608 Glasgow B. Rec. I. 285.
Na maner of … fuilȝe sould be had, laid or keippit vpone the streitis
1669 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 348.
The said Edward … did by the wholl fruit … and put them in Butill barne to kep till he cowld gett them caried to mercats

b. To serve as storage-place or container for. c1420 Wynt. iv. 82.
Cysternys he gert be maid depe, Fylth or wattyr for to kepe
1540 Maxwell Mem. 409.
Ane glassing lawwer that keippis walter to the mes
1560–1 Edinb. Old Acc. II. 133.
For biging of the fold for keping the lyme

25. With adverbs, as abak, bak, down, furth, in, etc., in various specialised applications. (Cf. sense 15 a.) 1596 Dalr. I. 78/16.
To keip aback slachtir that vset … to brek furth
1577 Reg. Morton I. 86.
We desire ȝow to keip bak ȝoure hand from making him ony new title
1643 Baillie II. 58.
The marqueisses … intim familiaritie keeped down the malcontents from anie stirring
1567 G. Ball 239.
Keip furth the hie way
1584 Edinb. Test. XIV. 171.
Gif the said Dioneis kepis furth his contract of mariage
1457 Peebles B. Rec. 125.
That ilk day was mayd pursmasster Mechal Forest … to kyp the common gud in and deliuer it furth with consent of the balye
c1700 M. Bruce Good News in Evil Times (1708) 68.
Thanks be to him that hath ay keeped in our black side yet, and hath no let the world see it
1683 Coll. Aberd. & B. 105.
The husbandman keeps in some of his grounds, constantly, under corn and bear … . Land thus keeped is called intown
1674 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 214.
For to keip his house togidder with the helpe of the milk
(1) 1556 Lauder Off. Kings 486.
Wa be till him that hurdis vp his corne, Syne keipis it vp to dearth
c1650 Spalding II. 358.
He had keipit wp mekill of thrie yeiris rent to ane darth
1671 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. MS. 1 Apr.
The victwalleiris keipis vp thair meill and will not bring the samyn to the mercat place in expectatioune of dearth
(2) 1650 Glasgow Wrights Acts 10.
[Assay-masters] sall still keep wp in secreit from him what is the peice of work
1672 Acts VIII. 84/2.
The suspendar … , if he have keiped vp the verifications and offer then to produce the same
(3) 1617 Acts IV. 537/2.
Where thair ar anye prisounhousis … that the same may be keipt vp and not suffered to decay
1662 Orkney Rentals App. 43.
That the inhabitants of Kirkwall ... as yett kepes up thair pew or seat in the kirk as magistrattis
1698 Penninghame Par. Rec. I. 27.
The bridges … being in former tymes keept up by the Session
(4) 1662 Soc. Ant. XXII. 223.
The Devil keeped up your heart fra confessing
(5) 1665 Lauder Jrnl. 61.
Its very rare to sy any of the women religious, they are so keipt up

26. = Kep v.(1) 1513 Doug. iii. viii. 18 (R).
Harknyng … With eris prest to keip the wynd or air
a1538 Abell Chron. 25 a.
The Albionis first o fer wsit thare bois, the Romanis kepit thame with thare scheldis
1602 Dundonald Par. Rec. 20.
He kepit the straik of the stalfe be casting wp the gairdis of the sourd
1605-6 Welsh Forty-eigkt Serm. 498.
There is never a stripe that his back keeped, but it will be a healing salve to thy soul
(2) 1676 Forbes Baron Ct. 301.
He hade gotten blood and called for a nepkyne from his wyfe to keap it
(3) 1597 Edinb. B. Rec. V. 360.
For seting of the puncheon to keep the watter in, … for ane puncheon to kep the watter in
1597 Misc. Spald. C. I. 144.
Thow tuik a knyff and keist ower the kow, and thy dochter keapit the sam
1688 Reg. Privy C. 3 Ser. XIII. 248.
They did sie the barme spring furth … and gott coogs and keeped it
(4) 1401 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 389.
Gif ony keip or persayvis ony schath aperand to the tovne, that thai mak warnyng vnder the said payne
1596 Dalr. II. 282/6.
The Erle Huntlei was verie discontent that Frasser kepit sik skaith

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