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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1963 (DOST Vol. III).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Lede, Leid, v. Also: led; leide, leyd(e, leed, lead, lied; lad(e, laid(e. P.t. led, ledd(e; lede, leid(e, lead(e; lad. P.p. led(d, (let); lede, leid, leyd, lead; laid. [ME. lede(n, ledde, leede, e.m.E. lead, p.t. ledde, ladde, p.p. led(d, lad(d, OE. lǽdan, p.t. lǽdde, p.p. lǽded, lǽd.]In 14–15th c. verse the pres. t. form rhymes most commonly with the words bred (bread), dede, deid (death, dead), hede (head), steid (stead, place) and others which are assumed to have had the pronunc. , but in Leg. S., Alex., Wall. and other pieces it rhymes also with deid (deed), speid (speed) and ȝeid p.t. and other words supposedly with the distinct pronunc. in : see espec. W. Heuser in Anglia XVIII. (1896) 116, 122–4, XIX. (1897) 335, 342, 346–7, examples quoted below, and the following:Leg. S. i. 48 (: dede dead), ii. 627 (: presthed), xviii. 104 (: brede), xli. 155 (: dede deed); Wynt. ii. 19 (: dede dead), vii. 270 (: dede death), viii. 1600 (: plede); Alex. i. 336 (: neid need), 1969 (: deid dead). 2544 (: deid death), 2491 (: steid place), 2705 (:steid steed). ii. 2767, 3220 (: deid deed), 7967 (: neid need), 8238 (: rede direct); Gol. & Gaw. 880 (: reid read, speid speed); Rauf C. 508 (: feid enmity, remeid, deid dead); Wall. ii. 198 (: speid speed), vi. 638 (: steid stead, place), ix. 700 (: deid deed); Seven S. 367 (: deid dead); Colk. Sow i. 396 (: heid head).In various senses answering to L. or med. L. ducere.

1. tr. To take or bring (a person) along with one, to conduct (to a place, etc.); also, to do so as a guide.(a) a1400 Leg. S. xxxv. 46.
Gyf thu wil I dele with thé, Led me quhare it is maste priue
1456 Hay I. 179/24.
He fyndis ane othir baroun … the quhilk … he ledis with him till hunting and hauking
Ib. 235/1.
Quhethir gif ambassadouris … brocht with thame the kingis inymyes, gif thai may leffully lede thame with thame throu his realm
1513 Doug. viii. vi. 126.
The myghty gret Enee Within hys narrow chymmys ledis he
1533 Bell. Livy II. 190/11.
Thai … desirit him effectuislie to lede thame agane to the tentis of inemyis
1570 Sat. P. xvi. 51.
He will leid him in the myre Thocht he hecht to defend him
(b) a1400 Leg. S. xvi. 621.
Sancte Petyr … his deuocione to bete, Hyme led to the monte of Olyvete
c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 3105.
[They] led thaim to gret Ilioun And gaif thaim entre thar in haist
?1438 Alex. ii. 3536.
Thay turned and ȝeid thare gate, Cassamus led thame to the bate
1535 Stewart 8077.
This wickit woman … till his chalmer led Weill armit men
1576 Crim. Trials I. ii. 52.
He … led hir to the dure with him
1596 Dalr. II. 173/30.
That Angus … led her with him quhair euer he gaid
(b) a1400 Leg. S. xxvii. 1081.
Sanct Machor till his herbry Sanct Ternane leid full reuerndly
Ib. xxix. 668.
Thane leid thai hyme in the ton
(c) a1400 Leg. S. vi. 269.
Thomas … me in paradice has lede
15.. Clar. iv. 2424.
The Kingis thrie war lede … Out of the kirke, with septour, sword, and croune

b. To take another person with one under the protection of (apon, in, under) a safe-conduct to oneself. In Hay. 1456 Hay I. 179/16.
Gif a man … has a sauf condyt, quhethir he may lede a gretter man na him self in his sauf condyt
Ib. /32.
A symple knycht may nocht lede a baroun … apon his sauf condyt
Ib. 180/18.
Under the sauf condyt of the king, he and all the lave that I have power to lede

2. To take along with one by going ahead as leader; to lead (an army etc.) along a certain course, to a certain destination, etc. a1400 Leg. S. xi. 408.
The forsad byschapis of that stede Al hale the puple with tham lede
?1438 Alex. i. 997.
As scheip that for the wolf takis flicht, He led the folk before him was
Ib. ii. 410.
Thair leder was auld Cassamus, That led thame to Tempill Marcus
Ib. 3928.
To Venus chalmer the ladeis ȝeid And the Bauderane thame can lede
1456 Hay I. 141/13.
As gif a capitane knycht of Lumbardy cummys in Fraunce … and ledis with him fifty men of were
1533 Gau 70/31.
God sal leid thaime vp to the heuine with hime quhilk ar deid in Christ
a1538 Abell 25 a.
Agricol maid ane brig of tre our Tay and sa led our his armyng
1566-70 Buch. Comm. on Virgil Æn. iv. 626.
In Italiam ducendos, that wer to be led with Aeneas to dwell in Italie
1596 Dalr. II. 332/28.
Alluret throuch this hope … he leidis ane armie till Northumbirland
1611-57 Mure Dido & Æn. i. 89.
Quhair ever thow dost leid, We follow thé

b. To go first in or lead off (a dance): cf. sense 15 b. See also Ledar n. 3.For to lede the ring (= ring-dance) and fig., to take the lead, act as ring-leader, see Ring n. and Ring-ledar n. a1500 Colk. Sow i. 298.
Swanky And … Copyn Cull … Led the dance and began
Ib. 396.

3. To lead (a person) by the hand or arm or the like. Also fig. a1500 Colk. Sow ii. 36.
This little maid … That leiddis me now sence my self may nocht se
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxvi. 88.
Quhen thay wer entrit in the dance … All led [M. lad] thay vthir by the tersis
Ib. xc. 35.
Ane blynde man is led furth be ane uther
1513 Doug. iii. vi. 35.
Syne me … he ledis by the hand Onto thi tempil
1558 Q. Kennedy Tract. 151.
Quhen the blynde ledis the blynde, baith fallis in the fowsie
1570 Sat. P. xvi. 6.
The cruikit leidis the blinde
1668–9 J. Fraser Lawfulness of Separation (1744) 189.
They were led by the sleeves as children
fig. 1456 Hay I. 18/5.
The devill … schupe … him to wirk with suteltee of ypocrisy, … ledand with him bath emperouris and patriarkis
15.. Dunb. App. iii. 24.
Sum led is lyk the belly blynd With luve
1563 Davidson Misc. Wodrow Soc. 227.
Men that is led up and doune with affectionis, blyndnes, and errour
1581 Sat. P. xliv. 262.
Bennet but pintle may be the hand thé leid

b. To take to (in to) wife.Answering to med. L. ducere in (husband or wife) in the same sense. 1397 Douglas Chart. 38.
At Jorge … lord of Angus sall led into wyfe a dochtyr of ovre lorde the Kyngys
1415 Reg. Great S. (1430) 39/1.
Huchon Fraser … sal lede in to wyf Jonet of Fentoun
1423 Wemyss Chart. II. 47.
Ane honorable woman, Dame Crystyane of Douglas, … the quhilk I think … to lede into wiffe

c. To take (a maiden) as wife. ?1438 Alex. ii. 10249.
To ioys lufe of lady fre, Na lede maydin maryit to be

4. To take or lead as a prisoner or by force. Also to lede (one) the way. Also fig.(1) (a) a1400 Leg. S. i. 596.
To wekit dede I sall ȝow lede [: ewill dede]
c1420 Wynt. iii. 262.
To bynd and led away Sampsone
Ib. viii. 6580.
Thaire presoneris wyth thame led and
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xiii. 17.
His fa sum by the oxtar leidis
1568 Anderson Collect. Mary IV. ii. 65.
To revische hir persoun, and leid hir to Dunbar Castell
1569-73 Bann. Memor. 62.
The howlat sall leid the beir to his baine
(b) a1400 Leg. S. i. 63.
Men lede hyre to the stede Quhar schow suld be put to dede
1496–7 Acta Conc. II. 68.
Thai tuke the sade Thomas Watsone … to … Edinburgh … and led him planlye in the sicht of the commone peple as he had bene … a theiff
c1515 Asl. MS. I. 223/22.
The forsaid Sir Gilbert … harllit & led thaim away rycht dispytfully
a1578 Pitsc. I. 45/17.
Ane companie of airmed men … leade thame out to the castell hill and … straik thair heidis fre thame
(c) 1375 Barb. xviii. 124.
[He] saw be led fra the fechting Schir Philipe
Ib. 127.
Be the armys led wes he With twa men
?1438 Alex. ii. 1993.
Ane chyld is … went To tell the maydins, … How the Bauderane was tane and led, Vnarmed and syne cled
1456 Hay I. 157/23.
Quhen he has tane him and led him hame
a1500 Seven S. 2238.
On the morne the empriour bad To the gallhous his son be led
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xlii. 8.
I was tane withouttin test, And led furth as a presoneir
1513 Doug. iii. v. 83.
In bondage away was thou nocht led
Arundel MS. 255/19.
Bund as ane theif so wes thou harlit & led, Till Herod had
1547–8 Cal. Sc. P. I. 82.
[The same priests, friars, & others,] ledd in halters like fals prelettes
a1578 Pitsc. I. 269/h. of ch.
Hou the King was leid out of the feild
(2) a1400 Leg. S. ii. 203.
Thre knychttis … quhilkis ledand hym the way Praide hym ȝarne [etc.]
(3) fig. 1562-3 Winȝet I. 37/21.
Blyndnes and … arrogance, leidand all peruersit erroneus men as captiuis
c1590 J. Stewart 74/52.
Scho … assayt Quhow that scho mycht in luifis leice him leed
1599 Rollock Wks. I. 414.
To tak kingis and princes be the lug, and leid them to Christ

5. To lead (an animal, or a person as one leads an animal) by halter, bridle, leash or the like; also with the vehicle drawn by an animal, the rider, or the bridle, as object. b. Freq. fig. a1400 Leg. S. xvii. 71.
Scho … mekly led hyme [a beast] as a schepe Tovart the folk, that hyme can kepe
Ib. xxxiii. 274.
Ta thi belt, & hyme [the dragon] lede, & about his hals knyt it sone
14.. Acts I. 323/2.
Gif ony … lattis his bestis thris enter in the forest … the forster … aw till … thris blaw his horn, efter that led the bestis to the kingis castel
c1475 Wall. iii. 213.
The Inglis knawis thai gart thar caryage leid [: dreid] To Clidis forest
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Flyt. 113.
Bettir thow ganis to leid ane doig to skomer
Id. xviii. 14.
Thocht he dow not to leid a tyk
1513 Doug. i. vii. 96.
Diomeid … till hys tent gan leid The mylk quhite horssis
a1538 Abell 93 a.
In the bridell he wes leden the quene in a ring with mony othir men & women
1558-66 Knox III. 182.
Evin sic as suld leid filthie dogis to thair vomit agane
1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. .
The said erle Bothwill leidand the quenis majestie by the bridill
a1598 Ferg. Prov. MS. No. 87.
Ane may lead ane horse to the water, bot four and tuentie cannot gar him drink
fig. c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxii. 49 (M).
Allace I can bot ballattis breif Sic barnheid leidis my brydill reynȝe
Ib. xxxix. 15.
Ane laird hes with him bot a loun, That leidis him eftir his devyce
1513 Doug. Conscience 3 (M).
Prelattis … Off conscience than the brydill had to leid
1529 Lynd. Complaynt 388.
Dame Prudence hes thé be the heid And temporance dois thy brydill leid
a1570-86 Maitl. F. lx. 27.
Of the law thow leidis the reyne

6. Commonly, To convey (goods or produce) by horse (or other animal) and cart or sled, or by packanimal, to cart or carry; also, to bring in (produce, teind-produce etc.) from the field to the yard In this way. Also absol., to bring in or transport goods.With various complements or without complement.See also Lade n.1 1 b.(1) (a) 1375 Barb. x. 165.
He vith his vayn suld ga Till lede thaim hay in-to the peill
1456 Hay I. 235/5.
The quhilkis [ambassadors] … hyris … hors and cartis … to lede thair gere with to Paris
c1475 Wall. vi. 659.
The Scottis all as swyne lyis droukyn thar, Off our wycht wyne ȝe gert ws thidder led [: ded = deed]
1511 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III. 107.
The said induellaris … hes castin batht pettis turffis and dailie ledand away
1615 Shetl. Sheriff Ct. 13.
That vmquhill Dauid Tullocht … haid passage … to … led the thack from the said comontie
(b) 1468 Peebles B. Rec. 158.
Yt was ordanyt that ilk nychtbur swld lay vj laid of stanis at the Kow furd, and that na man sal leid na clay fra thin
c1475 Wall. viii. 714.
Thai gert the king cry all thar merket doun, … That in thai boundis na man sould wittail leid [: deid = death]
a1538 Abell 48 a.
He ordanit at ilk man suld leid his teyndis to the kirkmannis barnȝard
1541 Elgin Rec. I. 65.
It sal be lesum to any nychtbor to leid the samyn quhair tha ples as thair awin propir guidding
1567 Prestwick B. Rec. 70.
At na man … beyr wrek or leyd wrek out of the se or se sand quhyl the sone rys
1569 Reg. Privy C. II. 56.
My Lord Regentis Grace will direct sum … servand … to teind and leid the teind schaves of the saidis landis
1583–4 Elgin Rec. I. 173.
That thai leid away all the middingis thairto presentlie thairupon
1660 Melrose Reg. Rec. I. 297.
To uphald the hous, leid out his muck, … and teile his yairde
1668 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 21.
Thomas McGoune … cam to the said moss to leid home sum peits
(c) 1570 Crail B. Ct. 14 Nov.
[To] transporte & leid away quhatsumeuer wair [etc.]
1584 Kirkcaldy B. Rec. 102.
The samyn Sounday his servandis and hors war apprehendit laiding coillis to his pannis
(d) 1659-60 Hay Diary 142.
I … saw my nighbour begin to lead in his beer
1682 Peebles B. Rec. II. 106. 1686 Dunkeld Presb. II. 469.(b) 1591 Edinb. D. Guild Acc. 460.
To ane man that led ane dosane of aisler stanes … frome the kirk ȝaird to the buriall ȝaird vj s. iiij d.
(c) 1402 Reg. Panmure II. 184.
Frae the corne be lede of the erde
1423 Wemyss Chart. 48.
Al owre gudis … to be distrenȝit, away led, and sald
1508 Reg. Cupar A. I. 274.
Thai sal haf all thair gratht redy … within viij dais eftir thair corne be led in
1513 Doug. ix. vii. 193.
The spulȝe led away was knaw full rycht
1547 Blackfriars Perth 240.
Ane haill crop … to … be led to yard or barne to be thrashin, windoit, and dycht
1632 Culross 174.
The rest of the parochiners who had not ledd in stones for a mending of the West Kirkyaird
(2) (a) 1478 Reg. Cupar A. I. 212.
Ilkane a draucht in the ȝere to led, tymmer, or burd
1505–6 Treas. Acc. III. 186.
To the cartaris that ledis the Kingis treis, in drinksilvir, v s.
1595 Douglas Bequest 85.
Full pover to him … to cast led vin and away led the samyn [peats]
(b) c1475 Wall. ix. 1610.
Dicson suld tak … his hors and his weid, … a drawcht off wod to leid
a1500 Rauf C. 49.
I … leidis coilis to sell
Ib. 595.
Leidand coillis he ȝeid To Paris the way
1511 Alloway Baron Ct. MS.
His gait quhair he suld leid his mwyk within his delt daill
1556 Peebles B. Rec. 235.
The inqueist ordanis to gar gadder stanis to Peblis brig egis, … and gif ony wantis to leid maa
1565–6 Reg. Privy S. V. ii. 30/1.
And to leid sa mony of the teindis as presentlie ar unset
1607 Peebles Gleanings 24.
That nane bring in cornes to thair stabillis, nor yet leid with slaiddes in the nycht
a1633 Hope Major Pract. I. 222.
[After the corn has been teinded] the owners … may leid the stock, leiving the teynd upon the ground
(c) 1644 E. Loth. Antiq. Soc. IV. 32.
I must haue the teind hay to my horssis and they most lied it and stak it into the barneyard to me without anay expensiis of me
(d) 1630 Stirling's Royal Lett. II. 450.
To caus value the tithes which they wer accustumed to lead
1662 Stitchill Baron Ct. 25.
That none within this barrony lead any of their cornes unteynded
1682 Peebles B. Rec. II. 103.
Quhen they are leading faill or clay
(b) 1584 Sat. P. xlv. 874.
Of all his teyndis … I have discharges for a yeir; He gart me pay thame or I ledd thame
1603 Elgin Rec. II. 113.
Alexander Cuming is bruitit … that he lead burne on Sonday last
Ib. 117.
Newlandis … led corne in harvest on the Sabboth daye
1675 Cunningham Diary 53.
To Ja : Black for meat to his horse and man that ledd stones to the leaping-on-stone, 4.0
(c) 1491 Acta Conc. I. 205/2.
The cornez now being one the thride of Reras sall be led and wonnyne be the said Thomas and stakkit in the ȝard of the Hilhous
1530 Aberd. B. Rec. I. xxxix.
Fra the tyme the cornis be sawin quhill it be schorne and led
1627 Ch. in Orkney 279.
Thair arr few heritors amangest us, … sum of thame hes thair teinds set to thamsellfis, … bot the teinds of sum arr ledd
c1650 Spalding II. 290.
To give him his hous … to duell in, and burne the peites led standing in the cloiss
1644 Lochwinnoch Par. 171.
Teynd led, bot not exacted so long as my lord hes richt
1676 Rothesay B. Rec. 345.
The toun furnishing rough stones att the shore quherof some is led and the rest lying in the kei
(b) 1604 Urie B. Ct. 6.
The lardis pettis was in radynes to be leyd
1614 Ib. 13.
(c) 1698 Maxwell Mem. II. 347.
Having … caused cast my kain peats in the moss properly belonging ... to me; and being intended to have lead them this day
(3) absol. c1475 Wall. IX. 704.
Saxsum thar com and brocht bot cartis thre; Quhen thai off hay was ladand most bysse [etc.]
1532 Selkirk B. Ct. MS. 162 (18 June).
Outher leddand vith hors or berand vranguslye
1645 S. Leith Rec. 63.
The cairters to yoke at 6 hours in the morning and leid till 1 hours

b. To bring in, in this way, the produce of (certain land). 1656 Craig-Brown Selkirkshire II. 390.
The maillers they ar obliged ay and while the goodman take the land in his owne hand, … to leid in alse muche land as will sow sixtine bolles, which he reserves in his oune hand
1667 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Deeds I. 112.
[To pay the minister the sum of £700 Scots yearly, with privilege to] draw or leid the aikers [belonging to the town of Urr]
1683 Martine Reliq. Divi Andreae 171.
480 aikers about St Andrews, called the prior aikers … led in by the heritors and tenents themselves

c. Said of the animal or the vehicle: To carry or draw (goods or produce).(1) 1507–8 Treas. Acc. IV. 103.
Ane medow that the Kingis hors eit quhen tha led treis to the poll of Erth
1533 Ib. VI. 163.
To xv hors leidand faill fra the commone myre to the abbay
1546–7 Stirling B. Rec. I. 46.
The said John sall furnis … as many colis burges leidis as tua hors may leid
1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Deeds I. 366.
And four horse on day to lead corne in harvest tyme
(2) 1529 M. Works Acc. (ed.) 2.
To Patrick Kowis cart ledand aistlaris of Colrois fra Leitht sandis

7. To bring, take or carry, more generally. c1420 Wynt. vi. 1992.
That bred He gawe the batwartis hym to lede, And on the sowth half him to sete
1456 Hay I. 181/8.
Gif a man be tane apon ane otheris sauf condyt, traistand in it that it suld sauf him and lede him seurly to and fra his trystis [etc.]
c1475 Wall. iv. 498.
[Five] of hys awne to berynis he gart leid [: deid = dead]
c1500 Fyve Bestes 151.
Wp was he [a bird] takin and in a garding led, Amang thir herbes thai haf maid him a bed
1622-6 Bisset II. 234/18.
In case any schip past furth nocht … haifand the said seillis … the vicount … may leid theme with him as thingis forfalt to iustice
1629 Dundonald Par. Rec. 280.
Robert Dickie … deponit … there was water vsed and bread led in the house dores

b. To lede ane lawar saill: see Law a. 1 b.

8. a. Of a road, passage, ladder, etc.: To lead in a certain direction, to a place, etc. tr. and absol. or intr. a1400 Leg. S. xviii. 843.
Gyf he … wald Kene me the gat that mycht me led To the flume Jordane in mast sped
a1500 Seven S. 2060.
Than lukit he wp agane And saw … ane ledder wp for to leid [: hed = head]
a1605 Montg. Devot. P. iii. 26.
To lyf that leddir sall thé leid
1598 Edinb. B. Rec. V. 215.
To caus calsey the croce gaitt that leidis throw the laird of Lugtouns lands
1600 Hamilton Facile Tr. Pray. 3.
Guide … me in the way of veritie that laides to the gloire of heavvin
1624 Misc. Abbotsf. C. 259.
I found a gallery which ledde from the kitchen to your owne lodgingis taken away

b. tr. Of a water-channel: To conduct (water) from one place to another. c1575 Balfour Pract. 493.
Ane dam … throw the quhilk ane water passage cumis, leidand and conduceand the water fra the dam to the miln

9. tr. To guide or direct; also, to pilot. lit. and fig. 1375 Barb. v. 27.
Thai … rowit … apon the fyre That thai saw byrnand … It wes bot auentur that thame led
Ib. viii. 263 (E).
‘Ga we furth than,’ said the king, ‘Quhar he, that maid off nocht all thing, Lede [C. leyd] ws’
1456 Hay I. 211/6.
As to this … God gave us ane ensample quhen he led his peple in the desertis
c1420 Ratis R. 125.
The sycht … makis thé knawleginge, And ledis thé
Ib. 1356.
Profettis … Says prayer ledis vengans by
1490 Irland Mir. fol. 201 b.
His awne ressoun that is … his bowat to leid him fra myrknes
a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 536.
Pluto thy hede of kyn … To hell to leid thé
1562-3 Winȝet II. 26/1, 3.
It becumis ws nocht to leid the religioun quhat way we wald, bot that we reather suld follow it, quhat way it wald leid ws
1622-6 Bisset II. 258/6.
Ane loidisman undertaketh to leid and convoy ane schip to ane place

10. fig. a. To guide or direct, influence or sway, in respect of behaviour, to induce (to something, to do something).Said of persons and of non-personal agencies.(a) ?1438 Alex. i. 2612.
Na radnes micht thame leid [: dreid] … to fle the preis
c1450-2 Howlat 457.
So me our Lord leid [: deid = death, steid = place, reid = direct]
1560 Rolland Seven S. 6776.
The end … sall … put vs to confusioun, Ȝone seuin maisters leidis ȝow in sic abusioun
1567 G. Ball. 4.
Leid vs not into temptation
Ib. 41.
Gif thai heir not the law, quhilk suld thame leide, Than sall thay not in ony wayis beleif
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xv. 28.
Kirkmen that vyceis hantis And leidis ws arreir
Id. Ib. xciv. 79.
Lat never harlat cum ȝou neir That wald ȝou leid to leychorie
1596 Dalr. I. 221/11.
To ane godlye … lyfe … throuch his exemple … he walde leid thame
(b, c) 1389 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 16.
Nocht trocht dwt na awe led bot frely & wyd gude wyl
c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 1514.
Who may [be] led by meknes That so wykede o traytour He may spar
c1420 Wynt. v. 2744.
Quhare that mercy tays na stede Bot all wyth awe and grew is lede
1501 Dunferm. B. Rec. 338.
That sche wes nocht coackit nor witht drede led be hir sade husbande
1513 Doug. vii. ix. 93.
For the weir thai clepe and call, Led by the power and frawart godhed Of cruell Juno
1538 Breadalbane Doc. No. 49.
Comperit Johne Makquillespi … nocht … led with errour weil and maturlie aduisit
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 3328.
He wes … Withwemen counsalit and led
1562-3 Winȝet I. 4/8.
To be iugeit wylfull and led be sum phrenesie
c1568 Lauder Minor P. i. 331.
How be tha iuglours tha [princes] haue bene blindlynes led

b. To bring (to a certain condition). 1375 Barb. xi. 414 (E).
Nothyr dede, na dreid, Till sic discomfort suld thaim leid, That thai suld eschew the fechting
c1400 Troy-bk. i. 90.
It mytht happyn sone one hand … To led ws in-to syk distres
c1420 Wynt. iv. 1950.
The reule off resowne … Sall thé noucht lede [W. Sall nocht be led] in that straytnes
Ib. viii. 5946.
For his yowthed To that nature wald hym lede
?1438 Alex. ii. 1550.
His men him hates as the dede; To his tynsall thay will him lede
1456 Hay II. 78/15.
For desyre of thy will … sall lede it till ane end be the will of almychty God
c1460 Wisd. Sol. 208.
Quha ledis man to sik knawlege that he knawis the thing that sal be in tyme to cum?
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 1227.
Destanye … That led men in langour ay lestand inly
c1515 Asl. MS. I. 64/17.
He chesis the seiknes of the saull that is syn and ledis to the deid eternale
1567 G. Ball. 173.
Idolatrie … hes had dominioun Lang ledand to distructioun The maist part of this warld
c1568 Lauder Minor P. i. 701.
Death … dois lead the saule vnto saluatioun

11. a. To guide (a pen), to write. 1567 Sat. P. iii. 49.
With Romaine hand he could weill leid ane pen

b. To guide another s hand in writing, esp. in p.p. in the formula accompanying the signature of an illiterate person.(1) 1513–14 Prestwick B. Rec. 45.
The said Mertyn Myllar has subscribyt this writin wyth his hand, the pene leid, befor thir vytnesis
1545 Grant Chart. 94.
With my hand leid at the pen be Robert Merser, noter
1552–3 Lochwinnoch Par. 42.
I, James Stewart, … with my hand at the pen, and led with the hand of Maister Thomas Briden, notar
1558 Reg. Cupar A. II. 268.
The said Johne has subscriuit the pairt remanent with the said abbot, with his hand at the pen led be Den Peter Trent
1559 Grant Chart. 283.
Alexr Forbes of Bruchtis, at the pen laid be Maister James Forbes
1560 Edinb. Old Acc. II. 116.
Louk Wilsoun, with my hand led be Alexr Guthre, clark
1574 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. 268.
With my hand let at the pene
1589 Edinb. Archit. Assoc. Trans. IX. 133.
Thomas Robertsoun and Robert Millar with our handis led at the pen be the notaris undirwrittin at our command becaus we can nocht wreit our selfes
(2) 1640 Dundonald Par. Rec. 467.
The maister most lead the hands of yong beginners

12. tr. To govern, rule (a country etc.); to command (an army, party of men etc.); to rule, have the tutelage of (a person). Also intr. or absol.This sense appar. chiefly or only Sc. Cf. Gyde v. 2.(1) 1375 Barb. i. 38.
Alexander … , That Scotland haid to steyr and leid [: deid = dead]
Ib. x. 156 (C).
Fortrassis that war then Gouernit and led vith Ynglis men
Ib. xx. 615.
[God] grant … that thar ofspryng Lede weill the land
c1420 Wynt. v. 832.
Titus … Off Rome lord and empryoure … lede thre yhere wytht honoure
Ib. vi. 1346.
Howthe byschapys … led thare state and thare poware
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 49.
I rede we … ask leif at the lord ȝone landis suld leid [: meid = reward] That [etc.]
1535 Stewart 1518.
Ane barne … Is nocht ganand ane kinrik for to leid
(2) 1375 Barb. xii. 499.
Ynglis men … Till the battall that schir Eduard Gouernyt and led held straucht thair vay
?1438 Alex. ii. 1614, 15.
Persianis … That Marciane had to leid and steir That couth thame weill and wourthy lede [: deid = death]
Ib. i. 336, 2491, ii. 377, 2767, etc. a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 655.
The thrid heght Schir Bantellas, the batal to leid [: manhede, reid = read, leid = people, nation]
a1578 Pitsc. II. 92/13.
Thair … was chossin the Earle of Angus to leid the wangaird
Ib. 152/19, 20.
ij m Frinchemen leid be Monsr Dosuell ane thowsand Scotismen leid be my lord duik
(3) c1475 Wall. ix. 1532.
Decest scho was, God tuk hir spreit to leid [: sted = place]

13. To manage (one's faculties); to conduct, manage (affairs).Cf. Gyde v. 2. c1420 Ratis R. 204.
For-thi is profytable to led [: ded = death] Sa weill and warly thi spekinge
Ib. 230.
The tueching of thi handis … suld be led with gud kepinge
Ib. 1183.
[God] Sa evynly ledis al about That with a balance baith haldis hee, To wey baith caus and qualytee
Ib. 1473.
Ay the gretar senȝory Suld leid thar stat mar mesour by
a1500 Bk. Chess 662.
Scho wrait him to so that he wald hir wed Baith hous and all suld at his will be led

b. reflex. To conduct oneself, behave, act; also, to manage one's affairs.Only in early works. Cf. Gyde v. 3. a1400 Leg. S. xxx. 833.
In vertuise … He … sa can hyme-selfe leyde [: dede = death] That … thai … Mad hyme abbot
c1420 Wynt. v. 2760.
Now sen sa gud [men] before oure dayis Thus led thame
Ib. vii. 1410.
The pepill of Ireland … led thame all be fretis wyle, Nowcht be the lauche off the ewangyle
c1420 Ratis R. 1174.
Thai … can nocht weil thaim selwyn led [: deid = deed], Bot infortune thaim in-grewys
Ib. 1016. 1456 Hay II. 85/19.
I traist thou may come to … haboundaunce … of wisdome to … lede thé the rycht wayes
c1475 Wall. v. 601.
Scho … Hummylly hyr led, and purchest a gud name

14. tr. To deal with, treat (a person) in a certain way.Only in early verse.(1) c1420 Wynt. v. 3968.
Tharefore … suld thai [preists] Be tretyd and led honestly
Ib. vii. 1170.
Malcolm … than gert he Be throwch the land traweland … Wyth honest curt and cumpany To lede and trete hym honestly
c1420 Ratis R. 945.
Be scho [one's wife] in langour led and blam Scho wyll forȝet quhat is scham
c1460 Thewis Wysmen 248.
To kirk-men do thai euir honore And ledis thaim in al fauore
a1500 Lanc. 2661.
At thar come Arthurs folk so led, That thai war ay abaysit and adred
(2) ?1438 Alex. i. 1065.
He sa hard his fais led That he baith blude and harnes shed
Ib. 1139.
Thare schewit wele in to that stound That he ane hard pais can thaime leid

b. Also said of impersonal agencies and in the passive: To afflict, to be afflicted. ?1438 Alex. i. 3258.
Bot the great blude that he hes bled And the heit als sa hard him led That he suouned
Ib. ii. 10204. a1500 Sir Eger 2066.
He lyes at home into my bed, Right as I were with sickness led

15. a. To conduct (warfare). = L. ducere bellum. 1456 Hay I. 241/32.
This is nocht the noble fassoun of the weris that worthy knychtis … was wount to lede in the anciene custumes
1513 Doug. i. i. 83.
I … With a pepill sa feill ȝheris weir sall lede
Ib. xi. iii. 28.
O Latyn folkis … na weirfar with ȝour pepill led I
1533 Bell. Livy I. 214/24.
We intend to lede this batall with oure awne expens and surname alanerlie
Ib. 243/15.
The saidis Equis … couth leid batall bettir quhen thai war skatterit in mony handis

b. To perform, take part in (dances): cf. sense 2 b.Common in this use in ME.: cf. also L. ducere choros. 1513 Doug. xii. Prol. 193.
Sum sang ryng sangis, dansys ledys and rovndis, With vocis schill

16. To go through, pass, live (one's life or a portion of it); espec., to lead a certain kind of life, to spend one's life in a certain manner or condition.(1) 1375 Barb. i. 270.
For quhill a thryll his lyff may leid [: deid = death] It merrys him, body and banys
a1400 Leg. S. xvi. 797.
Vith warldis fud was scho nocht fede In al the tyme that scho thare led
Ib. 871.
Quhethyre thu be man or wyfe, That in that cawe ledis thi lyfe
c1420 Wynt. ii. 11.
Fyfty ȝhere hys lyff he lede, And mekyll off sakles blwde he schede
?1438 Alex. ii. 4247.
His sone as of bounte … passit all that lyfe micht lede [: dede = dead]
Ib. 6699.
Quhen his awin him hates as deid [I] ask how lang he lif may leid
Ib. 8238. 1611-57 Mure Dido & Æn. iii. 123.
The savage citizens, which life did leed In wods and waters
(2) (a) a1400 Leg. S. xlvi. 84.
Hir lyfar had bene ded Than sic lyfe ony tyme to led
c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 2872.
Quhar he sicker his lyf mycht leid [: sted = place]
c1420 Wynt. i. 672.
[They] Leddys thare lyff on ferly wys
c1460 Wisd. Sol. (S.T.S.) 424.
And leid thi lyf with thaim that thé louis for the day of the vnstedfast lyf
1513 Doug. iii. v. 66.
I leif forsuyth, and ledis lyfe as ȝe se, In al hard chance
1535 Stewart 20244.
Leidand ane langsum lyfe
1560 Rolland Seven S. 9223.
Than sal I … for ay my life in langour leid
a1568 Scott iv. 2.
Ȝe lusty ladyis, luke The rakleslyfe ȝe leid
a1570-86 Maitl. F. lxxvi. 51.
Leyd nocht thy lyf lyk ane elf That our the feild can slyde
1596 Dalr. I. 91/26.
Thay walde leid a lang lyfe frie from al seiknes with a verie smal portione of kitschine meit [etc.]
(b) 1375 Barb. i. 23.
[They] led thar lyff in gret trawaill
a1400 Leg. S. xxxvi. 277.
Manis conuersacione He fled, … & strat lyf leide
c1420 Wynt. iv. 145.
Scho … led hyr dayis a quhile in pyne
a1500 Henr. Twa Mys 18 (Asl.).
Scho … langit … To se quhat lyf scho led wnder the wand
a1500 Bk. Chess 1589.
Thar was a wretchid wyf Gaderit gret gold and led a wretchid lyf
(c) a1400 Leg. S. xxi. 802.
Thai fand … twenty thousand men … that in pyne lang quhile Had leyd thare lyf in that exile
c1420 Wynt. v. 3490.
Saynct Nynyane … Led hys lyff in halynes

b. To live a life of, endure (distress). c. To enjoy, possess (high station, dignity). a1568 Mersar Bann. MS. 269 a/10.
Some sueris … That he will de … Bot gife that he hir freindschip feill: That garris him sic langour leid [: speid]
1513 Doug. vii. iv. 142.
To be his son in law, and forto led Equale dignite with him in that ryng

17. To administer (the law or laws).See also Law n.1 4 a (2) and Lauch n., for further examples; and cf. also Ledar n. 6. c1420 Wynt. viii. 3286.
The jwrysdyctyowne he lede hale And punysyd exces and trespas
c1460 Regim. Princ. 197.
Thi jugis als that is [v.rr. as, hes] justice to lede [: fede = enmity]
c1500 Makc. MS. iv. 24.
At Litusstratus, quhar thai led thar law
a1500 Henr. III. 100/112.
I pray to Jesu Chryst verrey, … To be our help on Domysday Quhair lawis are straitly led
c1530-40 Stewart Bann. MS. 88 a/45.
Dissimvlance that dois ȝour lawis leid
1560 Rolland Seven S. 1323.
Within this realme to leid iustice and law
a1585 Maitland Maitl. Q. li. 44.

18. To conduct (legal proceedings) as judge or as party; to hold a court or conduct a cause, bring an action, deliver a judgement. Also transf.Appar. only Sc. c1420 Wynt. vi. 2294, 98.
Gywe thare be ony that lykis The lawch for to se led off this, … To Cowpyr in Fyffe than cum he: Welle led that lawch thare sall he se
Ib. vii. 1846.
The decrete than sene and red, And the electyown in lawch all led
Ib. viii. 1599.
How he made hym his court to lede Qwhen this Makduff entryd in plede
1456 Hay I. 179/35.
For and I had gevin power to my procuratour in parlement to lede a process for me [etc.]
1474 Acta Aud. 32/2.
The actioun … tuiching the inordinate process quhilk thai led as schereffis in that part direct be the Kingis lettrez in the action depending betuix [etc.]
1482–3 Acta Conc. II. cxiv.
Without prejudice of the richt [of] the said Schir Johne Sandilandis proces led or to be led apon the said Andro Dure of the landis of Wester Corswod
1495 Ib. I. 416/1.
That a perambulacioun beled one the saidis landis this day xx dais
1510 Stirlings of Keir 295.
That the breif of ydeotry quhilk is to be led on the said Thomas … be full seruit apoun him
1516 Reg. Great S. 418/1.
Be resoun of eschete throw dome of forefatour led upoun the said Andro
1524 Reg. Episc. Aberd. I. 390.
The said process being lede to this cowrt … he … comperit nocht
1544 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 207.
Compeirit Mr. George Young … and producit ane proces of recognitioun, ordourlie led at thrie sindry heid courtis
1550–1 Lochwinnoch Par. 28.
That how sone the sentence and dyvors led betwix him and Isobell Balfoure, … that he sall … complete the band of matrymonie with the said Gryssale
1551 Boyd Fam. P. No. 31 (30 June).
That … ye … leid na proces therintill aganis the saidis complenaris quhill the returning of oure saidis airis
1563 Actes Generall Assembly for Confirming Bookes of Discipline Church of Scotland (1621) 12 (25 June).
[The] sentence … was declared wicked, ungodly, and wrangusly led
1556 Lauder Off. Kings 442.
For fauour of freindis, nor fois feid No wrang decretis thay aucht to leid
1590 Edinb. B. Rec.V. 340.
The censowris of the Kirk to beled aganis thame
a1633 Hope Major Pract. I. 275.
The forfaulter led against Jon Earle of Lenox is rescinded as inorderly led without any furder proces
c1630 Scot Narr. 55.
Commission was given to some brethren to lead processe against a number of these bishops and commissioners
1672 Acts VIII. 87/2.
It shall not be lawfull to any persone to be clerks to the deduceing of compriseings which are led by dispensation within the toune of Edr or to services led befor the macers, except they be writers to the signet
transf. c1420 Wynt. vi. 2312.
Quha will befor thire bukys rede, This proces as I hawe led in dede Fra Adam throwch the Yryschery Sall fynd [etc.]

b. (Whatever legal proceedings an attorney, executor etc.) ledis to be done. 1423 Buccleuch MSS. 33.
Hafand … ferm and stabyl quat thyng so euer the saydis Adam … in thaire ofis of procurature ledis to be doun
1447 Reg. Great S. (1450) 71/1.
I haldand … ferme and stablis quhatsumever … my schyreff-depute in the said office in my name lauchfulli ledis to be done
1450 Ib. 84/1.
Quhatsumever my … balye ledis or dois richtwisli in my name
1481 Instr. H. Scheves MS.
All and quhatsumevir thingis … my procurator in the said matir ladis to be done
1493 Acta Aud. 174/2.
All … thingis the saidis procuratouris lauchfully leddis to be done
1580 Prot. Bk J. Scott 98 b.
He … to do hant and excerce … quhatsumevir his saidis executouris … dois or leddis to be doin
1622-6 Bisset I. 81/16.
Quhatsumevir oure saidis counsalouris … leidis to be done

19. To bring forward, produce (witnesses, testimony or evidence).Also earlier north. ME. (Cursor M.): otherwise appar. only Sc. c1420 Bute MS. 158.
He that ledis wytnes in ony playnt
14.. Acts I. 377/2.
Gif ony man … be jugit … to bring furth witnes or pruff again his perty aduersar … the perty deffendour beand absent the pruff may [nocht] be lede withoutyn sacrament
1491 Acta Conc. I. 201/1.
Maister Andro renuncit to impreif the said instrument or led ony preif agane it
1500 Ib. II. 473.
My ressons and richtis to schaw, my pruffis witnes writtis and documentis to produce and leid
1503 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 430.
The richtis, ressonis and allegacionis of batht the said parties … led, herde, sene and understandin
1508 Prestwick B. Rec. 40.
[George Yong] accusyt Thome Greif of iiij b. of beyr, he allegyt to leid a knawlage
1514–5 Selkirk B. Ct. fol. 38.
The inquest … fyndis the prufis leid be Thomas Sandersone clerlye prefis that [etc.]
1576 Orkney Oppress. 45.
The laird … decernit faltis that was giffin up in the grandrie … without ony preiff led thairupon
a1658 Durham Comm. Rev. 24.
He is leading witnesses and fitting processes and discovering the truth and falsehood of everything
1668 Rothesay B. Rec. 148.
The persewar haveing led Neill M'Neill, [etc.] … as witnesses
1669 Conv. Burghs III. 620.
Full power … to conveen all such Scotts merchants and factors … as he hes to lead as witnessis
1678 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. MS. (13 Nov.).
Absolves Robert Carsan elder [etc.] … be legall probatioune led and received be William Maxwell of Caigtoune aganist them

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