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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1983 (DOST Vol. V).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Pain, Pane, n. Also: paine, payn(e; pan; pein(e, peyn(e; pean(e, paen(e, pen(e; paing. [ME. and e.m.E. peine (1297), peyne, pain(e (Cursor M.), payne, F. peine (11th c. in Littré) (L. poena, whence also Pyne n.)(Cf. also Apayn.)]Frequent rhymes occur with again (Bk. Chess 963, 967, Dunb. xxv. 42, etc., Kennedy Pass. Christ 742, Doug. vi. Prol. 151, etc.), fain, main (= strength), plain a., rain (Maitl. Q. lxv. 48), remain (Doug. vi. Prol. 151, Scott vii. 4, etc.), slain (Bk. Chess 567, 975, G. Ball. 148), soverain and vain (Kennedy Maitl. F. cxvii. 16, Black Bk. Taymouth 145). Rhymes also occur with bayne, blain, brain, certain (Troy-bk. ii. 129), citezane (Ib. 1284), disdaine, fraine, gane (= gain), grayne (= grain), layne (= conceal), montan (Barb. iii. 372), plain n., stain (Maitl. F. clxxii. 7), train (Dunb. xii. 16). See also many examples of these rhymes quoted below.At Doug. viii. Prol. 145 rhymes occur with rane (= rigmarole), schane p.t. and Charle wayn. Among the rhyme-words of Dunb. lxvi. (For to considder is ane pane) are prophane (35), ane (47), flane (= arrow, 59), occeane (67), phane (= weather-vane, 95), and some proper names in -ane. The rhymes of Dunb. xii., however, (All erdly joy returnis in pane), are plain, again, grain, train, rain and words of similar phonology.

1. A penalty or sanction or a punishment appointed or awarded for a crime, fault or shortcoming.Also pain arbitrale, arbitrar, a sentence which is not prescribed by law but fixed at the discretion of the judge or judges: see the adjectives.(1) c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 1784.
That thai suld tak The payne that the trespas gan mak
14.. Reg. Maj. c. 85.
Of thaim that ar convickit of felony & thar pan
c1450 Cr. Deyng 255. c1460 Consail Vys Man 293.
For as belangand payne and meid The wyll is reput for the deid
a1500 Prestis of Peblis 944.
And do I not my heid sal be the pane
1495 Acta Conc. I. 408/2.
And therfore askit the saidis lettrez and pannis contenit in the sammyn to be sessit
a1500 Bk. Chess 967. 1513 Doug. vi. ix. 180. Ib. ix. vii. 121. 1533 Boece ii. v. 64b.
[The Interpreter of the laws] suld in presence baith of the iuge and the trespassoure produce the pane
1545 Anal. Scot. I. 210.
Paings
1558-66 Knox II. 275. a1568 Scott iv. 70.
Sua sum said maidis hes slicht To play and tak no pane
1567 Acts III. 44/1.
Lat greit pane be inivnit to the sercheouris
1584 Ib. 296/1. 1586 Jurid. Rev. IV. 298.
Answerit the advocat … that he persews the haill panels for ane cryme committit and for ane pane
1587 Acts III. 463/1.
Without cryme pane or danger to be incurrit be the doaris
1596 Dalr. II. 462/20. Ib. I. 135/6.
The Catholickis … bosting the pane confirmet be the edict with a gloume inttollerable
1597 Aberd. Council Lett. I. 72. 1629 Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. III. 20. 1678 Mackenzie Laws & C. i. xxvi. § ii. (1699) 130.(2) 1456 Hay I. 125/17.
He fallis in the crime of lese mageste and in the payne of it
Ib. 243/25.
That … thare folowis … payne capital, that is to say the hede
Ib. 273/14. 1478 Acts II. 123/2.
That oure souuerain lord … sal … execut detfully the panys of proscripcioun and tresoun aganis the saidis personis
a1538 Abell 3*a.
Blasphemeris payn in the canon law
Ib. 97a.
And perchance in pane of his perdition aganis the Scottis … & sacrilege in Dumfres he wes wincust [etc.]
1564 Reg. Privy C. I. 297.
That the saidis corporall panis of impresoning [etc.]
1629 Justiciary Cases I. 106.
That upone presumptiones judges can nocht proceid to inflict the pane of daithe bot uther corporal or pecuniall panes
1635 Reg. Great S. 160/1.

b. spec. A penalty or punishment in money or goods, a fine. Also soum of (and) pane, pane and unlaw, and pecuniall pane.(1) 1397 Acts I. 208/1.
He that apperis nocht … his borous sal pay the payn
1427 Ib. II. 15/2.
Gif thai punys nocht the king sal hafe a certane payn of the burgh
1442 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 7.
That he sal pay sik like payne vnforgiffin and tyne his tak to
1459 Rep. Hist. MSS. Var. Coll. V. 82.
Andro Besat is in a pan of viij s. … for the wrayngis eryn of is land
1498 Treas. Acc. I. 317.
In part of payment of his wnlawis of panis
1500–1 Acta Conc. II. 482.
The pane for … the persons … being gentilman landit ij c merkis [etc.]
1574 Acts III. 93/2.
And the same [salt] to inbring and mak compt of to oure souerane lordis vse as a pane without ony money tobe deliuerit tharfoir
1579 Ib. 144/1.
That the panes of breking of lauborrowis to be found in tyme cuming salbe equalie deuidit [etc.]
1582 Burntisland B. Ct. 10b.
The sowme off xiii s. iv d. as paine and pryce liquidat be thame
1600 Reg. Privy C. VI. 136.
[Pursuer being … not able to find so great a sum which is] the pane of a barrone or lord
1624 Justiciary Cases I. 17. 1640 Dumbarton B. Rec. 61.(b) 1671 Rothiemay Kirk S. in J. Gordon Hist. I. App. lxi.
It was appoynted that James Watt should have his peane restored
(2) 1400 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 48.
A hundreth pund of vsuale mone to the werk of the kyrk of Glasgu in name of payn
1470 Douglas Chart. 101. 1496–7 15th Rep. Hist. MSS. App. viii. 12. 1504–5 Charter (Reg. H.) No. 677.
Tuenty pundis of the said money in name of pane
(3) 1515 Treas. Acc. V. 27.
To poynd … for soumes of panys aucht to the King
1556 Reg. Privy S. V. i. 2/2.
Of the gift of the sowme and pane of five hundreth merkis
(4) 1543 Reg. Privy S. III. 75/1.
A letter … of the gift of the pane and unlaw quhilk Johnne Stewart … wes adjugit befor the justice
1574 Conv. Burghs I. 34.
The pane and vnlaw of x lib. … to be imbrocht to … [the] thesaurar of Edinburgh
Ib. 26. 1576 Reg. Privy C. II. 567. 1586 Conv. Burghs I. 210. 1592 Acts III. 556/1. 1593 Ib. IV. 18/1.
The ancient panis and unlawes of lawborrous
(5) 1562 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 352.
To gif her also for ane pecuniall pane xxvj s. viij d. Scottis mony
1564 Reg. Privy C. I. 297.
All sic personis as … refusis to pay the pecuniall panis
1565 Instit. Ct. Sess. 26b.
First be pecuniall panes and syne be deprivatione
1578 Reg. Privy C. II. 699. 1587 Acts III. 456/2. 14.. Acts (Skene) Table.
Paine pecuniall or vn law for none-compeirance in Parliament is diverse conforme to the estait and condition of the person
1610 Laing MSS. I. 115. 1629 Justiciary Cases I. 106 (see (2) above).

c. Letter (lettres) of panis, a missive containing a royal command or summons and specifying the penalties to which the recipient is liable for failure to comply. 1501–2 Treas. Acc. II. 134.
To Riche Wallas messingeir to pas in Fiff with lettrez of panes to the schireff agane the aire
1505–6 Ib. III. 187.
To ane messingeir passand with the lettrez of panis on the lard of Thorntoun
1507 Ib. 401.
To ane man to pas … with ane lettir of panes agane the air of Strivelin
Ib. 411. 1508 Ib. IV. 127; etc.

d. In formulae with prepositions, esp. under (underneth) (also, in, of, on) (the) pain or panis of (a penalty incurred or to which one is liable, a crime or shortcoming incurring a penalty, what is payable or forfeited as penalty); or const. infin. phrase.Also, undirneth this pain, under all pain, and, freq. in acts of lawburrows, under (the) pain of law.(1) 1397 Acts I. 208/1.
Til apper at the next iustice air … ilk ane vndir the payn of xx ponde
1412 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 389.
Vnder payne of lyffe and tynsale of gudis
1424 Acts II. 3/1. Ib. 8/1. 1426 Reg. Great S. 11/1.
Wnder the payn off perel that efter folowys
1446 Raine N. Durham App. 22.
That ony of our legis … supple … the saide Patrik … wndyr all the hiest paynes off rebellioun
1447 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV. 197. a1500 Henr. Orph. 264 (Ch. & M.).
And pas … bot vnderneth this payne [: agayn, fayn]
1511–2 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 15.
The said James sould have resone under the payne competent
1540 Lynd. Sat. 952 (Ch.). 1542 Douglas Corr. 146. 1542 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. I. 77.
Paine
1559–60 St. A. Kirk S. 64. a1578 Pitsc. I. 225/23. 1589 St. A. Baxter Bks. 45.
Vndir na les painis nor dailing of the braid
1589–90 Edinb. B. Rec. V. 340.
Under the payne of standing in the jougis
1620 Dumbarton B. Rec. ii. 2.
Undir the doubill of the paine
1621 Stirling Merch. Guild 41. 1684 Dumfr. & Galloway Soc. 3 Ser. XXXVI. 148.(b) 1431 Ayr & W. Coll. I. 228.
Wnder the pan of xl d.
1472 Peebles B. Rec. I. 169. a1500 Henr. Fab. 1156 (Ch.).
Vnder the panis of hie suspensioun [etc.]
Ib. 1165 (Bann.). 1488 Acts II. 213/1.
Vnder the pane of dede
1493 Antiq. Aberd. & B. II. 212.
Undir sic panys as sall pleys our soverane lord … to … deliver tharapoun
1496 Acta Conc. II. 20.
[Defaulting witnesses to] be summond [again] under greter panys
1525 St. A. Formulare I. 271. 1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 813. 1560 Rolland Seven S. 869.
That he suld vnder the pane of schame … befoir the King to stand
1564 St. A. Kirk S. 224.
To absteyn fra all fylthines … under pan of disciplyn in saier maner
a1568 Scott i. 50. a1578 Pitsc. II. 195/19. 1599 Colquhoun Chart. 175.
Pan
1619 Ellon Presb. 104.
Forbidding any of the land to cum to the kirk this day … under gryt paneis
c1650 Spalding I. 173.
Wnder the pane of plundering of thair houssis [etc.]
1656 Ayr Chart. 198. 1566 Peebles B. Rec. I. 304.
Vnder the pane eschitting of thair graythe
(c) 1478 Reg. Cupar A. I. 209.
Ondyr peyn of chet
1602 Stirling Merch. Guild 19.
That na gild brother forestal the market … under the peine of fyve libs.
1665 Lauder Jrnl. 122.
Pein
(d) 1583 Cal. Sc. P. VI. 563.
Under the paene of deithe
(e) 1653 Sc. Ant. IV. 160.
I … oblise myself under the pen of 10 lib. that [etc.]
(2) 1442 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 8.
Vnder the payne of law and bannysing
Ib. 9.
And at the price be kepit vnder payne of law
1488 Acta Aud. 120/1.
That the said lard … sall be harmles & scathles of him … bot as law will vnder the pane of law
1536 Dunferm. Reg. Ct. 140. 1578 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. 69.(3) 1442 Charter (Reg. H.) No. 307.
Vnder al payne & charge ȝhe and thai may inryne anence owr maieste
a1500 Henr. Fab. 865 (Bann.).
Vnder all pane and parrell that may fall
1492 Douglas Chart. 137.
Vnder all the hiest pane charge and offence that ȝe … may committ and inrin agane oure maieste
1507 Edinb. Chart. 192. 1535 Stewart 20455. c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus ii. 945. 1604 Stewart Mem. 112.
Vnder all heist pene and charge that may follow
c1650 Spalding I. 264.
To causs proclame thir letteris … under all hiest pane and perrell
(4) a1500 Bk. Chess 500.
Wnder the pane … to heid or hang Thai ar commandit to revele it nocht
1558 Inverness Rec. I. 26.
Onder the pane to the braker heyrof hys schone all at he hes to be eschet
1572 Bann. Memor. 249.
Vndir the paine … to be excommunicat … as apostates
1574 Acts III. 93/1.
Under the pane for euery boll of salt … not … deliuerit of ane laid tobe … vptakin tharfoir
c1575 Balfour Pract. 638.
Under the pane to tyne the haill richt … to the said prize [etc.]
1585 Acts III. 377/1.
Under the pane to be haldin … as mowaris of seditioun and inquietnes
(5) 14.. Burgh Laws c. 69 (B).
Na man [shall] tak on hand to herbery mysal men … on payne of forisfaction
1441 Coldingham Priory cxxxiii. 117.
Thatt na monke … suld be promote to priore … of payn of cursyng and inhabilite
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2026 (Ch.).
On pane off my heid
a1500 Seven S. 2136.
In pane of lyfis the caus ȝe tell
1531 Edinb. B. Rec. II. 50.
The prouest … sall … minister justice … with[out] ony langer delay in peyne of thar contumatione
1560 St. A. Kirk S. 48.
In peane of contumace and nocht compearance of Margaret
1560 Rolland Seven S. 281.
This sall I do in pane of honestie
Ib. 821.
Commanding vs … On pane of lyfis that we ȝow till him bring
1563 St. A. Kirk S. 167.

2. Suffering, esp. physical, inflicted or undergone as a punishment or penance or as torture. Also plur. a1400 Leg. S. ii. 312.
For Cristis folk that thu has slane Full cruelly and put to pane
Ib. xxxvii. 152.
For thi se wele his hardiment Requeris payne & hard torment
Ib. l. 701.
Dout thar-for na payne temporale
Ib. ii. 642, iii. 382, xxxv. 220, xliii. 481. 14.. Edinb. Univ. MS. 27 fol. 288.
Owthir sal he his gudis tyne … Or of persone the payne sal he Thole that sal ful nayouse be
c1420 Wynt. v. 5398.
And he agayne Sayd he deserwyd noucht that payne
1456 Hay I. 197/13.
That he suld bere payne and punycioun
c1460 Regim. Princ. 189. a1500 Henr. Fab. 715 (Bann.).
Will thow tak pane for thy transgressioun
c1490 Irland Asl. MS. 24/23.
That ony werk or sufferance of pane be sufficiently satisfactour ar fyve condiconis requyrit
Ib. 31/2. a1500 Bk. Chess 1341.
To byd the pane of knyf swerd or fyr
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 737.
Ȝit of my deith I set not half ane fle, For greit effeir me thocht na pane to die
1590 Crim. Trials I. ii. 219.
The saide doctor was … imprisoned, and used with the accustomed paine provided for those offences. … Lastly, hee was put to the most severe and cruell paine in the worlde, called the bootes
plur. a1400 Leg. S. ii. 131.
[Nero] gert … torment thame with panys sere
Ib. 857; Ib. xxiii. 70, xxxviii. 480, xlvi. 311, xlvii. 174. c1420 Wynt. v. 1744. 1513 Doug. v. xiii. 49.
And fortobe wrokin be alkin panys Apon thar sary levingis and remanys
1562-3 Winȝet I. 124 h. of ch.
Gif ony temporall panis remanis to a penitent resauit to mercy [etc.]
1573 Davidson Sat. P. xl. 135.
Thay did him not mischeif As thay did his companȝeounis … With pynefull panis

b. Freq., the punishment or penance suffered by sinners in the next world, the torment of hell or purgatory. Also plur. in same sense.Also, a particular form of such punishment.sing. 1456 Hay I. 198/4. Ib. II. 103/18.
The perpetuale payne of the tothir warld
c1460 Wisd. Sol. (S.T.S.) 115.
But ony dreid the tan gais to ioye and the tothir to pane
a1500 Henr. Fab. 1142 (Bann.). Ib. 2668 (Ch.). 1490 Irland Mir. I. 49/33.
The pane of purgatore js changit jn temporall pane jn this waurld to be fulfillit
Ib. II. 32/3. c1500 Rowll Cursing 273 (M). c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxii. 82 (M). 1533 Gau 42/5. a1538 Abell 70b.
And thai do the contray thai fall in a law gre of pane
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 1341.
I had rather be in hellis pane [: vnslane]
c1552 Id. Mon. 6010.
In that inestimabyll pane Eternallye thay sall remane
1560 Rolland Seven S. 2234. c1568 Lauder Minor P. i. 114. 1611-57 Mure Sonnets xii. 3.
Of paine to come the gallouse is but arles
plur. (1) a1400 Leg. S. ii. 211.
The panis fers and fell That thai sall hawe that ar in hell
1456 Hay II. 5/30. c1460 Vert. Mess 60.
Gif he pasis to hell it lesys his panis thar
a1500 Henr. Fab. 1264 (Bann.). a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 1234 (Asl.). 1562-3 Winȝet I. 130/18.
Geuand him terrouris of panes gif he transgressit the samin
1600-1610 Melvill 18.
Concerning … the peanes of hell, and the joyes of heavin
(2) a1400 Leg. S. v. 259.
Aucht paynis … That grathit ar in hell fore men

3. Suffering generally, distress, anguish. b. Freq. specifically mental suffering, grief, sorrow. Also c. an instance of these.sing. (a) a1400 Leg. S. xv. 198.
For sik schort payne he had The blyse ay-lestand
c1450 Cr. Deyng (E.E.T.S.) 131. c1460 Wisd. Sol. (S.T.S.) 56.
Quha sa ekis sciens till hyme, ekis hyme mekile payne and sorow
1461 Liber Plusc. I. 386. c1475 Wall. ii. 154.
Off his turment gret payne it war to tell
Ib. iii. 330.
Tak pes a quhill suppos it do ws payne
Ib. ii. 211, 220; iii. 254. 1490 Irland Mir. ii. 117/3. a1500 K. Hart 13. 1566-70 Buch. Comm. on Virgil Æn. ii. 776.
Tantumindulgere dolori, to tak so gryt paine
a1570-86 Maitl. F. xxxv. 15. a1585 Maitland Maitl. Q. xxxi. 30. a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 469 (Wr.).(b) a1450 Fifteen Ois 189.
Haue mynd of anger noy and pane That thow sufferit in mud and mane
c1460 Thewis Gud Women 272.
And quhen thai forfalt thai ar fan & garris men veyne it dois thaim pane
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 798 (Asl.).
For ȝour pane ȝe sall resaif plesans In hevin with me
c1490 Irland Asl. MS. 58/4. ?a1500 Dewoit Exerc. 181.
It is till ws a pane to se him
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xii. 4 (B).
All erdly joy returnis in pane
Id. Tua Mar. W. 443 (Ch. & M.), lxvi. 8, etc. 1513 Doug. iv. Prol. 163. Ib. 221. Ib. viii. Prol. 145. 1535 Stewart 308. c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 1457.
Quhilk to the squyer wes mair pane Nor all his woundis in certane
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xviii. 16.
He sall be seage that sall … nocht thole pane in to this new ȝeir
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 43.
That thay find sum eis of pane be sicht of thame
(c) a1570-86 Maitl. F. clxxix. 105.
But all pen plesour perfyit … can nocht be found
(d) 1583 Cal. Sc. P. VI. 417.
[It was his hap … to have] ane great paen quhen as this country wes in trowbil
plur. a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 1489 (Asl.).
For all the panes of this lyf present Seikenes wexacioun deid or dismembering
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxix. 35.
For this malice That with sic panis prickillis me
a 1510 Aberd. Univ. Review XXXVI. i. 44.
A flane … The hede of panis strang
1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 444.
My hart is peirst with panes for to pance Or wrytt [etc.]
1567 G. Ball. 62.
Rycht sore opprest I am w.ith panis smart

d. The suffering of a lover. ?1438 Alex. ii. 2480.
Quhat tua thingis dois ȝow to die Sorrow and pane … In the mister of lufing?
c1420 Wynt. iii. 397.
It is suet lykyng and na payne To luffe and be lufyt agayne
a1500 Henr. III. 93/109 (B). a1500 Quare Jel. 25.
The suffrance and the peyne Quhich most hath do my carefull hert constreyne
a1500 Lanc. 35.
The scharp assay and ek the inwart peine Of dowblit wo me neulyngis can constrein
Ib. 689.
His peyne his sorow and his gret distresse
Ib. 1272.
Now leif we hir in to hir newest pan
c1500-c1512 Dunb. lxxiv. 22 (M).
Behald my wod intollerabill pane
1513 Doug. xii. Prol. 202. 15.. King Berdok 46.
All this for lufe luvaris sufferis pane
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 1464. a1568 Scott xxviii. i. a1605 Montg. Son. lviii. 5. Id. Misc. P. xvii. 32. 1611-57 Mure Early Misc. P. ii. 63.
All pleasours past agredg'd my present paine [: disdaine]
plur. c1475 Wall. v. 230.
Quhy he sufferyt he suld sic paynys pruff
a1568 Scott x. 13. c1600 Montg. Suppl. vii. 65.
Sueit thing … My paneis to lane war wane but remedie

4. Physical suffering, agony, pain. Also plur. in the same sense.sing. (1) a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii. 468.
That he of payne rocht na dele
?1438 Alex. ii. 11040.
Cum furth schir for Goddis pane Fulfill sum thing of ȝour ȝarning
c1420 Wynt. viii. 3536.
For in the nek folowys the payne
Ib. v. 617. ?a1500 Remembr. Passion 687.
Than hir saule wes tane to the hevin but pane
a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 1195.
Behald … quhat pane & pyne dreit hes this ding
Ib. 651. 1513 Doug. xii. vii. 95. c1552 Lynd. Mon. 4920.
Quhen euyl rewme … generith mekle peane [etc.]
1564 Crim. Trials I. i. 456.
Off the quhilkis straikis scho … continuand in the pane and dolour thairof pairtit with chyld
a1578 Pitsc. I. 222/11. a1605 Montg. Flyt. 324 (T).
And pisching with pane [: blainis, wainis, remanis]
1600-1610 Melvill 433.
With … grait pean in body, be a distillatioun falling on my teithe
1607 Soc. Ant. XXII. 247.
And … presently after that shoe was eased of her former paine
1662 Crim. Trials III. 609.
For the bean-shaw, or pain in the heance
(2) a1400 Leg. S. xl. 990.
That he mycht feile na pane of ded
Ib. i. 630, iii. 419, vii. 399. c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 349 (C).
Me hath lever thole peyne of ded
c1420 Wynt. v. 1179.
Mony sufferyd the passyowne And payne off ded throuch martyry
Ib. vi. 1486. c1450 Cr. Deyng 276. c1490 Irland Asl. MS. 6/9. 1560 Rolland Seven S. 6761.
The pain of deid induris bot half ane hour
(3) 1490 Irland Mir. I. 140/21.
In hire byrthe sche [Mary] had na payne na doloure bot gret plesaunce
1533 Gau 39/10.
Schw buir hir sone with ioi and blythnes withoutine paine
1558-66 Knox IV. 377.
A dolor, anguishe and payn as oft as ever she shal be mother
1590–1 Crim. Trials I. ii. 237. 1591 Ib. 252.
For relief of your payne in the tyme of the birth of youre twa sonnes
Ib. 253.plur. c1420 Wynt. iii. 957.
Wytht paynys strang … Wytht-in hys handy werk thare dede
Ib. v. 1205.
Saynt Gregor ay in till lestand langure lay And in paynys
a1450 Fifteen Ois 25. a1500 Bernardus 36/49.
Peynes
c1500 Makc. MS. iv. 52.
Seand thi panis sorly weip I wald
1535 Stewart 7864. Ib. 18951, 23489.
He previt hes the panis of strang deid
1581 Sat. P. xliv. 297.
Curse of the seik lying in paynis strang
1590–1 Crim. Trials I. ii. 218. 1661 Dalyell Darker Superst. 132.
A man … had panes as a woman in chyldbirth

5. Distressing or painful circumstances; hardship, extreme discomfort, difficulty or danger. Also plur. 1375 Barb. i. 308.
Quharfor in all his lyve-tyme he Wes in gret payn ec gret trawaill
Ib. ii. 519, v. 73 (E). a1400 Leg. S. v. 535.
That he suld thole ther-in na pane Of noyus vyndis na of rane
?1438 Alex. i. 1479.
Bot thare price … Gart thame endure trauale and pane [: agane]
Ib. ii. 4811, 9017. c1420 Wynt. v. 3256.
Or thai suffere wald swylk a payne … Thaire tribwte lewyre thai wald forga
Ib. viii. 2545.
The Scottis men than … was stad in till gret payne [: slayne]
Ib. iv. 892. c1460 Alex. (Taym.) 2528. c1475 Wall. i. 374.
It dide him gud suppos he sufferyt payne [: agayne]
1513 Doug. iii. vi. 201.
On quhat wys … thou may al lauborus payn sustene
Ib. i. ix. 91. 1535 Stewart 17439. 1556 Lauder Off. Kings 307.
Hirds suld nocht spair for fleshelie paine To passe in wynd frost snaw or rine
c1590 J. Stewart 47/140. 1596 Dalr. I. 170/28. a1605 Montg. Misc. P. xxxix. 49.
No pene nor travell … Sall caus me to desist
plur. 1375 Barb. ii. 517.
[Thai] Wald partenerys off thar paynys be
Ib. xvii. 472.
Thai folk that tholit had panys gret [etc.]
1490 Irland Mir. I. 121/21.
Now mankind is … humylit with pains
1560 Rolland Seven S. 8528.
Vpon him self he [the raven] tuik daylie laubour With panis and pine and greit penuritie
1567 Acts III. 12/1.
That langer we ar not of habilitie … to indu re sa greit and intollerabill panis and trauellis

6. Distressing or painful exertion; effort, labour, toil, endeavour. Also plur.Also, in weakened sense, trouble, difficulty.sing. (a) 1375 Barb. viii. 350.
And quhen he saw he tynt his pane He turnit his bridill and to-ga
?1438 Alex. ii. Prol. 17. 1456 Hay II. 99/36.
To put payne and study to find the wayis to ger his peple lufe him
a1500  Gol. & Gaw. 444. 1512 Lett. James IV 258.
Considering his grete pane and charge laitlie takin and sustenit
1513 Doug. i. Prol. 287.
I knaw quhat payn was to follow hym [Virgil] fut hait
1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 859.
Thay … thocht bot paine pure pepyll for to teche
c1552 Id. Mon. 4445.
And tuke no more paine in thare precheing [etc.]
1560 Rolland Seven S. 7761.
Howbeit it was to hir sum prettie pane Ȝit vp scho rais
Ib. 8794.
Gude schir I thank ȝow of ȝour pane
Ib. 10376. a1570-86 Arbuthnot Maitl. F. xxix. 135. Id. Maitl. Q. xlii. 24. 1608 Highland P. III. 116.
This nobleman … hes with verie greate cair pane and travellis … broght that seruice to ane goode perfectioun
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 670.
Houpe of rewarde causes paine to seme pleasand
(b) 1600-1610 Melvill 294.
That quhilk haid cost us mikle pean in vean monie yeirs befor
Ib. 458.
Na profit nor pleasure without peantaken
plur. 1456 Hay I. 297/17.
That in dignitee royall for ane honour thare is a hunder paynis and travailis
1559 Reg. Privy S. V. i. 144/1.
In recompensatioun of the travellis panis and chargeis sustenit
1562-3 Winȝet I. 67/19.
Promitting ȝou to vndertak thai panis glaidly
1567 Acts III. 13/1. 1568 Cal. Sc. P. II. 502.
I may nevir ceas to put yow to panys
1571 Bann. Memor. 183.
Sua long as onie esperance rested … we never irked for ony paines
1585 James VI Ess. 78.
Then rather loaue my meaning and my panis Then lak my dull ingyne
1594 Facs. Nat. MSS. III. lxxv. 1600-1610 Melvill 122.
Be a man of grait wit, peanes and moyen
1606 Rep. Southesk MS. 13.
So will we be no way vnmyndefull of these ȝour dewtifull paynes and endevouris
1612 Edinb. B. Rec. VI. 92. 1627 Aberd. Council Lett. I. 272.
Drauing a trench from on to the other … may be done with small charges and pains
1629 Ib. 305. 1640 Maister George Blacke His Masterlesse Men 8.
Calling and desiring mee to prosecute my begun paines anent the poore mans liberation
1648 Inverness Rec. II. 201. c 1650 Red Bk. Grandtully II. 144. 1665 Lauder Jrnl. 106.
Besydes the peins they must be at to feid them with fresch mulberry leaves [etc.]
c 1680 Fountainhall in Sc. Lore I. 151.
Which paines accordingly was tane

b. To do, mak, set, tak (one's, the) pane, and to tak (the) panes, to expend much effort, exert oneself, strive, take the trouble (to do something), to (in, for) some purpose, on or upon (a person or his behalf). Also, to tak pane upon oneself, to be at the panes.sing. (1) a1400 Leg. S. xxix. 299.
He … dide his payne hale To bring hym to butlas bale
c1420 Wynt. vi. 2152 (W).
Than this Makduf … did his payne To gare thaim grant with him to ga
c1420 Ratis R. 1307. c1460 Alex. (Taym.) 90. c1475 Wall. ii. 328.(2) 1456 Hay I. 38/30.
And he maid grete payne to ger that langage of Latyne sprede
(3) a1400 Leg. S. xii. 78.
He … to emplese hyr set his payne
?1438 Alex. ii. 2063.
He wald richt glaidly set his pane For to reioyce the Bauderane
1513 Doug. i. Prol. 109.
I set my bissy pane … to mak it braid and plane
(4) 1456 Hay I. 221/33.
To tak the payne and travaile to nycht and day study in sciencis [etc.]
1535 Stewart 20653.
Fergus … tuke greit travell and pane Foi. to reskew his heretage agane
1549 Compl. 3/5.
Quhou that ȝour grace takkis pane to duelle in ane straynge cuntre
1560 Rolland Seven S. 7139.
Madame pleis ȝow to tak sic pane … to dine with ȝour souerane
1560 Cal. Sc. P. I. 479. 1570 Sat. P. xi. 14.
As turtill trew on me tuke paine
1600-1610 Melvill 238.
The King tuk pean him selff … to tak him to his cabinet
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 480.
Evill men taks paine to by hell and all for wardlie pleasour
(5) 1567 Anderson Collect. Mary I. 98.
Vnles our autoritie be assistit … be the fortificatioun of a man quha mon tak pane upon his persoun in the execution of justice
plur. (1) 1559 Cal. Sc. P. I. 256.
I am charged to tack the paines [ed. paimes] by the lordis to visitt you
1568 Breadalbane Lett. 1 Aug.
I desyris ȝow to tak the panis to haist answer heirof
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 231.
And being weryit of the greit panis and travellis takin be hir in hir governament thairof
a1578 Pitsc. I. 281/31.
[He] desyrit the said bischope … to tak sum panis to labor betuix thir tuo pairties
1590-1 R. Bruce Serm. 138. 1592 Edinb. Test. XXIV. 214.
I will that he tak panes & burdene to concur with … the vther executour
1598 Crim. Trials II. 53.
[We] hes tane panes in that mater
1600 Ib. 211. 1615 M. Works Acc. (ed.) I. 361.
To Johne Wat maisone that tuke panis in letting us sie quhair the quarrell wes to be had
c1615 Chron. Kings 107.
The Queine tuik gritt paynis to haue Bothuell most braw
1622-6 Bisset I. 7/10.
Without any bluid or panes taken for it
1660 Dumfries Council Min. 2 Oct.
For sundrie paynes takin be him for the good of the burt
(2) 1600-1610 Melvill 24.
And promise … of taking peanes on me maid the mater to go fordwart
1659 Edinb. Surgeons 297.
That he sall take paines upone him by keiping him at his learning
1660 Cramond Kirk S. II.
Compeird James Lees who efter much pains taken on him confest upon his knees
(3) 1646 Rec. Kirk Scotl. 475.
That M. Zachary Boyd be at the paines to translate the other scripturall songs in meeter

c. With (also off and nocht but) (all, gret, mekill etc.) pane(s, by dint of severe exertion, with (great) effort, with difficulty. d. But, for-owte payne, with litill payne, without difficulty, easily.c. sing. (1) 1375 Barb. vii. 626.
Bot schir Amer … Departit thame with mekill pane
Ib. x. 604. a1400 Leg. S. xl. 210. c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 107 (D).
For that he with all pyth & peyn Resistyt thane hys sawes ageyne
Ib. 1504. ?1438 Alex. i. 2701.
That it [the spear] to-fruschit with great pane [: mane]
c1420 Wynt. viii. 3194.
Bot he gat by thame wyth gret payne [: slayne]
1456 Hay I. 59/7.
That with grete payne mycht he sauf his awin lyf
a1500 Henr. III. 90/23 (B).
Preis thé with pane at all poweir
a1500 Seven S. 2658.
He fed the ravyn with mekle pane
Ib. 2668. c1515 Asl. MS. I. 203/26.
The quhilk sche did with gret trawell and pane
(2) c1475 Wall. iii. 182.
Wallace … ratornde agayne Him to reskew till that he rais off payne
(3) 1375 Barb. x. 635.
Thai … thiddir com … nocht but gret perell and payne
plur. 1375 Barb. iv. 199.
He na mocht His aynd bot with gret panys draw
a1400 Leg. S. iii. 437.
I haf ȝarninge With paynis quhill I thé kene How the tynt sawlis of almen [etc.]
d. 1375 Barb. x. 243.
And thai that neir enbuschit war … tuk the castell all but payn
a1400 Leg. S. xvi. 726.
For with Mary the Magdelane I haf bene thar for-owte payne
c1420 Wynt. viii. 3607.
Wyth lytill payne [: slayne] Thai mycht have tane thare fays
a1568 Scott iii. 46.
And swa but pane ȝe may lufe paramowris

e. To dey (also, end) in or into the pane, to die in the endeavour, to die in the attempt. 1375 Barb. xi. 650.
With ȝour leiff … I will Help hym or de in-to the payne
c1420 Wynt. iv. 764.
Suppos I happyn to be slayne And for to de in to the payne
Ib. ii. 1452, vi. 2188. a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 734.
We sal evin that is od or end in the pane [: gane]
c1475 Wall. iv. 170. 1546 Corr. M. Lorraine 172.
And gif I de in the pane, my dede salbe meretable and honest

f. For (also in consideration or satisfaction of) one's panes, as a return for his efforts, in recompense for his endeavours. Also g. to one's pane, id.f. (1) 1516 Balfour Pract. 599.
The uther half to the wardane for his panis
1549 Compl. 146/12.
[They] gat for ther panis and laubyr the butin
1569 Soc. Ant. VI. 53.
To the payntour for … his paynis
1571 Misc. Bann. C. III. 125. 1579 Conv. Burghs I. 95.
To Mongow Russell comptar for his paynis and inlaik of money
1581 Ib. 112, 129. 1604 St. A. Baxter Bks. 62.
Peanes
1615–6 Glasg. Univ. Mun. III. 567.
For his pains taine in poynding of the parochynners
1622 Macgibbon & Ross V. 550.
To the master of warkis servandis for thair extraordinar paines this yeir about the workis
1626–7 Misc. Spald. C. V. 102. 1629 Linlithgow B. Rec. 25 Nov.
To Alexander Neilsone for his peannis in wreatting of the thesaurer compt
1639 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. 598.
And ordanis him for his awin panis to sheir and cut the grass … and apply the samyn to his awin vse
1653 Vindication of the Late Generall Assembly 4.
For their great panis, travell and fidelitie
1667 Edinb. Test. LXXIII. 38.
To Doctour Young for his advyce visits and panes
1684 Jervise Memor. Angus & Mearns II. 299.
Payns
(2) 1571 Reg. Privy C. II. 88.
Ressonable allowance being maid to the apprehenders in consideratioun of thair panis
1647 Glasgow B. Rec. II. 123.
In satisfactioune of all his bygaine paynes in … viseiting suche as deceasit of the pestilence
1661 Ib. 475.
In consideratioune of his … paines in preaching heir
g. 1647 Tulliallan Coal Wks. 38b.
For 2 lintellis wining leading and lintell aill to his pane at [15/-]

7. In various prec. senses: In pain, in suffering, distress or painful endeavour. a1400 Leg. S. xviii. 408.
That I suld wit … Quhou thu in payne has dreyt this lyf
c1420 Wynt. iii. 908.
Till hym wes bath indifferent Culpabile in payne and innocent
Ib. 910.
Ay in a delyt wes he Men towrmentid in payne to se
c1460 Thewis Wysmen 406.
Thai … leif to se anvthir in payne
1490 Irland Mir. I. 43/3.
Thai that kepis the commaundis and counsale of Jhesu lyffis in pane
a1570-86 Maitl. F. lxxxv. 30.

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"Pain n.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 21 Jul 2024 <http://www.dsl.ac.uk/entry/dost/pain_n>

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