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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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About this entry:
First published 2002 (DOST Vol. XII).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Within, prep., adv. (adj.). Also: within(n)e, vithin, uithin, withe-in, wythin, -yn, vythin, withtin, vithtin, wythtin, -inne, witin, widin, wydin, wettin. [ME and e.m.E. wiðinnen (c1175), wiþþinnenn (Orm), wid-innen (c1250), witin, wid-in, wit-hin (all Cursor M.), within (1387-8), wythin (Trevisa), wythine (1482), OE wiþinnan.]See note at With prep. (conj.) about MS abbreviations.

A. prep.1. Inside, in a. A place, country, jurisdiction, town, etc. b. (Part of) a building or ship. c. An area of water, the sea. d. A harbour, etc. e. In the above contexts following a verb of motion: Into. Quot. Henr. may belong in 2 a. f. ? On, within the area of (a piece of parchment).a. 1375 Barb. ix 365.
Thai that war within the toun Quhen thai to fayr sa saw him boun Thai [etc.]
a1400 Leg. S. xxx 48.
He … had a wyf of nobil kyne & of the best the ton with-in
c1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
The toun of Berwik the qwhilk is wythin Scotlande
14.. Acts I 8/2.
Of iniure done to ane wythin gyrth
1483–4 Acta Aud. 132*/1.
Within the constablary of Hadingtoun
1506 Reg. Privy S. I 187/2.
A lettre … to William Forbes … makand him bailȝe within the lanndis and boundis of Mar and Gareauch
1517 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 172.
Thair is dyuers and mony sundry persouns maid burgessis and fremen within this burgh quhilk dwellis nocht within the saymn
1562-3 Winȝet I 5/13.
That being the special ground of al impietie and division this day within ye, O Scotland
1568 Prot. Bk. W. Cumming 90b.
All and hale his heritage lyand within the bruche and burgage of Inuernes
1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 83.
All … our soueranis lieges duelling within the sherefdomes of Edinburgh principall, within the constabularie of Hadingtoun, Lynlithgow, [etc.] … stewartries of Kirkcudbrycht, [etc.] … baillieries of Kyll, Carrik [etc.] … and all vtheris sensibill personis duelland within the saidis boundis
1587 Antiq. Aberd. & B. II 438.
Within the diocie of Aberdene
1594 Breadalbane Ct. Bk. 71b.
The croftis within the mains of Bulloch
1609 Skene Reg. Maj. (Latin) i 137 marg.
Thrie head courtis within burgh [L. in burgo]
c1641–54 J. Gordon in Macfarlane's Geog. Coll. II 523.
Glen-Garry is all within the land not touching the sea
1698 S. Ronaldshay 70.
Few were satisfied to go to the length of the othr church, which was within the same isle
(b) 1397 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 33.
Witht in the kinryk of Scotland
c1420 Wynt. i 719.
Wytht-in [C. Withe in] Ynde … Thare lywys a folk wytht-owtyn hede
1470 15th Rep. Hist. MSS App. viii 11.
Wythtin the barony of Hawic
(c) 1413 Frasers of Philorth II 201.
Landis … lyand widin the schyrrefdome of the Merenys
1545 Montgomery Mem. 138.
Land … liand witin the lordschip of Roberton, ballere of Cunyngham, and schirefdom of Ayre
b. 14.. Acts I 346/2.
All the insicht uithin the inpert of the hous (that is to say uithin the cruke hingand abufe the fire)
c1450-2 Howlat 124 (A).
He callit on his cubicular within his conclaif
c1475 Wall. i 235.
He knew the hous … The gude wyff than within the clos saw he
1534–5 M. Works Acc. (ed.) I 123.
The rudis of causay makkin within and without the said palice
1549 Compl. 42/10.
The master gart al his marynalis & men of veyr hald them quiet at rest, be rason that the mouyng of the pepil vitht in ane schip, stoppis hyr of hyr faird
1560 Treas. Acc. XI 31.
Withtin the castell of Edinburght
1561 Edinb. B. Rec. III 106.
It is thocht gude that thair be na buriell within the kirk and that the kirk yard is nocht of sufficient rowme for bureing of the deid
1579–80 Milne-Home MSS 50.
In his bed within ane laych chalmer in the place of Polwart
1624 Crim. Trials III 570.
The haill guidis and merchandice imput within the said schip
1649 Glasgow B. Rec. II 179.
It is thoght … necessar they eitt and bed within the hous
1662 Reg. Privy C. 3 Ser. I 135.
[Several of the crew made use of some] louse lint and hards to ly upon within the hold of the ship
c. 1513 Doug. iii x 72.
Within the fyrth of Sycill … Thar lyis ane iland
1533 Boece 52b.
Ane heich montane, ane grete space within the sey callit the Mule
1535 Stewart 97.
Ane abbay sumtyme of authoritie, In Iona yle within the occident se
1596 Dalr. I 9/1.
Scotlande … is hail within the sey, excepte that parte quhair it lyes to Ingland
1661 Soc. Ant. XXII 247.
Isabell Syrie did cary hir to the insch within the loch of Forfar
d. 1521 Douglas Corr. 77.
A bark and v marchantis shippes … lay within the kee at Leith
1577 Aberd. B. Rec. II 30.
Na victuall … to pas furtht … in na schip … that beis laid withtin this hevyn
?1623 Melrose P. 513.
A charge to the Hollanders to forbeare invasion within the beakin of Leith
e. c1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
Lange befor the brynninge of Berwike yhour men com within our lorde the kyngis awin propir lande of Arane
c1420 Wynt. iii 1069.
Fergus-Ercson … Broucht this stane wytht-in Scotland
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2505.
Was nowther volff, vildcat, nor ȝit tod Durst cum within thay boundis all about, Bot he wald chase thame
c1500-c1512 Dunb. G. Targe 92.
Full lustily thir ladyes … Enterit within this park
1509 Reg. Privy S. I 283/2.
Saffly and surely to cum within the realm be sey, freche watteris, or be land
1526–7 Carnwath Baron Ct. (SHS) 54.
Gyf that ony gud brekis the dykis & cumis vithin [MS vithtin] the corn & medo the gud to be pindit in ane lawfull punfalld
1533 Bell. Livy I 149/23.
I will pas oure Tyber and enter within the tentis of my inemyis
1549 Compl. 5/32.
He pat ane garnison of tua thousand men vitht in the toune of Sanct Quintyne
1567 Reg. Privy C. I 510.
Throw the homebringing of fals … cunye, namit hardheidis, and uther layit money, within this realme
c1590 Fowler I 79/51.
The Troians and the Romans to I haif maid to discend Within thair dreidfull grawe
1594 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. I 218.
Ilk boitt that sall happin to cum within the said cuntrey … sall pay [etc.]
1609 Skene Reg. Maj. i 151b.
Gudes exported forth of the realme, or imported within the samine
1632 Justiciary Cases I 200.
The said schip … brocht in be the said skipper … within the harbourie and heavin of Leith and laid fast at the new kie
f. 1509 Reg. Episc. Glasg. II 523.
The prenspall fundatoun donatioun … ane mes bwik of Cadder the quhilkis is perchment on the baksyd wettin that the crucifix is on follovand sanctus

2. a. Inside, also, with verb of motion, into the limits of an enclosed area, on the inner side of a boundary. Also in fig. context. b. Within themselffes (themsell), within the confines of their own property. Cf. Wyit prep. c. Within dores, indoors, in the house. d. On the inner surface of (a garment).a. a1400 Leg. S. xxxi 333.
He … wes … to the matron brocht in hy With-in the curtenȝeis til hir bede
c1475 Wall. xi 196.
A fell lyoun the king has gert be brocht With in a barrace … Terlyst in yrn
c1500-c1512 Dunb. G. Targe 11.
Thir birdis sang thair houris Within thair courtyns grene, in to thair bouris
1513 Doug. ix xii 93.
Keyn Prytanyus Quhilkis mysknew Turnus was within the wall
1523 Carnwath Baron Ct. (SHS) 9.
Dauid Somerwell dosyrit to haif his part of all the landis that is vithin [MS vithtin] the dykis
1576 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. 269.
As the merkstaneis wes set of befoir within the dykis
fig. 1637 Rutherford Lett. (1894) 171.
When the race is ended, and … ye are in the utmost circle and border of time, and shall put your foot within the march of eternity
b. 1659 Lanark B. Rec. 172.
That no man quho hes endes of landes lyand to the braidsyde of ane uther that they na wayes wynd upoun the braidsyd of the said land bot make ane heidrige within themselffes
1675 Rothesay B. Rec. 339.
That all persones within thee toun who have skabbed horse and meares destroy them or else keip them within themsell and in ther oun custody quherby uthers may not sustaine the lyke skaith therby
1691 Rothesay B. Rec. 474.
Those who hes kowes and does not put them before the herd are to keip them within themselves
c. 1660 A. Hay Diary 236.
Having been within dores all day
d. 1502 Treas. Acc. II 68.
For othir xxxvj elne lynyn claith … to lay within the capes

3. Inside, in ((a part of) the body, esp. the hand as grasping an object, a container or the like). b. In (the text of) a document. a1400 Leg. S. xxviii 270.
Thai suld tak that maydin schen, & dispoil hyre of hyr clathis … & strakis fel til hyre let warpe, & … thai suld nocht blyne, Hyre body til thai suld se with-in
c1420 Wynt. i 775.
The teth that are wytht-in Hys hewyde ar set in chestyr thryn
c1450-2 Howlat 732 (A).
Haile blythar of the Baptist, within the bowallis, Off Elizabeth thi ant, aganis natur!
1513 Doug. vii Prol. 111 (Sm.).
Wythin my bed I waikynnit quhair I lay
1513 Doug. x vii 88.
Half lyfles thi fyngyrris war sterand, Within thy neif doys gryp and faik the brand
1567 G. Ball. 43.
Christ tuke the breid his hand within, Blissing it brak it, gaif the same Till his apostillis
1612 Crim. Trials III 243.
He … beft and dang him, … and brak and birset his haill intrallis within him
a1633 Hope Major Pract. II 296.
The wyff of a theiff may not be condemned for the thift … except the thing stollen be found within her keyes, as within her chist or ambrie
1663 Inv. Ld. J. Gordon's Furniture.
Within the stand bed, ane cours fethir bed
b. 1389 Wemyss Chart. 23.
This endenture, made … betwyx … Scyr Jon of the Wemys … and Doncane … euynlyke til all men wydin the seluyn berys wytnes

4. a. In less than a (specified) period of time, before a specified period has elapsed; at a point during the course of (a term, the night, etc.). Also, during the course of an activity. b. Within aige (elde, years, the years of curatorie), less than the legal age of maturity, under age. See Elde n. 2 b for further examples. c. Less than a specified age. d. Into (the night, etc.), after the beginning of (night, etc.).a. (1) 1375 Barb. iv 656.
With-in schort tyme ȝe sall be king
c1400 Troy-bk. i 161.
Within the terme … of ȝeris thre
c1420 Wynt. viii 7129.
He sayd, that wythyn nyne yere In to the warld thair suld fal sere Ferlys
14.. Acts I 22/2.
Gif a mute be raisyt betuene a burges and a marchand it sall be endyt wythin the thrid flud of the see
1471 Acta Aud. 16/1.
The last court quhen … the dome was gevin was within feryale tyme onne Gude Wednisday in passioun woulk
1480 Acta Conc. I 55/1.
Within awcht dais next flouand the ische of the next justice aier of Pertht
1500 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 85.
It wes limit the time of xv dayes to all persouns … haiffand sic guidis closit in hous, that thai suld haif clengeit the samyn, or to haif gart clenge within the said terme
1533 Bell. Livy I 220/23.
The said Veanis come our Tiber within the nycht & assaleȝit the tentis of Servilius consull
1540 Acts II 357/1.
The appelland nocht bringand hame his commissioune within ȝeire and day
a1568 Bann. MS 226a/47.
Sen scho my mvrning meis may within a moment
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 35.
At buth within viii dayis, scho finischit that unmatrimoniall matrimonie
1589 Logie Par. Hist. I 21.
Alexander Fargy minister … to answer within xx dayis nixt heireftir fra [etc.]
1677 Morison Dict. Decis. 286.
That he had now an irredeemable right, not being satisfied within the years of the legal, which was expired
1681 Stair Inst. iii ii§ 14.
Minors may redeem lands apprised from them at any time within their age of twenty-five years complete
(2) c1420 Wynt. iv 2135.
The Romanys … Innowmerabill wytht-in that fycht … to ded wes dycht
b. c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2063.
Agamenone … Had o sone … That to his name Arestes hicht, And was with-in eld ȝit suthly
14.. Reg. Maj. c. 154.
Gif he agaynis quham the perambulacone is purchasit be within elde the perambulacione sal ses
1464–5 Charter (Reg. H.) C.O. No. 60.
The said Alexander … was within age
1496–7 Acta Conc. II 42.
Marione Farnle … askit and nemmyt that scho micht haf to … hir son, quhilk was within aige, curatouris
1528 Acta Conc. Publ. Aff. 275.
Sche is young and within aige
1570 Leslie 122.
Quhill the king is within aige, we aucht to move na weir
1582 Burntisland B. Ct. 27 March.
Scho was minor with in the ȝeris off curatorie
a1639 Spotsw. Hist. (1677) 6.
Eugenius … was declared king; and because he was yet within years, the regency of the realm committed to Greem his grandfather
c. 1563 Prot. Bk. Gilbert Grote 58.
[Whe he was] withtin ten ȝeir auld
1679 Fountainhall Decis. I 56.
There is no woman that is past 12, and within 52, that is condemned to die for a malefice, but may pretend her being with child
d. 1632 Lithgow Trav. iv 142.
The last howre of prayer, is alwayes two or three howres within night

5. In (a particular group, etc.), belonging to, in the membership or bound by the rules of (a group). 14.. Acts I 39/2.
That nothir lytstar na fleschwar na soutar may be wythin the fredome of the gylde bot gif [etc.]
c1475 Wall. ix 98.
The lakest schip, that is his flot within
1535 Acts II 349/2.
That my lord chancellar within ane certane of lordis quham plesis the kingis grace to … sitt wolkly ane day to [etc.]
1647 Aberd. B. Rec. IV 72.
Their cam in to the burgh of Aberdein 23 sojoris with ane ancient for recruiting, Major James Stewart his company within the foirsaid regiment

6. In the limits of (something non-material, sometimes regarded as having extent), in the scope or sphere of (an ability, quality, area of authority, etc.). c1420 Wynt. i 1032.
The merys ar wyth in thare sycht
c1460 Wisd. Sol. (STS) 382.
He mellis hyme, of his awne wyll, within sa mony diuers materis, but end, at [etc.]
1489–90 Acta Aud. 131/2.
The schereffis quhilkis prisit his gudis haid prisit thaim gretly within the avale of thaim
1492–3 Acta Conc. I 272/2.
He wes within our souerane lordis warde
1508 Reg. Privy S. I 271/2.
A court … for ministratioun of justice to certane personis within the bondis of his office
1539 Ex. Processes (Reg. H.) No. x (Scott v. Scott & McDowall).
Janet Scot … and James Douglas … ar neir of kin and consanguinite within greis
1553 Rec. Earld. Orkney 250.
Ane lachfull ayr of his gottyne of his awyne body and vythin the band of materymonye
1576 Orkney Oppress. 47.
To sell thair guddis and landis far within the worth
1622-6 Bisset I 299/33.
To appryse all they guidis ilk thrid penny within the worth for that ilk maill
a1633 Hope Major Pract. II 265.
In the depositions mor fayth should be given to thes that ar within dignity then to wthers and to the rich mor to the poor
1678 M. P. Brown Suppl. Decis. III 239.
To acquaint them it was not within the four nooks of their commission

7. Within oneself, one's hart, etc., in oneself, in one's mind, emotions or being. c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 192/22.
Patience sayis, Be not agast; Hald Hoip and Treuthe within thé fast And lat Fortoun wirk furthe hir rage
a1578 Pitsc. I 33/12.
He brunt the mair for anger within him sellff
a1605 Montg. Sonn. xxxiv 5.
More hevynes within my hairt I heep Nor cative Cresside, vhair sho lipper lay

8. Less than (a specified distance from something), in the limits of a specified distance. a1500 Henr. Fab. 1073.
This hound off hell, He werryit hes my lamb full doggitly Within ane myle
c1475 Wall. v 782.
The Inglismen was than within a myill, On fresche hors rydand full hastely
1545 Douglas Corr. 158.
The guverner is in Lawder vithin 10 meille off Gedbruchg
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 1308.
Nane durst cum … Within the boundis of his brand
1600 Acts IV 203/2.
As his Maiestie wes within tua pair of butelangis to the towne of Perth

B. adv.1. Inside (a building, ship, etc.). b. Inside (a city). 1375 Barb. v 109.
In the castell the lord the Persy Hard weill the noyis … Sa did the men that within wer And full effraytly got thar ger
1375 Barb. ix 376 (C).
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 648 (C).
The syluer and the gold … they ta, And the charges of whet … And to thar shippes had it syne And with it charged thame with-inne [D. wytht-inne]
c1420 Wynt. iii 956, 958.
The fyre wyth-owt thare kendyllyt sa fast The smyth wytht-in wes at the last … Wytht-in hys handy werk thare dede
c1475 Wall. vi 257.
Sum grecis lap, and sum stekit with in, Aferd thai war with hidwis noyis and dyne
15.. Sym & Bruder 17.
Sen thair bairdis grew on thair mow They saw nevir the kirk within
c1679 Kirkton Hist. 381.
Upon this all within horsed and chased Carstaires and his party
b. a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 462.
Mony sege our the sey to the cite socht … Thai bend bowis of bras braithly within; Pellokis paisand to pase, Gapand gunnys of brase [etc.]

2. a. Inside (the body, heart, etc.), within (oneself). b. Inside, on the inner surface of (a container, receptacle or object).a. a1400 Leg. S. xxv 505.
Julyane … resemblyt fore to be Worthy and gud bot ȝet he Wykyt wolfe wes withine
?1438 Alex. i 1482.
Gaudifere for dule and ire Brint within as ony fyre
a1450 Fifteen Ois 317.
Sweit Jesu, wound my hart within Witht sair regrating for my syn
c1515 Asl. MS I 155/26.
Contrar the northin men quhar cald without stoppit the smale poris haldis the hete within and makis him gretar hardiar and baldar of hert
1629 Boyd Last B. 289.
Nothing … shall bee inlaking that may rejoyce all the senses … without, and … our soules within
b. c1420 Wynt. iii 926.
This smyth … He made in hy a bull off bras, Large and hole wyth-in it was
1513 Doug. i iv 11.
Within the watir in a bosum gays
1564 Reg. Privy C. I 308.
Ane cowip of silver dowbill ouregilt, with ane cover peirlit with cristallyne within
1595–6 Misc. Spald. C. V 63.
Ane new coill mett … banditt within and without witht yrne
1628–9 M. Works Acc. (ed.) II 256.
The window brodis to be layit over without with oyle cullour and within in temper cullour

3. Less than (the age, number, period of time or amount specified). a1400 Leg. S. xxxvi 997.
Al barnis … Of twa ȝere elde & withine
14.. Acts I 346/2.
The crownaris sall haue … the scheip uithin tuenty, gait and swyne uithin ten, the corn of brokin stakkis and mowis [etc.]
1486 Exch. R. IX 614.
For the termes of fife yeris, thre yeris, or within as salbe thocht expedient
1509 Reg. Privy S. I 283/2.
Ane schip or schippis of the birth of [50] tun or within
1530 Lennox Mun. 239.
The sowm of xvjc merkis or wythtin
15.. Clar. iv 724.
The King was never into houshold, Within four hundereth [of] knightis bold

4. Const. past participle: (Written, etc.) in this document, herein. Also attrib. 1535–6 M. Works Acc. (ed.) I 179.
The haill enteres of aikyn tymmer to the furnising of the werkis withinwritten
1539 Grant Chart. 275.
It is appontit, conwenit, and finally agreit betuix the parteis withtin writing, that [etc.]
1555 Edinb. B. Rec. II 228.
Sic personis … to tak cognitioun as is within writtin
1585 Inverness Rec. I 301.
The jugis wyth the inqueist withinwreit hes ordanit … the rest of the personis conteinit in the brocht within wreit to [etc.]
1665 Irvine Deeds.
Hew Thomson of the tenement of land within wrytin
1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 151 (23 Aug.).
Ressaved be me the within designed Gilbert McCartney furth of the proces the horning and protestatioune within mentionat as witnes my hand
attrib. 14.. Acts I 106/2.
Thru the auctorite of our kyngdome thir wythin wryttyn statutis ar maid & firmyt
1572 Stewart Mem. 104.
The said Jhone … oblisses hym … to fulfill and performe this within writtin contract … the said Alexander … oblissis him to fulfill this within writing contract
1579–80 Rec. Earld. Orkney 154.
All heidis and articles contenit in this within wryttin precept
1611 Reg. Privy C. IX 637.
Haveing … informed us … of the contentis of this his within-closed handwrote, cleiring him of any injustice
1671 Kirkcudbr. Test. (Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct.) 5 July.
At command of the within-namit Marion Howatson … I Henrie Moir notar publict … becaus she could not wryt dois subscryve
1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 151 (23 Aug.) (see above). 1678 Kirkcudbr. Test. (Reg. H.) 16 Jan.
The within nominat Jannet McClin relick and … the within nominat Mairioun
1690 Lennoxlove MS C1/561/14.
Receaved by me … the abovewriten soume … as the sume of the withinwriten accompt of lyme

C. adj.a. Enclosed. b. Erron. for with in.Cf. Out-wach n.a. a1578 Pitsc. I 63/14.
Schir Thomas Randall … quhois warkes can testiefie his lyfe in the withtin book rehearssit befoir in the same historie
1692 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Deeds II 693.
Payd of the within bond a rix dollar
b. 1531 Bell. Boece II 216.
This castell … wes sa straitlie keippit in thay dayis, within wach and out wache, that na man gat ische nor entres but speciall licence of the king

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