Show Search Results Show Browse

A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

Hide Quotations Hide Etymology

Abbreviations Cite this entry

About this entry:
First published 2000 (DOST Vol. VIII).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

S(c)ho, n. Also: s(c)hoe, s(c)hoo(e, shou-, schue, shew. Pl. s(c)hone, schon, scone, schonne, shoeen, s(c)hoin(e, schoyn(e, schoune, shoun(e, schown(e, schouin, schowin, schun(e, schwne, s(c)hoon(e, schewyne, schion, schiuine; schyne, shin, schene; -chois, -ys, s(c)hoes, s(c)hooes, -(i)s, shoo's, shous, showis, -es, -s, schuis, shwis, s(c)hew(e)s; sche(w; schounes. [ME and e.m.E. sho (Orm), sso (1340), show (1395), schoo (Prompt. Parv.), pl. schon (13th c.), scheon (Ancr. R.), shoon (Chaucer), shoes (Piers Plowman), showys (1518), OE scóh masc.]

1. A shoe, the article of footwear.For further examples, see Bute n.2, Clout v., Clouter n., Cordinar(e n., Hobbill v.2, S(c)hank n. 3, etc.Chiefly recorded in plural, with -n and (later) with -s inflection, also without inflection.sing. a1400 Leg. S. xiii 78.
He … saw a bochour mend al[d] schone, & gef hyme his scho for to mend
c1460 Thewis Gud Women 273.
Quhen scho [= she] is tred hir scho one heill Than will thai say [etc.]
1490 Irland Mir. III 71/28.
Thou will nocht haue ane euill govn, ane euill hois ane euill scho [etc.]
1570 Sempill Sat. P. xii 120.
Keip ȝow fra cauld, haif claith within ȝour scho
1572 Sat. P. xxxiii 369.
Coit, dowblet, sark and scho [:thairto]
a1585 Polwart Flyt. 728 (T).
Syn thow succeid to weir the siluer scho
1608 Dundonald Par. Rec. 169.
Scho tuik ane auld left foot scho of hir husbandis and thairin thrust the said Kaithreinis sair pap and cuist the said scho over the balk tuys or thryse
1622 Crim. Trials III 533.
It is affirmet … that scho tuik ane schooe and pat in sum seidis thairin
(b) 1666-74 Fraser Polichron. 232.
James put off neither shew or stocking, coat or shirt … till his return again to Lovat
infl. pl. with -n. a1400 Leg. S. vii 681.
For nothire wes lewit in that towne Hwnde, na catte, na ȝet ratone, Hyde, na skyne, na ȝet ald s[ch]one Vnhetyne
c1420 Wynt. ii 1107.
Messengerys … Wytht aulde hose and rywine schone
14.. Acts I 336/2.
Thai sow witht fals and rottin threid throu the quhilk the schone ar tynt or thai be half worn
1474 Treas. Acc. I 71.
For xl pare of schone, xl s.
1490 Ib. 132.
On Skyre Thurisda … for … xviij payre of schone … to xviij pure men
1493 Acts II 234/1.
Schone was wont to be sauld for xij d. or better schape
1502–3 Treas. Acc. II 304. 1506 Ib. III 356.
For … gilting of ane pair bukkilles to the kingis schone
1535 Stewart 59527.
James Stewart … playand … wes … at the catche withoutin hude or hat, Bot s[ch]one also
1558 Inverness Rec. I 26.
That na craftisman cordinar … sell onne gentyll men schone derrar nor xviij d. the payr, the women schone xiiij d., serwandis schone to be sald for xvj d., barnis schone to be sald for xj d. the payr
1564–5 Perth B. Ct. 278 (23 March).
Ane pair of scone
1576 Inverness Rec. I 250 (see b below). 1576–7 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. I 25.
Ane pair of new ledderis to schone
1581 Edinb. Test. X 75.
xxiij peces of soill ledder and xxviij peces of vther ledder of schone
1582 Kirkcaldy B. Rec. 76.
Ane pair of new schone as bountay
1584 Sempill Sat. P. xlv 776.
He gave thame leive to dicht his schone [: done]
1589–90 Crail B. Ct. MS 24 Feb.
Ane pair of new schone apt and meit for the said Williamis awin feit
1596–7 Misc. Spald. C. I 87.
Thow causit … [the shepherd] to tak certane droggis of witchecraft maid be thé, sic as auld shone, and cast tham in the fyir of John Clwb
1600 Treas. Acc. in Crim. Trials II 237.
To his majesteis … paiges, for thair allowance in schone [etc.]
1603 Elgin Rec. II 119.
Androw Donalsoun, cordiner, lastand schone … the tyme of sermone
1604 Dundonald Par. Rec. 63.
Accused of … cuting af hobellis of Hev Petticrufes schone
1621 Fraserburgh Kirk S. 119 (28 Feb.).
To Androw Jaffray puir scoller to by hime ane pair off schone 6 s.
1623 Perth Kirk S. MS 14 May.
The said Margaret … ressaueit for waigeis, ane sark and ane pair schone
c1630 Linlithgow B. Rec. in Ecclesia Antiqua 167.
[The cordiners of Linlithgow … frequented] landward kirks and villages with their schone to be sould
1635 Dunferm. Hammermen 64.
Feeit … for … ten pounds of fie and twa pair of shone, togidder with ane pair of stockings
c1650 Spalding I 347.
Bot our country people had dar schone thairefter, sum paying xl s., sum 36 s., that wont to be coft for xx or 24 s.
(b) 1474 Treas. Acc. I 38.
To Hud sutor, for the quenis schoune
1530 Balmerino & L. Chart. ii 32.
1543 Elgin Rec. I 76.
Thwa pair new schowin, price xxxii d.
1551 Banff Ann. I 29.
Considerand the gritt exorbitane prices rissin in selling off schovin that na warkman … tak on hand to sell ony schovin without thai be apprisit be the baillies
1610 Brechin Test. III 124.
Ane pair schowne x s.
1647 Dumfries Treas. Acc. MS p. 12.
For ane pair of hose and shoun to ane of them [sc. soldiers]
1655 Glasg. Univ. Mun. III 495.
(c) 1480–1 Prestwick B. Rec. 29.
1549 Elgin Rec. I 99.
1585 Prot. Bk. J. Scott 1b/2.
James Brydie ane mendar of schoin
1618 Elgin Rec. II 154.
1627 Cramond Cullen Ann. 36, 37.
A harvest fee is £4 with ain pair of new schoin and ane pair of auld schoin
(d) a1570-86 Dunb. Maitl. F. 378/13.
Sowtaris, with weill maid schwne and mete Ȝe mend the faltis of ewill maid fete
1559 Rentale Dunkeld. (SHS) 355.
Ane pair of schun to Peir the gardner
1586 St. A. Test. II 63.
1602 Dundonald Par. Rec. 5.
Hir husband … had coft to hir ane pair of schune for v s. iiii d.
1602 Shetland Sheriff Ct. (ed.) 17. 1653–4 Peebles B. Rec. II 196.
(e) c1520-c1535 Nisbet Luke xv 22.
1588–9 Ayr B. Acc. 161.
1595 Duncan App. Etym.
Cerdo, a mender of schoone
Discalceo, to pull off the schoone
1619 Aberd. Council Lett. I 171.
Thair is tackin of everie stand sett doun for haulding of merchandice at ony of the saids fairis … for everie pair of schoone tua d.
1628 Linlithgow B. Rec. 15 Feb.
The saidis cordineris to obey the act foirsaid … anent the pryce of schoone
1640 Dumfries Treas. Acc. 11.
For a pair of schoone in bunteth to Harbert Andersone
?1655 Fugitive Poetry II xxviii 3/78.
Where cobblers … mend old shoone
1682 Cunningham Diary 21.
He … is to get half a crown more nor his 12 lb. as a pair of shoon's price
(f) c1520-c1535 Nisbet III 328/38.
The weray dythting of schonne ande siclik
(g) 1561 Inverness Rec. I 55.
For setting of pricis to thair schewyne conforme to the pricis of the leddyr
(h) 1575 6th Rep. Hist. MSS App. 657/1.
To … my lords post to by schene 3 s.
(i) 1592 Dundee B. Laws 533.
Ten schillingis wit ane pair of bounty schyne
1674 Stitchill Baron Ct. 75.
infl. pl. with -s. 1513 Doug. viii viii 10.
Apon his feyt hys meit schoys hote War buklyt on the gys of Tuscany
1572 Sat. P. xxxiii 347.
Ȝe that maks schois and claiths
1622 Fraserburgh Kirk S. 132 (3 April).
That the said Johne sall give ȝeirlie ane boll of meill with clothes & schoes [to the maintenance of his child]
1640 Kirkcudbr. Min. Bk. 76.
The poore sogers are almost perisched and in danger of thair lyves for want of schoes and clothes
1663–6 Household Bks. Archb. Sharp MS 4.
Tua paire of lese shoes to the litill boyis
1680 Kirkintilloch B. Ct. 110.
A paire of shoes estimate to be worth twintie foure shilling
1680 Fawside Coal Compt 63.
To Elizabeth Nicoll for hir shoes £1 10 s.
(b) 1530 Balmerino & L. Chart. ii 32.
Twa blak shwis
(c) 1542 Misc. Bann. C. I 14.
Which maner of schoois … in Latyne be called perones
1640 Kirkcudbr. Min. Bk. 152.
1664 Household Bks. Archb. Sharp in Misc. Maitl. C. II 509.
Gray schooes to my lord
1675 Cunningham Diary 60.
To my man for his bountie shoo's for the half-year
1681 Colvil Whig's Suppl. (1681) i 13.
Shooes [: toes]
1695 Cullen Kirk S. 13 May.
14 s. for buying shooes
(d) 1603 Montgomery Mem. 250.
Four par of coullouerit [sic] shous
1660–1 Peebles B. Rec. II 202.
For ane pair of shows to your calf hird … 10 s.
1680 Maxtones 45.
If your showes do not fit … they sall be changed but send your missour quhen yee send againe
1681 Sheriffhall Coal Accompt 9 April.
For a pair of shows at the watter
1686 Old Ross-shire II 19.
1696 Dumfr. & Galloway Soc. 3 Ser. XXXIII 136.
(e) 1631 Edinb. Test. LV 20b.
Ane cloikbag with ane pair of schewes
1666 Old Ross-shire II 82.
The not selling of barkit hydes quhilk occasiones the skearsnes of schewes
c1680 Bk. Dunvegan I 205.
Shews for my leday
1707 Corshill Baron Ct. 220.without infl. 1662 Old Ross-shire II 51 (see S(c)ho-maker n. (1)).

b. With adjectival or other specification of the material used in making the shoes, usu. some sort of leather. 1375 Barb. ii 513.
Na schoyne thai had Bot as thai thaim off hydys mad
1504–5 Treas. Acc. III 35.
Half ane elne wellus to be schone to the king
1531 Ib. V 416.
Gray sateyn to be ane goun and ane cote with slevis, to be schone and bar hois to the king
1537 Ib. VI 331.
Paris blak to be the kingis grace schone
15.. Christis Kirk 14 (M).
To dance the damisallis thame dicht … Thair schone war of the straitis
1559 Reg. Episc. Aberd. I xc.
Two showes of cloath of gold
1574 Edinb. Test. III 177.
Ane pair of over ledderis of marekin schone prisit to v s.
1576 Inverness Rec. I 250.
James Tomson … makis ewill and insufficient wark of schone … and makis schone of horse leddir, waittis of smyddie belleissis and auld buittis [etc.]
1603 Philotus 237.
Ȝour schankis of silk ȝour veluot schone
1609 Soc. Ant. IV 393.
Fiftie pair of weit ledder schone to serwandis price of the pair tuentie schillingis
1614 Rec. Earld. Orkney 382.
A pair dry leder schone
1623 Elgin Rec. II 180.
It was not sa with hir quhan scho yeed with a blankat about hir ars, taw ledder and clout auld schoyn
16.. Bk. Dunvegan I 206.
Shews marikin
1701 Aberd. Journal N. & Q. VI 184.
For a pair of maricken shous 2 libs. 8½ shil.
1707 Foulis Acc. Bk. 465.
For 2 pair of neats leather shoes at 2 lib. 12 sh. the pair

c. With adjectival or other indication of the style, fashion or function of the shoes.Cuttit schone, sandals.Heich schone, ? shoes with high uppers. c1475 Wall. viii 1201.
In his armour quhilk gudly was and gay. His schenand schoys, that burnyst was full beyn [etc.]
1496 Treas. Acc. I 306.
A pare of dowbil solit schone
1501 Ib. II 22.
For i pair of armyng schone of mailȝee, xxiiij s.
1507 Ib. IV 29.
ij pair double solit schone … for the quene
1508 Ib. 32.
Corkit schone … ilk pair iij s.
1512 Ib. 214.
Schone corkit and uncorkit
1516 Fam. Rose 188.
Doubill solit schone, price of the pare ij s.
1528 Lynd. Dreme 72.
I dressit me … With dowbyll schone
1538 Treas. Acc. VI 411.
Blak velvet to be twa pare of pantonis, and iij pare of heich schone to the kingis grace
Ib. VII 13.
Twa schone of mailȝe of the Almane fassoun
c1540 Lynd. Kitteis Conf. 88.
Schone with dowbill soillis
1543 Treas. Acc. VIII 232.
Velvet to be heich schone to my lord governour
Ib. 233.
For … velvet to cover ane pair of laich schone to my lord governour
15.. Lichtoun Dreme 72 (B).
Ane pair of courtly schone of gude reid copper
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 5866.
Cuttit schone, nor clippit hede, That daye sall stande ȝow in no stede
1565 Misc. Maitl. C. I 263.
I mervell that ȝe send vs not out the singill suollitt schoine quhilk ȝe promissit
1595 Duncan App. Etym.
Pero, vpalands shoone
1597 Aberd. Sheriff Ct. I 389.
6 pair of schewit schone
1613 Inverness Rec. II 118.
Luggit men schoin, on luggit men schion, dubill solit men schoin
1637 Banff Ann. I 80.
The price of singil soillit schoes for ilk inche within the waittis therof 12 d.
1640 Orkney & Shetl. Ct. Bk. in Misc. Maitl. C. II 212.
In tyme cuming the saidis cordinaris sall mak good and sufficient work for twentie penneyis the insche of dowbill solit shone
1640 Dumbarton B. Rec. 63.
Best sort of schoone—thrie sollit twentie-sex pennies the inche; second sort twentie pennies—thay to be tymmer heillit, and the single sollit schoone sixteen pennies the inche, ithers fourteen pennies. Bairnes schoone, doubill solit, sevin inches and undir the same, sixteen pennies; second sort fourtien pennies. Pryce of buittis with leggis and toppis the quadrupill of the schoone
1676 Kirkintilloch B. Ct. 76.
Corne … stollen … be a persone with iron heill habbells on single sollit shoone
1681 Colvil Whig's Suppl. (1681) ii 9.
Which double sold shoes makes of single With help of old pieces of leather
1687 Kirkcudbr. Test. (Reg. H.) 7 Oct.
Fyve pair of cott heallt showes
1702 Foulis Acc. Bk. 304.
For a pair of shoes to Geordie with a laigh heell … £2 2 s.

d. Implicitly, by contrast, distinguished from other kinds of footwear, as boots, etc. 14.. Acts I 336/2.
Of sowtaris … that thai mak schone butis and vther graitht of the lethir or it be barkit
1489 Treas. Acc. I 111.
For xxxti payre of schone and xxxti paire of pantonis
1494 Ib. 223.
To Jame Lyntoune, for schvne, brodikynnis and butis
1497 Halyb. 132.
For pantoffyll and schon
1503 Treas. Acc. II 212.
Tua pair schone of wellus and ane pair of pantonis of wellus, maid in Flandrez
Ib. 233.
Payit to … cordonar for schone, butis, pantonis, caffunȝeis
1509 Justiciary Rec. (Reg. H.) II 146.
Anentis cordynaris geif thai sellis shone & butis derrar than is contenit in the actis of parliament
1535 Stewart 51321 (see Rilling n.). 1540 Lynd. Sat. 3143 (Ch.).
I can mak schone brotekins and buittis … Heir is my lasts and weill wrocht ledder to
1561 Reg. Privy C. I 191.
Sik exorbitant derth … of the barkit ledder is resin … that the butis, schone, and uther apparalingis maid thairof, ar sauld sa deir that the pouer servandis, … and utheris liegis … wil be … depauperat
1566 Facs. Nat. MSS III li.
Mulis and schiuine
1583 Cal. Sc. P. VI 690.
1590 Dundee B. Laws 390.
Vellie Sadller is admitted master to the cordenar craft, and hes gifyn hes sey schounes, buttis, mullis
1596 Crim. Trials I ii 391. 1599 6th Rep. Hist. MSS 661/1.
Pantounes and schoes brouderit vith pearles
1645 in Spalding II 497.
1647 Caldwell P. 100.
Ane pair of gray buitts and a pair of gray shoine
1671 Edinb. B. Rec. X 106.
The streets … of this citie are full of landward men and women crieing for old boots and shoone to sell
1701 Moncreiffs 391.
Marikine shoes and slippers

e. To caus (someone) sleip in his shoone, to kill him out of hand. 1612 Reg. Privy C. IX 415.
He wald caus the said James sleip in his shoone before he past over the Month

f. attrib. and comb. In sing. and pl. See also S(c)ho-maker n.Shone (shoe) silver, a money allowance for the purchase of shoes.(1) 1477 Edinb. Chart. 141.
Alsa the scho merket of cordenaris fra Forestaris Wynd end westwart to Dalrimpill west yarde dike
1662 Peebles B. Rec. II 54.
That the magistrattes shall, in tyme comeing, visite the meall and schoe mercattes
1664 Dunferm. B. Rec. II 272.
Ordains that the benefeitt & dewtie of the shomercat dew to the toun at the four fairs be law[ful]lie roupit on Monday nixt
1676 Peebles B. Rec. II 91.
To have the shoemarket betuixt the croce and the eist port
1683 Ib. 108, 109.
1692 Conv. Burghs IV 644.
Shooe marcat
(b) 1603 Paisley B. Rec. 254.
Johne Alexander, and James Wilsoune, cordiners, visitouris of the schoone mercat
(2) a1568 Pedder C. 70.
That he will … baneis thame the burges raw, And to the scho streit ȝe thame ken
1600 Acts IV 205/2.
The schogait
1609 Edinb. Test. XLV 97b.
His foirland in the schoegait of the said burcht
(3) a1538 Abell 99a.
He wes of law kin for it is said at he wes a schomendaris sone
1581 Burne Disput. in 1573-1600 Cath. Tr. 171/4.
Ane change … vnto this, quhais fals prophetes ar maid of tinklaris, schocloutaris, soutaris [etc.]
a1585 Polwart Flyt. 775 (T).
Kreschie sowtter, scho cluitter [H. shoo clooter]
(4) 1609 Acts IV 408/2.
Maid shone leddir
1671 Corshill Baron Ct. 97.
Ane bargane of shoe lasts
(5) 1622 Scot Course of Conformity 144.
Shooe latchet
1645 Sc. Hist. Rev. XXX 146.
To the least shoe lachet
1661–70 Old Ross-shire I 143.
Hatband and shoustrings [ed. shoustnings]
(6) 1645 Tulliallan Coal Wks. 168b.
For ane ȝeirs shone silluer … £49 14 s.
1679 Torry Coal & Salt Wks. 35b.
Accompt of the coall bearers shoe silver as being payit anno 1679
1694 Carmyllie Kirk S. MS 25 Aug.
To the scholmaister his shoon silver
To … the beddell his shoone [silver]

2. A horseshoe.For further examples see Gang n. 3 b, Hors-scho n. and Remov(e n. For hors-scho as the sign of an inn or shop, see (2) below.(1) c1420 Wynt. v 716.
Till the hors … Off sylvyr schone he gert be made
1504 Treas. Acc. II 442.
The kingis hors quhilk kest ane scho at the Ballach
1518 Ib. V 147.
For schoyne and removes to the kingis mvle and hors
1529–30 M. Works Acc. (ed.) I 2.
For xvii new schone to the cart hors
1558 Rentale Dunkeld. (SHS) 356.
To the smyth as his tikkit beris for schun to … iiij horse
1563 Dumfries B. Ct. fol. 236b.
The making of four new schone & nalis of ane mannis awin irne the price viij d.
1591 Thanes of Cawdor 204.
To the smyth for your broun geldin schone, xiij s. iiij d.
1596 Dalr. I 99/20.
For this cause the horse thay dar nocht schoe with yrne schone
1618 M. Works Acc. (ed.) II 127.
1621 Maxwell Mem. 325.
Ane scho to the gray haiknay … vj s.
1639 Household Bk. M. Stewart 36.
To the smyth for fyve shoeen
1642 Rothes P.
A gang of shoone to the little pownie
1663 Galloway P. 2 July.
The said earle is to satisfie the said Johne … for eury hors shoing and making the shone and neals
1665 Craven Ch. in Orkney 141.
For shewing the horse of his old shewes
irreg. pl. 1541 Lochleven Compt Bk. 22.
For tway sche to Hendry Dwglas hors viij d.
(2) c1614 Laing MSS 138.
Ane westcoitt … bouchet at the Hors Schue in the Auld Excheinge

b. attrib. Shoe vetch, ellipt. for horseshoe vetch. 1684 Sibbald Scot. Illustr. ii 85.
Ferrum equinum siliqua singulari. B. P., Solea Equina, J. B. Great Horse-shee vetch. [Corrigenda in libro primo & secunde partis secundæ (last leaf of volume) pro shee vetch lege shoe vetch]

3. In proverbial and allusive use, in the above senses.(1) a1400 Leg. S. xxxvi 1208.
I ame nocht worthi … of his schone the laise to tak oute
1490 Irland Mir. I 28/10.
As the hand helpis the fut to put on the schone, and the ene helpis all the membris of the body
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 14/54.
Thow knawis best quhair bindis thé thi scho
a1570-86 Maitl. F. 159/5.
The man suld haue irne schone suld byd ane vther mannis deid
1571 Ferg. Serm. iii Malachi in 1563-72 Tracts 70.
Sa gif we wil examine our selfis, we sal find thair schooe (as we vse to say) meit aneuch for our fute
a1598 Ferg. Prov. MS No. 381.
Everie man knawes best quhair his awin sho bindis him
Ib. No. 1041.
My shoon is good for colheughes they can draw water
Ib. No. 1554.
Ye ar sib to my auld shoone, ye grow ay war and war
c1610 Melville Mem. 126.
Estemyng him self not worthy to deicht hir schone
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 581.
Gif it will not be a gude schoe, let it ga down in the heill
Ib. No. 1554.
Tig with your tittie ye wil get tauch to your schone
1621-40 Melville Commonpl. Bk. 5.
A gryit shoo will not gain a little fitt
Ib. 17.
He that lookis for a dead manis schois may long go bair foote
(2) a1598 Ferg. Prov. MS No. 200.
Ane peit and nyne horse shoone for a breakfast and your luk be good
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 137.
A mauch and ane horse schoe is alike

4. Applied to a plate or strip of metal attached as a protector to a. A ploughshare, b. The outer rim of a wheel, c. The keel of a ship, d. ? A socket to receive, or ? to protect, a bearing.a. 1516 Fife Sheriff Ct. 26.
The graith of hir pleuch that is to say somys, syderapis, culter, sok, schone, bridill [etc.]
c1500-50 Pleugh-Song (Forbes Cantus) in Tools & Tillage I iii 178 (see Pleuch n. 6 a (2)).b. 1529–30 M. Works Acc. (ed.) I 5.
For the virking of the forsaid … irne in the schone to twa new cart quhelis
1538–9 Treas. Acc. VII 212.
Frenche pan irne to be schone to the grete cannoun quhelis
1538–9 M. Works Acc. (ed.) I 259.
For … maid werk in cart schone nalis virollis and dulstraikis
1540–1 Ib. 283. 1569 Canongate Ct. Bk. 19.
Irne … to have maid schone … to ane pair of kairt quheillis
1580 Reg. Privy C. III 320.
Ane singill falcoun of found … montit upoun ane auld brokin stok, … the quhelis garnesit with schone and twa virollis only
1618 M. Works Acc. (ed.) II 105.
For garnesing a pair of cart quhellis and making 3 new schone to them
c. 1638–9 Aberd. Shore Wk. Acc. 238.
For ane scho to the keill
d. 1563–4 Edinb. Old Acc. I 465.
Making of ane new scho and ane new bouster [to the malt-mill]

You may wish to vary the format shown below depending on the citation style used.

"Sho n.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 24 Jul 2024 <>



Hide Advanced Search

Browse DOST: