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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1963 (DOST Vol. III).
This entry has not been updated but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Hald, Hauld, Had, v. Also: hald(e, hauld(e, haild, haud, hawd, had, hadd, hade, haid. P.t. held, helle, heald, heild, hild, hyld(e, helt. P.p. haldin, -ine, -yn, -en, haldne, hauldin(g, had(d)in; hald, hold; haleing (? erron.). [Northern ME. hald (p.t. held, hild, p.p. halden), ME. holde(n, halde(n, ONhb. halda, WS. healdan (p.t. héold, p.p. ᵹehalden, -healden).]The usual forms are: inf. hald, hauld, had; p.t. held; p.p. haldin, hauldin, had(d)in. Occasional variants, mainly late, are illustrated in the following examples.(a) 1520 Stirling B. Rec. I. 2.
Na persoun … sall haild ony s[w]yen wtwith … housses
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xlix. 36 (B).
Frome hennis … Micht non him hawd
1605 Dundonald Par. Rec. 90.
To haid doun the sclander of the … adulterie
1566 Peebles B. Rec. 302.
The millar … sall nethir haild geis, foullis nor suyne
(b) a1400 Leg. S. i. 87.
He … but met hild him in that halde
Ib. xxii. 724.
Mony feyndis hyld thare way
1459-60 Newburgh B. Ct. 1.
For he wrangwysly hylde fra Heinry of Hynglaesy ... xx s. of vsuall monay of Scotland
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) 884.
Quhan Alexander baith gold and clething delt Till his awin corps small clething he helt
1570 Leslie 231.
All that the ennemies heild within Scotland
1625 Garden Sc. Kings 6.
He … those in veneratioun hild
(c) 1567 Peebles B. Rec. 306.
To be reput and haildin as dissobaiaris
1612 Inverness Rec. II. 89.
Designit, reput and haleing as vagabowndis
 — a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 963.
The hathill, that haltane war hold [: fold, mold]
1513 Doug. vi. Prol. 68.
To be hald vagabund
1562-3 Winȝet I. 56/1.
Godis word … [thai] boistit thame to hef hald

1. To hold in or with the hand(s) or arms. Also to hald the pleugh, to manage the plough as ploughman (in contradistinction to to call or drive the beasts drawing the plough, as the caller): cf. Wyf Awcht. 42 in 19 below and Spalding I. 141, 1686 Erskine Diary 206, s.v. Call v. 3. c1420 Wynt. iv. 2606.
He sawe … a lytill barne … Haldyn in hyr armys twa
Ib. v. 1914.
Thai … tuk and held hym stalwartly
a1447 Bower Chron. II. 376.
Als siker for to hald as a watir eil
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 1165.
He straik … with ane wand The quilk he held in hand
a1500 Seven S. 2585.
That ȝe sal me the basyn hald
1535 Stewart 1553.
In his hand his heid that he man hald
1533 Boece ix. xi. 313 b.
In the left [hand] halding his … staff
a1578 Pitsc. I. 131/30.
Worthie … rather to haue haldin the pleugh
a1598 Ferg. Prov. 4.
As good hads the stirrep, as he that loups on

b. With complement denoting manner or position. Also of a thing other than the hand. 1456 Hay II. 48/26.
As the sadill, with the grathe that langis to it, haldis him ferme
a1500 Henr. Fab. 526.
God … haldand the balandis euin
a1570-86 Q. Schaw Maitl. F. cxlvi. 17.
Hauld not ȝour sale ouir pres
1533 Boece ix. xi. 313 b.
Sanct Colme … held his richt hand on the kingis hede
a1598 Ferg. Prov. 10 b.
He can hald the cat to the sun
c1615 Chron. Kings 115.
Scho had to be hadine on horsebak
1620 Ellon Presb. 112.
Be ane … pistoll haldin to his breist
1657 R. Moray Lett. 14/24 Dec.
If you but chirp, I'll gar you as good hadd a low to the bull
1692 Presb. Eloq. (ed. 2) 81.
It is Christ, sirs, hadd him fast then

c. To set or place firmly or under control.To hald fute, to keep (one's) footing (also fig.); to keep pace (with). c1420 Wynt. v. 1356.
Thai suld clyme … And stedfastly thare steppys hald
1456 Hay I. 110/34.
Thir ressounis … may hald na fut in lautee
a1500 Rauf C. 19.
Thair micht na folk hald na fute on the heich fell
a1500 Henr. Orph. 188.
For slydirnes scant mycht he hald his fete
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 748.
Sa rudelie thay did rushe togidder, That nane micht hald thair feit for slidder
1598 Edinb. B. Rec. V. 234.
[The scholars,] except thai be utterlie fund … unhable to hald fute with thair marrowes, sall nocht be put bak

d. To hald hand to: see Hand n. 10.

2. To keep for oneself, to retain as one's own. Also const. fra (another). Also const. aff ( = away from) another.(1) 1375 Barb. xv. 517.
The pray … delit he, And held no thing till his behuf
a1400 Leg. S. vi. 350.
He that gyffis his almus … Quhen to hald it he has powere
c1420 Wynt. v. 1157.
Swa tynt and haldyn war eyne twa
1456 Hay I. 205/20.
Men that wrangwisly haldis othir mennis gudis
1515 Edinb. B. Rec. I. 158.
Gif the toun haldis bot the mylnis … into thair handis
1535 Stewart 20590.
Gif ony … war so pert ane pennyworth to had [: defraude]
1567 G. Ball. 9.
Hald na mannis geir, lat nane thé craif
(2) a1400 Leg. S. xxii. 638.
Thre housis … [had] he wonnyne … & hadine [sic] thame … fra haly kyrk
1456 Hay I. 205/15.
A man … that haldis his gudis wrangwisly fra him
1474 Prestwick B. Rec. 24.
He helde wrangwisli frae him ane achtand part of ry
1542 Elgin Rec. I. 69.
Allegand the said Androu … held fra him iiii ellnis … of color de roy
a1578 Pitsc. I. 254/11.
My pensieoun quhilk is haldin frome me wrangouslie
(3) 1599 Rollock Wks. I. 388.
See how he haldis aff him the proud conceitis of men. Hald proud men aff God and let them not touche him
a1699 Skene Agric. MS.
Becawse if they [calves] sowke longer they becomme so browden that they cannot be haldin of the paipe

b. To escape losing, to save (one's life). 1375 Barb. xiv. 361.
With mekill payne thai … held thar livis
a1500 Seven S. 2486.
He … bad hir quhill scho held hir lyf The knycht to luf
1526 Carnwath Baron Ct. 43.
To bring furth the meir for to hald hir lyf

c. intr. To hold on to (till), to retain, keep. 1442 Raine N. Durham App. 105.
Till distreyin and hald till all arrerage and dettez

3. a. To keep by force, to detain or confine. 1375 Barb. ix. 457.
Presoneris … He send quhar thai mycht haldin be
a1400 Leg. S. i. 115.
He that wrechit mane Held … in presone
Ib. xxix. 376.
He bad the lady suld be lacht, & haldine with hyme for the fracht
c1420 Wynt. i. 354.
Thar Goemagog wes tane And haldyn quyk
Ib. viii. 7133.
The Pape … Gert hym be … haldyn into keiping fast
1456 Hay I. 153/12.
He may hald his persoun quhill he cum to the … king
c1475 Wall. vii. 1307.
To get his … king Fra Inglis men, that held him in bandoune
1498 Edinb. B. Rec. I. 73.
To be set on the goif and thair haldin thrie dayis
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 210.
To hald a freke, quhill he faynt, may foly be callit
a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 273.
Scottis lordis … he gart hald … In firmance fast
1530 Soc. Ant. II. 391.
Gilbert Robison sall be haldyn & cloissit in hys house for xx dayis
1533 Bell. Livy II. 166/21.
He was haldin in lang captiuite by his creditouris for dett
c 1600 Misc. Spald. C. II. 58.
Mare, Quene of Scotland, beand haldin in In[g]land be the spece of xviij yeir
1661 Black Sc. Witches 44.
Ane letter … sheuing furth that they hald tuo confessing witchis ther

b. To keep in store or in hand. 1452 Acts II. 41/2.
That na maner of wittail be haldin in gyrnall
1484 Edinb. B. Rec. I. 49.
That na fische be halden nor keipit into houssis
a1500 Bk. Chess 1618.
With this merchand … Fyve hundreth ducatis left he for to hald

c. To keep as contents. c1460 Wys Man's Consail 3525.
As lekand weschell haldis no thinge

4. To keep back, hinder from going, detain. 14.. Acts I. 59/2.
Of kynd borne bondman fleand and agane haldyn [L. retento]
?1438 Alex. ii. 1452.
The armes [that] … Hald sa lang the nobill steid That he na prik endlang the meid
1456 Hay I. 60/34.
A consul … wald hald him at the portis, and nocht geve him entree
a1500 Rauf C. 493.
Thow huifis on the holtis and haldis me heir
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xlix. 42 (M).
Fra hence [B. hennis] agane Nane mycht him hald
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 4729.
Thay hauld the corps at the kirk style

b. refl. To keep oneself away, fra, etc. 14.. Acts I. 29/2.
Bot gif he haldis hym away fraudfully
a1500 Rauf C. 373.
Thow gaif him ane outragious blaw. … For thy hald ȝow fra the Court
a1570-86 Balnavis Maitl. F. cxxix. 50.
Hald thé afar sic chauffer [B. chaif wair] for to prys
a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 1273.
Ȝe knaw, sir, ȝe aw … To hald ȝe ay behind

c. To restrain (hand or tongue); to prevent. c1460 Wys Man's Consail 1380.
Quhat is he worth na tunge can hald
c1500 Rowll Cursing 60.
The choikis that haldis the chaftis fra chowing
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 802.
To straik no moir, bot hald thair hand
1562-3 Winȝet I. 139/21.
I wald ȝit anis agane bid ȝou hald ȝour hand
1573 Crim. Trials I. 512.
Quha answerit me ‘Had your tongue’
1603 Philotus xc.
Rage not, gude gosse, bot hald ȝour toung

5. a. To have in possession. 1375 Barb. i. 488.
Thai … haldis this land but enchesoune
Ib. iv. 349.
Ynglis men that … haldis the lordschip of this land
Ib. vi. 183.
The heritage … till hald for a ȝeir
14.. Acts I. 22/2.
He … that has haldyn his lande a twelfmoneth and a day. … wythoutyn chalangyng
c1420 Wynt. v. 3042.
To … wyn thare land And hald the empyr in his hand
Ib. vi. 1116.
Ane othir [pope] haldand that ilk stede
1431 Reg. Great S. 45/2.
Till hald … als frely … and in pese as ony pensioun or annuale is giffyn
1475 Edinb. B. Rec. I. 30.
To be haldin … the said ile and chapell … to the saidis craftismen
1542 Reg. Cupar A. II. 26.
To be haldin … the saidis teind schewis and vicarage … to the saidis Walter

b. To keep by defence, or by conquest. 1375 Barb. iv. 186.
How Neyll the Bruce held Kyndrummy Agane his sone
Ib. xvii. 214.
Men and vittaill … Till hald casteil or toune of wer
a1400 Leg. S. vii. 475.
In na maner tha mocht Lange hald the towne
c1420 Wynt. viii. 4120.
Williame Bollok the castelle Off Cowpyr held
1456 Hay I. 242/13.
Suppos thai stele a place and hald it, thai mak na were
a1500 Doug. K. Hart 774.
The castell ȝet is strang aneuche to hald
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xcv. 14.
Giff men wald thair housis hald, Than wax thai bald to burne and sla

c. To remain in (a place). c1420 Wynt. iv. 458.
All thaire fyrys thai gert baulde, As thai waid styll thaire herbry haulde
a1500 Seven S. 797.
Scho held chalmer with lytill sang
a1500 Bk. Chess 2062.
As the quene the poynt anguler suld hald
a1500 Prestis of Peblis 412.
Gods pleuch may neuer hald the fur
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Flyt. 201.
Thow held the burcht lang with ane borrowit goun
1533 Boece ix. i. 286.
Ambrois, … consumytin person, … held his bed
1559 Corr. M. Lorraine 416.
I have bene maist pairt constrenit … to hald my bed

6. To hold (esp. land) by feudal tenure. Const.: of the superior. Freq. in the p.p.(a) 1375 Barb. ii. 461.
To … serve the king off Ingland, And off him for to hald the land
1385 3rd Rep. Hist. MSS. 410/1.
To schaw … throw qwat chartir or ewydens thai halde or clemys to hald the landys
?1438 Alex. ii. 17.
He … of him tuke to hald his land, And maid him manrent with his hand
1446 Reg. Episc. Aberd. I. 250.
That he sall appropir that croft to the lands of Edinglasse that he haldis of the Erll
c1475 Wall. i. 64.
Full sutailly he chargit thaim … till hald of hym the croun
1564 Prot. Bk. J. Scott 8 b.
Landis and acarris quhilkis he haddis instantlie of the saidis commendator
1606 Acts IV. 288/1.
Subiectis quha haldis thair landis … of oure said sonerane lord in frie blenshe
(c) 1393 Reg. Morton II. 192.
With sic fredome as the saide barony is haldyn … of the king
1473–4 Treas. Acc. I. 5.
A new infeodacione of his landis … to be haldin of the King in warde and relef and commoune soyt
1492 Acta Conc. 241/1.
He clamit the saidis landis to be a tennandry of Bothuile, and haldin of him in cheiff as erle of Bothuile
1540 Acts II. 375/1.
The saidis apprisit landis to be haldin of the immediat superiour therof
1573 Inverness B. Rec. I. 231.
The saidis landis ar haldin in burgage
1642 Orkney Rentals iii. 24.
Thair is sundrie lands … halden in blensch of the Bischops of Orknay
1655 Mun. Univ. Glasg. I. 349.
[Lands] to be halden be them … in frie blenche

b. absol. To hold lands, etc., under a superior. 1375 Barb. i. 155.
Gyff thow will hald in cheyff off me Foreuirmar
1456 Hay I. 24/26.
The dignitee of the empire haldis of the haly kirk
Ib. 126/1.
Men sais he haldis of na man, bot of God
c1475 Wall. i. 69.
Till hald of hym he granttit at the last
c1515 Asl. MS. I. 194/1.
Thai held of him in Yngland, richt as the Ynglis king held and suld hald of the king of Fraunce
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2589.
Thay think thay hald of nane, be thay als gay
?1549 Monro W. Isles 48.
The mid countrey … perteins to Clanronald, halding of the Clandonald
fig. a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 322.
And knaw, kene skald, I hald of Alathya

7. To conduct or carry on; to administer (law); to keep (house).(1) 1375 Barb. iv. 96.
Mony tymes … thai wald … bargane at the barras hald
a1400 Leg. S. xxx. 29.
Corow for to hald with sic wifis
c1420 Wynt. viii. 3146.
The Erle of Murrawe … Wardane was, the lauch haldand
14.. Burgh Laws c. 52 (A).
Quha may hald oynys
?1438 Alex. ii. 1940.
I hard … how that Clarus And ȝe held speke of Ydeus
1456 Hay I. 219/34.
Haldand and manetenand … bataillis in barrieris clos
c1460 Thewis Gud Women 141.
[Let her] syt nocht doune to hald talkyne
a1500 Henr. Fab. 116.
Quhen … it wes found As now I set to hald na argument
a1500 Prestis of Peblis 198.
He held ane chope to sell his chaffery
1500 Edinb. B. Rec. I. 83.
Ilk master haldane buth within this … burgh
c1500-c1512 Dunb. ix. 62.
Off quick and deid to cum and hald jugement
1533 Boece ix. viii. 303 b.
The grete men … in myddis of the strete quhare he held law slew him
1548 Edinb. B. Rec. II. 142.
That na … persoun hald oppin tavern bot thai that ar burgessis
(2) 14.. Burgh Laws c. 106 (A).
Quhar he haldis hous
15.. Sym & Bruder 41. 1556 Edinb. B. Rec. II. 258.
In consideratioun of his remanyng within this burgh haldand hous
1569-73 Bann. Memor. 230.
Drewrie the merschell of Berwick his wyfe come in, and held hous in Restalrig
1585 Edinb. B. Rec. IV. 445.
That na syngill wemen be fund halding ane howse be thame selff
1602 Shetland Sheriff Ct. 9.
Becaus … Nicole Oirneson hauldis hous to them

8. To hold (a court, assembly, market, etc.). Freq. in p.p. Also fig.(a) 1375 Barb. i. 410.
To Strivilling … For till hald thar ane assemble
?1438 Alex. ii. 2056.
The tua held court … With glaidschipe
Ib. 7406.
Thare sall worship hald court
1508 Antiq. Aberd. & B. II. 333.
Giffand … full pouar curtis in the said land … to fens, begyne, and hald
1513 Doug. x. Prol. 166.
Thow haldis court our cristall hevynnys cleir
1559 Coll. Aberd. & B. 313.
Bailley courtis … to proclaime, sett, affixe, and hauld
1558-66 Knox II. 382.
Yf thei so did, she wald hald no Parliament
1570 Sat. P. x. 258.
To hald the airis in thay parts he was bowne
1622-6 Bisset I. 40/14.
To oure belovittis that haldis oure courtis of parliament
(c) 1385 Rotuli Sc. II. 73/1.
That day of redress sal be halden betwix tham … at the place befor saide
1388 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III. 294.
In the mene tyme all the courtis of that land … sall be haldin thruch thaim bathe
14.. Acts I. 21/2.
Bot gif [= unless] the fayre be haldin in the burgh
c1420 Wynt. vii. 1877.
Swa wes gret cownsalys sere Haldyn offt off this matere
1485 Acts II. 170/2.
[To] caus his justice airis to be haldin … twys in the ȝere
1498 Edinb. B. Rec. I. 75.
That all scuillis scail and nane to be haldin
1527 Maxwell Mem. 258.
The court off the baronrye off Glasgw, halding in the wiccar's place off the qweir
1542 Soc. Ant. II. 400.
Ane wappinshawin to be haldin in Gledsmuir on Sanct Helynes day
a1578 Pitsc. II. 213/30.
At this tyme thair was no cessioun hauldin becaus of the pest
1607 Urie Baron Ct. .
The curt of the barronney of Wrie, haldene at Cowie
1647 Aberd. B. Rec. IV. 55.
Quhilk electioun wes hauldin at the Womanhill

b. To keep (an appointed day or place). 1385 Rotuli Sc. II. 73/2.
The day on the Est Marche sall be delaied … to be halden on the xxix day of May
c1420 Wynt. viii. 4472.
At Tarbart he wes qwhille Haldand dayis wyth Jhone off Ile
1507 Edinb. Chart. 192.
To begyn and hald the dais ande placis forsaid yerlie

9. To continue on or along (a, or one's, way or course). Also fig. 1375 Barb. iii. 234.
He left the toune and held his way
Ib. VIII. 144.
Gif he dar hald the vay That he has said
a1400 Leg. S. xvii. 37.
He vald To that foreste his gat hald
c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 1962.
Plane land … Quhare thai mycht hald thare cours saifly
c1420 Wynt. vi. 2068.
Towart the sowth to hald the trade
Ib. viii. 4136.
In a bate Fra Rothisay thai held the gate
c1460 Thewis of Wysmen 133.
Tyll hald the mydlyng way Is best
c1475 Wall. xi. 1087.
South thai him led, ay haldand the waist land
1513 Doug. iii. x. 54.
To follow the wynd, and hald na courssis rycht
1552 Prot. Bk. R. Lumsdane 20.
Haldand the watter passaig … quhill it cum to ane furd
1572 Sat. P. xxxi. 40.
And thai hald gait, … Sic murther salbe in all land
1613 Frasers of Philorth Chart. 274.
Halding the said stank till it cum to the … Kirktoun of Philorthe

b. absol. To go on, proceed, make one's way. 1375 Barb. x. 397.
Als-soyn thai Held carpand inward on thair way
Ib. xix. 249.
Thai held furth soyin till Ingland
a1400 Leg. S. i. 135.
Than Paul to the presone can halde
Ib. xxx. 461.
Scho … Held on the merket wart
c1420 Wynt. ii. 708.
Thay … Held to their schippis but delay
Ib. iv. 2239.
In the se He lape, and … Held on till hys schyppis
1458 Liber Aberbr. 104.
Haldand eist to the cors-stane
a1500 Henr. Fab. 1505.
Quhen scho wes gone, the lyoun held to hunt
1513 Doug. i. viii. 107.
Blithly we suld hald towart Italy
Ib. ii. xi. 120.
Haldyng bakwart ilk futstep we had gane
Ib. xi. iii. 41.
Now haldis on
Ib. ix. vi. heading. 1563 Echt-Forbes Chart. 98.
Hauldand southwart the said auld dyik to the southwest cruik thairof
1615 Aberd. B. Rec. II. 325.
Hauldand vp the said … dycke southerlie

10. To keep or maintain (persons or animals).(1) 1375 Barb. ix. 424.
He held with him self a gret menȝe
1425 Montgomery Mem. 9.
He sal hald the said Anny … and a damysale with hir
1438 Acts II. 32/2.
Quhare thar is ony rebellys … within ony castellys or fortalicis resett or haldyn
1450 Antiq. Aberd. & B. II. 344.
To hald them at the scule that will be clerkis ay while thay be beneficed
c1475 Wall. i. 342.
Schir Ranald weylle durst nocht hald Wallas thar
1516 Reg. Privy S. I. 417/1.
To put and hald xxiiij werkmen … to lawboure in the mynd
1530 Edinb. B. Rec. II. 30.
Haldand hir dochtir seik within hir hous
1550 Edinb. Hammermen 2.
That thar be na vacabundis seruand halding nor resauit amangis thame
1592 Lanark B. Rec. 108.
Ane doctour [is] to be halding onder him
1606 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV. 58.
Nane of thame … sall … hous or hald … the said … fugitiwes
(2) 1470 Prestwick B. Rec. 15.
Of the swyne haldin in the burgh … That na man halde ony swyne bot ane
1498 Reg. Morton II. 253.
With fredome to hald ane horse … summyr and wyntyr
1534 Prestwick B. Rec. 54.
Haldane thame [sc. cattle] apoun the commone gers of the towne
1577 Glasgow B. Rec. I. 63.
That thair be na swyn nor geis haldin nor pasturat withtin the burro rudis about the towin bot haldin buind in houssis

11. refl. To keep or maintain (oneself) in a certain state. With adj. or phrase as complement. 1375 Barb. vi. 528.
He … held hym in-to cowert ay
a1400 Leg. S. iii. 187.
I sall … hald me still
c1420 Wynt. v. 2595.
Quha that haldys hym in the lawe
Ib. viii. 4443.
Othir worthy wycht men … Held thame as to the Scottis fay
?1438 Alex. ii. 1344.
Thay thairin richt preuelly Thame held
c1420 Ratis R. 894.
Hald thé content thar with all
c1460 Wys Man's Consail 129.
Hald thé in al gud manys grace
c1460 Thewis Wysmen 98.
He … haldis hyme with gud cumpany
c1500 Fyve Bestes 233.
Wysest ȝe ar quhen that ȝe hald ȝow still
1533 Boece ix. vi. 299 b.
Like as we war all … sworne … , to hald ws at wantoun and fryant chere
1547 Misc. Spald. C. V. 309.
Als lang as my wyff haldis her unmaryit
a1540 Freiris Berwik 500.
Bot hald ȝow clois, quhill I haif done my cure
a1585 Maitl. Q. ii. 67.
Of ail sic faultis hauld ȝow frie
1596 Dalr. II. 353/15.
In the weiris he … sa coragiouslie held him selfe
a1598 Ferg. Prov. 8.
He is wise when he is well can had him sa

12. To keep, maintain, or preserve in a certain state or way denoted by the context: a. With adjective complement. 1375 Barb. iii. 274.
Thai that wald Thar hartis wndiscumfyt hald
c1420 Wynt. iv. 2243.
Haldand owthe the wattyre ay Hys a hand … And swa held all his lettrys dry
1456 Hay II. 31/32.
Ane othir poynt … is to halde his armouris cleine and faire
1494 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 422.
That ane persone sall halde the haill common gaitis … clene
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 450.
We dule for na euill deid, sa it be derne haldin
Id. xix. 47.
I may no mans tung hald still
1514 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 40.
That thar be bot thre portis haldin oppin
1530 Acta Conc. XLI. 96.
To hald your gracis realme cummirles thairof
1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 58.
The gout … haldis me besy both day and nycht
1583 Sempill Sat. P. xlv. 125.
Carruse and hald the cannikin clinking
1596 Dalr. II. 181/3.
To correct and had doun his … spirit, … or at leist to halde him laich
1600-1610 Melvill 67.
He wald … bauldlie hauld thair eares fow of the treuthe

b. With prepositional phrases, esp. in (some state); or other complement.(1) 1375 Barb. i. 118.
A king, that mycht Have haldyn veyle the land in rycht
c1420 Wynt. v. 856.
That the Iowys na thing doucht To be haldyn in serwyce
1456 Hay I. 6/17.
The barnes of Israel quhen thai war sa lang haldin in … subjeccioun
Ib. 215/28.
[Thai] helde the peple ay in thair foresaid fredome
c1475 Wall. i. 2.
Our antecessowris, that we suld of reide, And hald in mynde thar nobille worthi deid
c1475 Wall. v. 873.
Warly thai raid, and held thar hors in aynd
c1515 Asl. MS. I. 226/2.
He held all Angus in his bandoun
1513 Doug. i. vii. 77.
Lo, heir his worschip is haldin in memor
Id. K. Hart 523.
How lang think ȝe to hald me in exile?
1567 G. Ball. 104.
To hald, O God, thy word and vs in thrall
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. clxxiv. 61.
Sic punusching hauldis ws in awe
1626 Banff Annals I. 55.
To reull and hald the knok in temper … daylie
(2) c1460 Thewis of Wysmen 178.
Thai … haldis thair lustis at serfage
c1475 Wall. vii. 677.
Erll Malcolm als the Lennox held at es
c1500-c1512 Dunb. v. 25.
Scho … held Sanct Peter at stryfe
(3) 1499 Treas. Acc. I. 118.
To ix persons that wes haldin on lyve quhen thai past to Dwchale
1543 Corr. M. Lorraine 32.
The governour … causit ane bot to be hadin one flot
(4) a1500 Bk. Chess 2079.
A prince suld haue sic regiment His folk to rewll & hald to his entent
(5) c1420 Wynt. vi. 1881.
He … held hyr bathe his wyff and qweyne
1575 Edinb. Test. II. 397 b.
As lang as scho … haldis the bairnis togidder

c. To keep in a certain direction. 1513 Doug. xi. xiv. 98.
Aruns … held on hir hys E, Lurkand at wayt
1569-73 Bann. Memor. 113.
He durst not had his face to the persewaris

13. To observe or adhere to. 1375 Barb. i. 514.
The barownys … Aythis maid To hald that thai forspokyn haid
Ib. xiii. 542.
His cwnnand has he haldyne wele
a1400 Leg. S. xli. 250.
[The prefect] deput in his sted thare, The law to hald thame, a vicare
1399 Melville Chart. 15.
Al thir thingis forwretyne to be kepit and haldyn
c1420 Wynt. ii. 21.
Haldande tyme be tyme the date, As Orosius quhylum wrate
Ib. v. 2941.
Oure falowys has lefft the fay That oure eldrys held alway
1456 Hay I. 104/33.
Suppos the Sarazenis … hald nocht the poyntis of the ewangele
Ib. II. 105/27.
A king sulde nocht … hecht nathing bot that he will halde
a1500 Henr. Fab. 1213.
He … held the text and glose of the decries
c1515 Asl. MS. I. 174/14.
Thar saying and promys [suld be] fermely haldin and kepit
1513 Doug. viii. ix. 119.
The cumpany … held array Throw scroggy bussys
1562-3 Winȝet II. 52/20.
That thing onlie decretis he to be haldin
a1570-86 Maitl. F. cxxx. 142.
Allace that euer the toung suld hecht That hart thocht not to hauld

14. To have or maintain in use, custom, or practice.(1) 1375 Barb. iv. 726.
To thame that haldis kyndly maneris
1456 Hay I. 66/13.
How jurisdictioun … come first … to be haldin amang men
c1460 Thewis Wysmen 222.
Thai hald euer faloschip with thar feris
c1460 Consail Wys Man 365.
With crabyt men hald na cumpany
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2231.
The caller cryit: ... Hald draucht, my dowis
a1500 Rauf C. 225.
The king held gude countenance
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxxii. 19.
To sic ane tribbill to hald ane bace
1513 Doug. ii. iv. 16.
The salt fame stouris from the fard thai hald
Ib. iii. Prol. 74.
Quhidder sal I spek now, or hald my pace
1570 Leslie 139.
The doctrine haldin and techet be the catholique kirk
1620 Perth Kirk S. MS. 4 Jan.
Becaus it may perrell the haill tenement of land to hald ingill in it [a room without a chimney]
1622-6 Bisset I. 221/3.
The lordis haldand sylence, the chancellare … sail ask … everie lordis voit
(2) c1400 Troy-bk. i. 483.
A folk … Opynioun held of Medea, That [etc.]
c1420 Wynt. i. 74.
In the felde of Damask … , or in the wale of Ebrun, As sum haldis opynyon
1456 Hay I. 86/10;
Arestotle … haldis the contrair of this
c1552  Lynd. Mon. 1731.
 Josephus haldis opinioun, Sayand [etc.]

15. a. To think, believe, consider, that, etc. 1456 Hay I. 84/8.
Sum men haldis that … it is vertu till eschape
a1500 Colk. Sow i. 112.
I hald the folk best fure That stud fer with out the dure
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxxiii. 65.
Sum held he had bene Dedalus
Ib. xc. 36.
And sa I halde, that ȝe ar baith begylde
1533 Boece vii. xii. 246.
Sum haldis that Fyn Makcoul … was liffand about this tyme
1562-3 Winȝet I. 133/26.
Albeit ȝe hald the haill warld … on ȝour syde
a1568 Bann. MS. 134 a/3.
Sic freitis I hald nocht wirth a fas
1573 Sat. P. xlii. 998.
My self to wryte I hald it best
1600-1610 Melvill Diary 331.
The an, halding that it was an impossibilitie … The other, … halding that bathe was possible

b. To regard or esteem in a particular way, freq. in phrases as to hald dere, in daintie, in derisioun. 1375 Barb. xvi. 673.
The king … held him in suylk daynte, That ‘his awne bischop’ him callit he
a1400 Leg. S. xxiv. 86.
With the emperoure mast dere He wes haldine
Ib. xxvii. 27.
Sanct Morys … [is] haldine thar in gret lowing
c1420 Wynt. v. 4483.
Ressayvyd wes he And haldyn in till gret honoure
1456 Hay II. 10/35.
The quhilk buke the king lovit mekle, … and helde it rycht dere
a1500 Seven S. 1892.
In dante held he hir [the pyot] for thi
1531 Bell. Boece II. 164.
Preistis, and all ecclesiastik personis, sal be haldin in reverence
Ib. 259.
This prophecy and divinatioun wes haldin in derision
1562-3 Winȝet II. 34/20.
Nestorius … a certane tyme … wes haldin in aestimatioun
1596 Dalr. I. 26/22.
In grit diligate is eche haldne
1622-6 Bisset II. 360/20.
Sanct Brydigia … wes haldin in greit reverence … for hir singulare halynes

c. To take for, regard as. Also with complement without preposition, and with of.(1) 1375 Barb. ii. 388.
Quha had sene him in that fycht Suld hald him for a douchty knycht
?1438 Alex. i. 606.
The gude king … that we Hald for our lord and avowie
1456 Hay I. 302/20.
The pape … will hald him for ane unwis prince
c1420 Ratis R. 2651.
For na raving I it hald
1490 Irland Mir. fol. 334.
Ane that before was haldin for a foule
1535 Stewart 24724.
Ane Saxone, haldin for ane Brit
a1568 Bann. MS. 255 a/12.
Sum haldis his lady for the best
a1570-86 Maitl. F. clxxx. 55.
That thow sould for honest men thame hald [Q. hauld]
1622-6 Bisset I. 192.
Gif he … compeiris, and refuses to mak faith: he is hauldin pro confesso
(2) 1456 Hay I. 124/11.
He suld … hald him as ane unworthy … counsailoure
1503 Acts II. c. 23.
The woman … beand repute & haldin as his lachtfull wif
1533 Bell. Livy I. 224/20.
Thir twa last consullis … war haldin as cryminabill
c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus i. 910.
I myself will hald him as my fo
1570 Leslie 51.
This Duik … wes haldin and repute as ane fadir in chevalry
1644 Elgin Rec. I. 178.
She salbe heireftir … haldin and reput as ane notorius witch
(3) 1375 Barb. xv. 421.
All thouch ȝe hald him neuir sa stout
c1420 Wynt. iii. 1049.
A gret stane … That … haldyne wes a gret jowale
1442 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 9.
Thair herbryoures sal be … haldyn arte and parte
1456 Hay I. 196/13.
Law wald haue haldin him excusit
a1500 Bk. Chess 1131.
Ane just king than injust haldin is
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 256.
I couth sexty dissaif that suttillar wer haldin
Ib. 472.
Ȝit am I haldin a haly wif
1531 Bell. Boece I. 270.
He wes haldyn kyng of Britonis fornentis the Ireland seis
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 335.
The Scottis ar haldin hardie men
a1585 Maitl. Q. xii. 52.
Goddis worde wes hauldin bot ane fabill
1602 Conv. Burghs II. 143.
Ilk skipper is haldin detbund to haue in his schipe [etc.]
1636 Aberd. Council Lett. II. 54.
To be repuit hawdin and estamit assisters and partakers in the rebellion
(4) 1456 Hay II. 68/2.
He suld be haldin of counsale to kingis
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xiv. 58.
Sik knavis and crakkaris … Ar haldin of pryce
1533 Gau 4/21.
That thai … haid thame noth of valour
1531 Bell. Boece I. 8.
This Thanaus … was haldin amang thaim of gret prudence
1535 Stewart 39829.
So foull ane blek for to put in his gloir, Quhilk haldin wes of sic honour befoir

16. To contain; to amount or extend to. c1420 Wynt. i. 532.
To tothir part [of the earth] … Ewrope haldys and Affryca
c1420 Bute MS. fol. 175.
The nayle haldis v lib.
1456 Hay I. 48/22.
A dragoun … the quhilk held in lenth sex score of futis
1495 Halyb. 108.
2 ares bedis, ilk haldis 20 ellis
1498 Ib. 149.
A stek cramysy vellus … haldand 24 ellis
a1540 Freiris Berw. 158.
Thay hald ane gallone full of Gascone wyne
Ib. 212.
It held a boll of meill quhen that we buke
1581 Fowler II. 34/23.
Ȝe will fynd out ma goleinȝeis than a poke wil had
1583 Sat. P. xlv. 1010.
Not all the paper … May had the half that he hes done
1591 Edinb. B. Rec. V. 43.
Swa mekill [malt] … as the mylnis will had

17. In p.p. Of persons: Obliged or required (to do something). 1398 Acts I. 211/1.
At … the lieutenant be nocht haldyn tyl ansuer suylke contremandmentis
1405 Cotton Vesp. MS. F. VII. for. 86.
It sal be … done … as I am largely oblist and haldyn to
1456 Hay I. 111/6.
To him all gude cristyn people ar haldyn till obey
Ib. 225/24.
A man is haldin to fede his barnis
c1515 Asl. MS. I. 180/7.
Thai ar haldin in werray richt and ressoun for to serf thair king
1518 Glenartney MS. Docum.
Becaus of ȝour office ȝe ar haldin to keip the said forest in priuelegis
1553 Edinb. B. Rec. II. 178.
The samin persoun … sal be haldin to refound and pay [etc.]
1602 Conv. Burghs II. 134.
The schip sall nocht be haldin to fynd powder nor bullet
1622-6 Bisset I. 165/12.
Quhat evir advocate tynis … the peces or procese of his awin clyent … salbe haldin to ansueir

18. With adverbs, as abak, af, away, down, etc., in various senses.(1) 1513 Doug. ii. ii. 97.
From thar passage the north wynd … Held thame abak
1588 Events Q. Mary & Jas. VI. 44.
The Laird of Melgound has haldin Banhethis fieu abak
(2) 1596 Dalr. II. 143/5.
He committis to my Lord Hume … the kure of the Scotis bordouris, to hold aff the Inglis braids
(3) 1624 Elgin Rec. II. 185.
To hald away all uncouthe and strange beggeris
(4) 1585 James VI Essayes 46.
To hald bak Their crueltie from simple ones
1620 Grant Chart. 326.
To the belman for halding bak the twelft hour till the caus wer reasoned at lenthe
(5) c1420 Wynt. iv. 2322.
He held downe The nether lap thare off his gowne
c1500-c1512 Dunb. lx. 64.
Nobillis of bluid he dois dispys, And helpis for to hald thame downe
1596 Dalr. II. 78/34.
To hald doun the fellon flammis of melancolie
(6) 1583 Misc. Bann. C. I. 82.
Ane gude instrument in halding forward the treatie
(7) c1420 Wynt. vii. 1914.
Hew held furth Saynctandrewys se
1568 Lanark B. Rec. 42.
Four honest men till keip the portis ... and till hald furth the persones that dwellis in suspect parochinis
1588 St. A. Baxter Books 33.
That … na baxter … hald furth … bread on the Sabbath
1672 Kirkcaldy B. Rec. 20 Apr.
At quhilk tyme the proveist ishewed and held furth to them that [etc.]
1680 Soc. Ant. XLV. 249.
Creeping forward to the scepter halden forth
(8) c1420 Wynt. iv. 1563.
Scypio … Wyth drawyn swerd than held thame in
c1475 Wall. iv. 493.
Thai … Held thaim in clos efter this sodeyn cas
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 349.
Thar myght na molet … hald my mouth in
1532 Reg. Cupar A. I. 314.
We … sall hald in the dam heid quhair the watter enteris
1584 Sat. P. xlv. 771.
For archnes to had in a grote, He had no will to fie a bote
1590 Edinb. D. Guild Acc. 395.
To … workmen this oulk in drink to hald thame in att thair wark
(9) c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxxiv. 44.
Hald on thy intent
1590 R. Bruce Serm. 86.
Notwithstanding they hauld ay on ea tune
(10) c1475 Wall. ix. 169.
The rede reiffar … Held out a gluf
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxvi. 104.
Glemen thair wer haldin out
1568 Pref. Lyndesay 6.
Quha … did lang … hald out the Romische superstitionis
1634 Maxwell Mem. I. 252.
The wallis … ar so decayit … that it can not hald out beistis
1660 Aberd. B. Rec. IV. 185.
The provest held out to the counsell … that [etc.]
1664 Ib. 211.
Haveing held out … that they ware wrongouslie troubled
(11) 1616 Haddington Corr. 134.
Ane seuere ordour followed furthe and haddin to
(12) 1375 Barb. vii. 191.
Sic a slepe fell on his man, That he mycht not hald up his e
c1420 Wynt. iv. 673.
Cerces … that were held wpe fyve yhere
1445 Peebles B. Rec. 12.
[He sal] gader in the malys … to hald up the howsis tharwith
1456 Hay I. 43/8.
To hald up thair estate and thair lyfing
Ib. II. 43/2.
Than suld the squier hald up his handis
1542 Reg. Cupar A. II. 208.
Thai … sall hald vpe the heggis and dikys
c 1580 Anal. Scot. I. 273.
Hald up thy hand and spair us, Lord
a1585 Maitl. Q. lxii. 130.
To faythfull men how dar ȝe hauld vp face?
1600-1610 Melvill 33.
His servand halding upe the uther oxter
1622-6 Bisset II. 155/8.
Nane of theme mycht hald up there heidis aganist there innimies
(13) a1500 Adv. MS. 25.4.15 fol. 162 b.
The master may halde of [= withhold] his hir [the seaman's 'hire']

19. absol. In various senses. See also 6 b and 9 b. 1375 Barb. vii. 127.
Thai changit contenans … And held nocht in the first stat
Ib. ix. 465.
He held euir agane the king
Ib. xvi. 635.
Thai that ȝeit held vnslayne
?1438 Alex. i. 2009.
Thair habersounes … held richt weill
Ib. ii. 160.
Quha with the lord a concord mais He sould hald to all the laif
Ib. 4306.
Quha held on hors, him-selfe fell fair
c1420 Wynt. viii. 2473.
[Thay] cessyd nothir day na nycht, … Haldand on swa full foure yhere
1456 Hay I. 57/34.
Nane that saw it mycht hald for grete
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) 2231.
Alexander als mycht nocht hald bot greit
c1460 Thewis Wysmen 241.
Quha gredy is and fast haldand
a1500 Henr. Fab. 1211.
Sum objecting, and sum can hald
Ib. 2315.
Seis thow not … [that] giftis garris crukit materis hald full euin?
1484 Acta Aud. *146/2.
Gif … the cessioune haldis nocht bot beis continewit
c1515 Asl. MS. I. 182/18.
Ane fre liberale hert … suld nocht be scars and haldand
Ib. 242/8.
Declynand fra the King, sayand that thai … wald not hald with him
1500–1 Treas. Acc. II. 90.
Thaireftir the Justice aire of Perth held, quhilk tua airis held xxij dayis
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 223.
Hald abak, and handill me nought sair
1535 Stewart 5838.
Ethar is to hald nor for to draw
1529 Lynd. Complaynt 190.
I had thareto, man, be Alhallow
a1500 Peblis to Play 147.
He held, scho drew
1549–50 Ayr B. Acc. 109.
The time quhen the scule held not for the pest
c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus iv. 740.
Quhair ony thing is tald, Throw haltand verse quhair cullour dois not hald
15.. Wyf Awcht. 42.
And thow sall had and I sall kall
a1568 Bann. MS. 80 a/1.
Oft tymes is bettir hald nor len
a1578 Pitsc. II. 218/24.
This was done becaus he … held with the quein
1584 Gray Lett. & P. 34.
Thinck not, … that I eyther follow or haud on him
1587-8 Ayr B. Acc. 159.
[To go to Hamilton to find out whether the raid] will had or nocht
1591 R. Bruce Serm. 208.
For gif all hechts had as the prophet hath said, ... I man die
1596 Dalr. II. 195/35.
How lang thair lyfe was in, tha neuer held up
1640 Aberd. B. Rec. III. 227.
The Generall Assemblie indicted to hauld and begin … the tuentie eight day of Julii
1649 Aberd. Council Lett. III. 147.
Befoir I tak it, give I can get haldin aff, I sall desyre [etc.]
c 1660-70 Sel. Biog. I. 265.
Had, Lord, enough, I dow bear no more

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