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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 2001 (DOST Vol. IX).
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Stewart, Stwart, n. Also: stewarte, -arth, -ert(t, steuart(t, -ard, steward(e, stuart, stwaird, stuwart, stiward, styward. [ME and e.m.E. stiward(e (Layamon), stuard (c1290), stuward (Cursor M.), styward (Manning), steward (a1350), OE stiᵹweard, stiw(e)ard.]

1. The Scottish officer of state next after the king in authority. b. The Stewart of Scotland. 1157–8 Acts I 92 (red).
[Malcolmus rex Scottorum … hac mea carta confirmavi Waltero filio Alani dapifero meo
c1158 Acts I 93 (red).
Malcolmus rex Scottorum … dedi concessi et hac carta mea confirmavi Waltero filio Alani meo senescallo [etc.]
1250 Acts I 83/1.
Testibus … Waltero Cumyng, Wilelmo de Menteth, Alexandro Senescallo, Roberto de Ros [etc.]
1289 Acts I 441/2 (red).]
Johan le Seneschal
1329 Exch. R. I 255.
Et pro vesturis senescalli et sociorum suorum ad funus domini regis
1329 Exch. R. I 255.
Et pro tribus clericis senescalli, j peciam
1375 Barb. xi 449.
Syne his brothir schir Eduard, And ȝoung Valtir, the gud Steward
c1420 Wynt. viii 21.
Thir … lordis thre Ware wardanys be north the Scottis se. Be sowth, the byschape off Glasgw, Robert a man off gret vertu, Jhon Comyn, and the Stwart Jamys
c1420 Wynt. viii 1359.
Quhene this Malcolme the dede had tane, The Erle off Buchanys swn, Stewart Alysandyre, hyr weddyt
c1420 Wynt. viii 1375,-6.
Robert Stewart the fyrst wes he Off Stewartis that had that reawte
c1420 Wynt. viii 4100.
The Ballyoll Schyre Edward then … To the Erle off Athole, Schyr Dawy, The Stwartis landis he gave halyly
c1420 Wynt. viii 4305,-11,-15.
The Stwart wes in Dwnbertane … So in Argyle wes a barown That had a gret affectyown To this Stwart the yhyng Robert; … The Stwart send for hym [etc.]
c1420 Wynt. ix 2412.
Alexandyre the yong stewarte Tretit wyth hir sua that [etc.]
c1420 Wynt. viii 4272.b. 1214–49 Liber Melros I 181.
[Alani Senescalli Scotie
1230 Acts I 69/1.
Waltero filio Alani senescallo Scocie
1237 Reg. Dunferm. 43. ?c1250–75 Reg. Paisley 59.
Confirmatio ejusdem per Alexandrum senescallum Scotie
1290 Exch. R. I 37, 47.
Jacobi senescalli Scocie
1361 Reg. Paisley 66.
Preceptum Roberti senescalli Scotie, … Robertus senescallus Scotie, domino Johanni senescallo domino de Crukton ballivo nostro de Renfru, salutem
1370 Reg. Great S. 126/1.
Dilecto consanguineo nostro David Senescalli filio Roberti senescalli Scocie comitis de Stratherne nepotis nostri
14.. Acts I 294/1.
Forma brevis de waranto: Rex B senescallo Scocie dilecto et fideli suo salutem mandamus [etc.]
1289 Acts I 441/1 (red).]
Johan Comyn & James Seneschal de Escoce gardeyns du reaume de Escoce
(a) 1375 Barb. iv 42.
Walter, stewart off Scotland
(b) 1375 Barb. xvii 217.
Valter, Steward of Scotland … sone-in-law wes to the king
(c) c1420 Wynt. viii 3947.
The Stwartis brodyr off Scotland Jamis, that hardy wes off hand
c1420 Wynt. viii 4126.
In all this tyme … The Stwart of Scotland than Robert, That than wes yhowng … Off elde he passyd noucht sewyntene yhere
c1420 Wynt. viii 6328.
The Stwart off Scotland … Wes chosyn wpe and made wardan

c. The title given to the king or the king's eldest son after 1371 when Robert the Stewart became Robert II. 1400 Acts I 220/1.]
[Dauid Duci Rothissaye Comiti de Carric & Atholie Senescallus Scocie
(a) 1440 Reg. Great S. 60/1.
To be halden … til the forsaid James and hys ayris of the Stewart of Scotland in fee and heritage
1489 Acts II 221/2.
Concernyng the fre tenentis that haldis of the prince duk of Rothissay and stewart [1489 (?16 … ) Tracts Peerage 126, Steward] of Scotland
1494 Acta Aud. 206/1.
Anent the recogniscion maid on the behalf of our souerain lord as stewart of Scotland apon the landis of Ovirthorneton
1500 Acta Conc. II 438.
Haldin of the Kingis hienes as Stewart of Scotland
1507 Reg. Privy S. I 210/1.
His derest son James, prince and stewart of Scotland
1542 Renfrew Arch. Coll. I 199.
The scherefdome foresaid haldin of the Stewart of Scotland
1543 Reg. Privy S. III 32/2.
Ane lettir … in the handis of umquhile oure soverane lord … as prince and stewart of Scotland
1626 Craven Argyll Diocese 46.
Cumray belonging to his Majestie as all uther ylandis as Prince and Stewart of Scotland
a1633 Hope Major Pract. I 9.
The king's eldest sone is prince and stewart of Scotland
(b) 1509 Glasgow Dioc. Reg. II 338.
To get and deliver to ws the [kingis] confirmation as of the Steward of Scotland, wnder the gret sele vpon the charter and the … land … liand in the parrochine of the Stewartoun

d. Lord (High) Stewart, from the 17th century, a title occurring once in Acts and thereafter in various works of reference (see also Bell Dict. Law Scotl.) which seems to hark back to the title as held before the accession of Robert the Stewart, but adding to it the function of a seneschallus domus (see sense 4). 1628 Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. II 526.
Manie of the pryme officiars of estait who wer not ranked in that Act, as namelie the Lord Stewart, the Admirall, Mairshall, Constable, High Justice and Isher, who, or the most pairt of thame ar all counsellours
1708 J. Chamberlayne St. Gt. Britain (1708) 480.]
[The officers of the crown, besides those of state are, … steward: the Lord High Steward of Scotland, seneschallus domini regis, was a very ancient officer, and in the old charters, placed before the Constable and Mareschal; and it appears that he was also steward of the King's houshold, and performed all the offices thereunto belonging, as well as to the other; for some ages the prince of Scotland was seneschallus natus Scotiae, born Stuart of Scotland

e. In literary use: An official of the highest status under a ruler; the king, etc.'s deputy or lieutennant.(1) a1400 Leg. S. xxviii 105.
Fra the emperoure send was His stewart, man of gret mycht & fel
?1438 Alex. i 1575.
The dukis stewart [F. seneschal] met he thair, … He held great landis in to fee
c1420 Wynt. ii 352.
Than made he Joseph, off hys land, Stewarde hale and luftenand
a1500 Seven S. 1187 heading.
The empryce tale of the king that marijt his stewartis wyf
a1500 Seven S. 1214.
Than callit the king in prevate His stewart that was his ane e
a1500 Seven S. 2225.
The king … has ordanit Merling His stewart, and gaf him till his hyre The governans of his hale empyre
a1500 Seven S. 2296.
Hir husband … All that cuntre had in cure And as stewart that office bure
c1510 Prester John 310.
And gyf it plasit ȝow till cum till ws walde with gude wyll mak ȝow our senescall & our stewart and kyng and gidar our landis wndir ws
1560 Rolland Seven S. 5901.
Sa callit he [sc. the king] his steward quyetlie, And schew to him his counsall secreitlie. Saying my freind … All wemen kinde abhorris me
1560 Rolland Seven S. 7040.
He was efterwart Maid be the King comptroller and stewart. And all his realme he had in regiment, Tuik in his maillis, gersowmes & daylie rent
(2) a1500 Seven S. 1180.
Than fell the stewart of Eulope That in seruice was nixt the king

2. An executive officer of the king, having jurisdiction over lands in the direct possession of the king, esp. of a stewartry. Also stewart principall. b. Stewart of a particular place, usu. a stewartry, specif. Annandale, Kirkcudbright, Menteith and Strathearn, the lordship of Fife and Orkney. c. attrib.Quot. 1498-9 may belong elsewhere.The use of stewart, stewart-court, stewart-depute and stewartrie in W. Nicolson Leges Marchiarum (1747) pp. 130ff. is with reference to the stewart, etc. of Annandale.(1) 14.. Acts I 69/2.
Personis complenȝeande sal gang to the lord of the lande or his balȝeis and the lord or his balȝeis (the schireff of the cuntre to callit) at a resonabill daye statut … sal with an inquest of the cuntre out of thre baronyis that is to say be the stewart [L. senescallum] or the balȝe and iiij leil men of the toun
1443–4 Milne-Home MSS 262.]
[Precept by Adam of Hepburne, Lord of Hales, and Steward of the Earldom of March
1492 Acta Conc. I 267/1.
Alexander lord Home, gret Chaumerlane of Scotland & stewart of the erledoum of Merche
1492 Acta Conc. I 267/1.
To comand … the said stewart that he vse nocht the jurisdictoun of the schiref within the said erledome
1498–99 Acta Conc. II 327.
[Action by James Redheuch] our soverane Lordis stewart [against Elizabeth Dischingtoun … for withholding from him 6 merks of maill [etc.] … the lands foresaid having been assigned to the said James by Henry, Abbot of Cambuskenneth]
1503 Acts II 246/1.
Anent landis & baronys quhilk lyis in sindrj schirefdomez that ar annext or vnit in ane halding … that the persons inhabitantis tha said annext landis sall abide law befor the scheref or stewart or balȝe & justice quhar the saidis landis annext lyis nochtwithstanding the said annexation
1508 Reg. Privy S. I 258/2.
The kingis hienes exemys the said Johne … fra the jurisdictioun of the said stewart [sc. of Kirkcudbright]
1508 Reg. Privy S. I 268/1.
A lettre in Inglis … direct to al the schireffis within the realme, al the heraldis, masaris, stewartis and messengeris
1508–9 Reg. Privy S. I 275/1.
A lettre direct to Robert Lawder of the Bass, knycht, as schiref and stewart in that parte chargeing him to intromett with the eschete … of al thaim that beis justifyt within the bondis of Annandirdale
1523 Acta Conc. Publ. Aff. 173.
The chekker to be haldin … chargeing tharfor all schereffis, steuartis, ballies, custumaris, [etc.] … that suld mak compt in the said chekker that thai keip the said day
1540 Ex. Processes (Reg. H.) Laird of Burlie v. Scott.
The stewartrie of Fyff … becaus … thair is na stewart he is callit be the said schreffis precept
1542 Montgomery Mem. 127. c1575 Balfour Pract. 18.
The schiref nor his deputis is not jugeis competent … to ony persoun dwelland within the stewartrie lyand within ony schirefdome … becaus in thay caisis the Kingis stewart is juge competent
a1633 Hope Major Pract. II 30.
Letters should be direct to the shireiffes, stewarts and wthers ordinar judges for executione of decreits
a1633 Hope Major Pract. II 37.
The stewart is judge ordinar to all persones dwelling within the stewartrie, and to all lands that ar of the king's propertie
a1688 Wallace Orkney 103, 104.
In the year 1669 … Orkney and Zetland … were … reannexed to the crown and erected into a stewartrie … In the next year 1670 George Scot of Giblistone was made stewart of Orkney and Zetland … The government of the stewart is in the kings bounds, the manner and procedure of his jurisdiction is after the form of sheriffship, the title only differing
16… Macfarlane's Geog. Coll. III 77.
The Stewart is the Kings Sherif within the Kings own proper lands
(b) 1633 (1711) Sibbald's Orkn. & Shetl. 82 (see Stewartry n. 2 (b)). 1686 Mackenzie Observ. (1687) 265.
Sheriffs, stuarts, and bailies of regalities are obliged to put the laws in execution
(c) 1633 (1711) Sibbald's Orkn. & Shetl. 48 (see Stewartry n. 2 (a)).(2) 1574–5 Reg. Privy C. II 436.
Gilbert Erll of Cassillis Baillie of Carrik, … Johnne Lord Hereis Stewart Wardatour for the tyme of Kirkcudbrycht and Annanderdaill and James Stewart Sheref of Bute to raise … the said sowme
1686 T. Brown Diary 38.
William Craigie of Gairsay arryved at Kirkwall … hes a comissione for being stewart prinll. and taksman of this countray
(3) 1545 Reg. Privy C. I 6.
Letteris to be direct to officiaris of the Quenis, sheriffis in that part, to … charge all sheriffis stewartis ballies alswele regalitie as ryalte … that tha … compere in Linlithqw … and bring with thame the taxt rollis
1670 Aberd. Council Lett. V 56.
Comand and chairge the sheriffs of our shrefdomes of — and ther deputts the steuartts of our steuartries of — and ther deputts
1670 Moray Synod 149.
Shirriews of sheirs, bailȝies of regalities, stewarts of stewarties
(4) 1563 Reg. Privy S. V i 343/1.
The sext mark land of Craikistoun … liand in the baillierie of Kile Stewart within the schirefdome of Air
b. 1473–4 Treas. Acc. I 10.
Of the Stewarte of Kirkcudbrith, lx li.
1496 Treas. Acc. I 217.
Fra the steuart of Menteth, xv li. xij s.
1497 Acta Conc. II 72.
Our stewart of Straitherne and his deputtis
1497 Acta Conc. II 89.
1507 Reg. Privy S. I 229/1.
Exemand him, his tenentis [etc.] … within the bondis of the stewartry of Kirkcudbrycht fra the jurisdictioun of the stewart thairof
1508 Reg. Privy S. I 258/1.
Ane exemptioun … direct … in special to the stewart of Kirkcudbrycht … Forsamekle as … thare is dedely inimyte betuix thaim for the slauchter of the said stewartis fader … quhairthrow the said stewart is suspect juge to him
1526 Reg. Privy S. I 531/2.
Ane lettre to Archibald Erle of Angus … makand him stewart and chalmerlane of the lordschip of Fiffe
1540–1 Reg. Privy S. II 580/2.
James, be the grace of God, King of Scottis to oure schireffis of Edinburgh [etc.] … stewartis of Annanderdale, Kirkcudbrycht, Menteith and Stratherne, baillies of Kile, Carrik [etc.] … and to all utheris schireffis, stewartis, provestis [etc.]
1555 Glenartney Doc.
To oure cousing David Lord Drummond Stewart of the Stewartrie of Me[nteith] and Stratherne
c1575 Balfour Pract. 16.
Stewartis and Stewartreis. Stratherne, Lord Drummond. Menteth, Stewart of Doun. Kirkcudbright and Annanderdail, Lord Maxwell
1590 Reg. Privy C. IV 800.
Letters to be direct to the schireff of Drumfreis, stewart of Annerdale, coronellis of Drumfries, Eskdale [etc.]
1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 126 (24 Feb.).
The saids James Muire and James Morisone graunters of the said pretendit band … dwell not within the jurisdictione of the said stewartrie of Kirkcudbright … and swae can nae wayes be lyable to the said stewert of Kirkcudbright his jurisdictione
a1688 Wallace Orkney 103 (see 2 (1) above). 1688 Reg. Privy C. 3 Ser. XIII 271.
The Lords of his Majesties Privy Councill … have directed letters to … the … stewart of the stewartrie of Kirkcudbright … to call and conveen the nobility [etc.]
(b) 1675 Craven Ch. in Orkney 56.
Captain Andrew Dick, steward of Orknay and Zetland
1694 M. P. Brown Suppl. Decis. IV 156.
It was contended that the Steward of Fyfe had a privative jurisdiction within his own territory, exclusive of the Sheriff; but the Lords … found the Sheriff had a cumulative right within the bounds of the stewartry
c. (1) 1671 Goudie Shetl. Antiq. 235.
Robert Drummond, Stewart Clerk of Orknay
1670 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 82 (21 May).
Warranding any stewart officer or officers … to summond the … assyse
1676 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 233.
Complaint … upon Robert Callan steuart officer, that wher I the said John McQuhir was somonid before the steuart … be the said Robert Callan for alledgit resetting of corne [etc.]
1678 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 266.
Deforcing of our stewart officers when they wer lifting our lardiner mairt cow
(2) 1580–1 Exch. R. XXI 549.
Now I am restand awand in my stewart compt of Menteyth the sowme of 32 pundis

d. Stewartis of Kirkcubrycht in that part, public stewart, ? officials of the Stewartry or the Stewart Court. 1478 Acta Aud. 67/1.
And baith the saidis partijs has consentit to Alexander Stewart of Grenain and James Lindsay of Fargarth coniunctli and seuerali to be steuartis of Kirkcubrycht in that part for the serving of the said breuis
1679 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 335.
I acclame for my self sutch soumes of money as the judg pleas modifie for the said Alexander Corsan his wrongouslie taking auay of ane gray naig … and the lose and prejudice I sustained being a publict stewart throu want of my hors the forsaid space

3. The chief executive officer of an abbot, bishop or lord. a. ? Passing into 4. b. Discharging the functions of a bailȝe (Bailȝe n.1), esp. in a regality (Regalité n.), used occas., appar. for that title, perhaps in lands that have been at some time annexed to the crown. c. specif. In the ecclesiastical lands annexed to the crown in 1587. a1144 Liber Calchou 153.
[Arkill senescall … Adam senescall
11… Liber Scon 32.
Confirmatio Hugonis episcopi Sancti Andree de terra in Sancto Andrea … testibus … Hugone senescallo
c1200 Facs. Nat. MSS I 23.
Testibus … Alden senescaldo [etc.]
a1232 Coldstream Chart. 3.
Rolando Seneschaldo
c1240 Facs. Nat. MSS I 30.
Testibus … Gregorio senescall [etc.]
12… Liber Melros II App. 676.
Carta Thome de Nesebith … Hiis testibus Domino Alano de Harecarris senescaldo domini comitis Patricii … Gilleberto senescaldo de Kinebrigham [etc.]
12… Reg. Dunferm. 86.
Gillenef senescello de Strathern … Gillemur senescallo Atholie
a1300 Reg. St. A. 256.
Senescallus meus vel aliquis alius qui summam curam manerii mei de Loucres pro me habuerit
1328 Exch. R. I 109.
Patricio de Ogylvy, senescallo episcopi
1330 Exch. R. I 287.]
De anno quo dominus Alexander de Seton extiterat senescallus
a., b., c. (1) 14.. Reg. Maj. c. 148.
Al the comonte of the kynrik as baronnys knychtis & fre tennaldis & stewartis of bischopys abbotis & coventis to the mutis of the scheref aw to cum
1432 Acts II 21/1.
And gif he happynis to fle in the regalite oute of the rialte the schiref sal certify the lorde of the regalite or his stewart or balȝe
1555 Reg. Cupar A. II 254.
Componit with James McBrek for ane five ȝeir tak of the vicarag of Bennathy, peyand all the dewiteis thairof … and sall lat the teind eggis, geis, and gryssis to ony at salhappin to be stewart to the abbot for the tyme the samyn price at Sir John Hammill, now stewart, had … of Maister Alexander McBrek, his fader
1587 Acts III 434/1.
Annexatioun of the temporalities of benefices to the crown … Oure said souerane lord … salhaue the … richt of the superioritie of the tennendries … in the samin maner as the saidis ecclesiasticall personis had … befoir and that the airis of the present heretable possessouris … sall enter be breves of our souerane lordis chappell allanerlie quhilkis breves salbe direct to the schiref of the schyre quhair ther wes na regalitie befoir and quhair thair wes ony regalitie quhilk hes now ane heretable baillie or stewart the samin salbe direct to the said baillie or stewart … the samin being retourit to our souerane lordis chancellarie quhidder the saidis landis ly in ryaltie or regalitie
1587 Acts III 434/1.
In the quhilk precept commandement salbe gevin to the schiref stewart or baillie to quhome the samin salbe directit
1587 Acts III 436/1.
And incais of convictioun the said baillie and stewart heretabill … salhaue sic pairt of the escheit as he may clame be vertew of his office
1587 Acts III 436/1.
Inlykmaner it is statute that in all ostis & armes the inhabitantis of the landis within the saidis baillieries and stewartries salbe vnder the commandement of the saidis baillies and stewartis heretable in sic maner asthai wer wount to assemble with the saidis prelattis and baillies in tyme bigane
?1549 Monro W. Isles (1961) 78.
Mccloyd of Haray his stewart, or quhom he deputtis in sic office, sayles anes in the ȝeir at midsymmer with sum chaiplane to baptize the bairns thair [sc. Hirta] … The saids stewartis ressaves thair maillis in maill and reistit muttons [etc.]
(2) 1491 Rep. Boyle in 8th Rep. Hist. MSS App. 305/2.
[Henry Scheues] ane of the stewartis of the regalite of Sanct Androis till Robert of Burne mayr of fee of the said regalite
1561 St. A. Kirk S. 71.
The temporall magistrat, quhai is the Steward of the Regalitie of Sanctandrois wythin quhais bowndes and jurisdiccion the said James remanis
1568 St. A. Kirk S. 304.
The Stewarttis bukis of the Regalite of Sanctandrois
a1578 Pitsc. II 134/10.
Then the bischope send for the provest of Sanctandrois quho was stewart of his regalietie at that tyme
1587 Acts III 435/2.
The saidis heretable baillies and stewartis sall … haue the samin libertie power and jurisdictioun quhilk thai had befoir … and be the said annexatioun thair sall na forder power iurisdictioun or auctoritie appertene to our … souerane lordis schireffis … and further the said heretable stewart or baillie of the said regalitie salhaif … power … to replege [etc.]
1591 St. A. B. Ct. 2 June.
In this caice allenerlie he sall be ansorable to the stwart of [the] regalitie of Sanct Andros
1686 Mackenzie Observ. (1687) 375.
But I confess, I understand not what is mean'd by the Stewart of a Regality; for stewartries and regalities are distinct and inconsistent jurisdictions; a stewart being a judge in the Kings property only, having the same power that a Lord of Regality has of the lands erected in the regality holding of himself, and the lands holding of him

4. An official holding a supervisory or managerial position in a household, esp. that of the king, a lord, etc., or college, particularly with regard to domestic arrangements; also, a relatively minor official in charge of the organisation of food supplies.Some quots., esp. in literary texts, may belong elsewhere.See also Instewart n. 1329 Exch. R. I 137.
[Compotum domini Dauid de Berclay senescalli domus domini comitis de Carric
1329 Exch. R. I 157.
Malcolmo Fleming senescallo domus domini regis
1359 Exch. R. I 576.
Computat in liberacione facta domino Willelmo de Vaux, tunc senescallo domus domini nostri regis
1359 Exch. R. I 618.
Et xviij li. xviij s. xj d. liberatos domino Willelmo de Vaux, tunc senescallo domus domini nostri regis in diuersis denariatis ad vsum domini nostri regis captis et expenditis
1359 Exch. R. I 625.
Item domino Willelmo de Vaus senescallo domus regis ad expensas regis xiiij li. xiij s. et ij d.
1305 King's Household in Misc. Hist. Soc. II 32.]
Seneschal—De rechief en lostel le Roi doit estre un Seneschal de fee ou vn suffissant chiualer presente pur luy pour cel office faire, qi ordeinera lostel le Roi en certein par my le consail le chamberlanc a qi touz les officiers del hostel le Roi deiuent estre entendantz [etc.]
(1) c1450-2 Howlat 697, 700 (A).
In flesche tyme, quhen the fische war away flemyt, Quha was stewart bot the stork, … Syne all the lentryne … The soland stewart was sent For he couth fro the firmament Fang the fische deid
1456 Hay I 114/4.
Na ȝit he suld nocht dresse nane insicht in housis, na be na stewart
1490 Treas. Acc. I 133.
To Schir Archbalde Calderwod, stewart, the saim da, xxxti li.
1490 Treas. Acc. I 169. 1496 Treas. Acc. I 305.
To Bresbane, the stewartis man, to pas in the Lenowis with the kingis lettrez
1541 Crim. Trials I i 313.
The expensis debursit vpoun the kingis servantis ordinaris … Item to James Leremont and Patrik Wemys, maisteris of howshald ilkane l li. … Item to James Aikinheid [etc.] … yeman in the wyne-sellar; … maister of the silver veschell … squyar of the kingis stabill; … maister cuke … xx li. … Item to William Baird [etc.] … ischeris of the uter-chalmer-dur … yemen in the kingis chalmer … yeman in the wardrop … elymosinar … Schir Dauid Cristesoun, Stewart; Schir George Scott, abbreuiatour of the bukis … and Johnne Hay in the kingis pannetrie; ilkane of thir personis, xiij li. vij s. viij d.
1551 Hamilton Cat. 103.
Lat all gryntaris, stewartis, chamyrlandis, and al kind of craftesmen tak gud tent to this comminatioun
1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 7.
The cuik and portar xij marks. The steuart to be payit be the principal
1573 Davidson in Sat. P. xlii 694. 1593 Reg. Morton I 187.
1596 Bk. Univ. Kirk III 873.
Of prayer and of reiding of the Word … for the most part abused and profanit be cuiks, stewarts, jackmen, and sicklyke
(b) c1475 Wall. ii 91.
(c) 1560 Bk. Disc. 216.
In everie Colledge, we think neidfull at the least ane steward, ane cooke [etc.]
1588 Prot. Bk. J. Inglis 23 May.
Walter Dwne … bereft hyr the haill keis of hir place & possessit hym with the same & said that he wald be steward thairof sa lang as thair wes ony necessaris to sustene thame thairin vpone the quhilk reif & oppressione the said Mariory requirit instrumentis
(2) a1400 Leg. S. xlvii 67.
He send his stewart [L. præpositum]
c1420 Wynt. ii 1355.
The bul that this Dame Phasife Thus lufyd, wes in propyrte Hyr awne stewart
14.. Acts I 26/2.
The knycht may put for hym his stewart [L. senescallum] or his greff with othir fre men to make the athe
?a1450 Florimond 425.
He baid his stewart than in hy Gar get him hors
a1500 Henr. Fab. 1966.
Thow sall beir office, and my stewart be, For thow can knap doun caponis
a1500 Prestis of Peblis 851.
Be that the kings stewart cummin is, To haue the king to his supper
1560 Rolland Seven S. 8712.
To his stewart than ane command he gaue That in houshald Alexander he suld ressaue
1664 Misc. Maitl. C. II 510.
To Williame Sharpis stewart, his cooklass, [etc.]
c1420 Wynt. vii 477.
Quhille he sayd I wes steward Till my lord the kyng Edward And I before hym wes standand At his mete [etc.]
1501 Treas. Acc. II 40.
Giffin to Maister Leonard Logy, stewart to the lady … xxx li.
(b) c1475 Wall. ii 84.
His emys serwand to buy him fysche was send … Quhen he had tane of sic gud as he bocht, The Perseys stwart sadly till him socht. ‘Thow Scot to quhom takis thow this thing?’ ‘To the schireff’ he said. ‘Be hewynnys king My lord sall haiff it’
c1475 Wall. ix 1121.
Wallange thai maid thair stwart for to be; Off meit and drynk thai fand aboundandle
c1475 Wall. iv 383. 1567 Old Ross-shire II 2.
Ressavit fra Thomas Smyt … stwaird to the laird of Ballangoun the soume of thretty twa libs tway schillings in complet payment of the burd of George Ross sonne to the said laird
(3) 14.. Acts I 346/2.
To the stewart of the kingis hous [L. senescalli domus domini nostri regis] for his fee xl lib.
1527 Reg. Privy S. I 558/1.
Ane lettre to Paule Kinloch, makand him court stewart to the kingis grace of his houshald
1570–1 Reg. Privy S. VI 201/1.
[Payable by the Comptroller or] be the maister of houshald and stewart of his majesteis hous according as the uthir servandis thairin ar payit
1496 Halyb. 136.
2 half stekis off lane … to the stewart of Halyrod
(b) 1596 Dalr. II 23/2.
Gouernour of the kings hall, or the kings maistirhoushald, quhom conforme to our vulgar language we cal Stuart
(c) c1550 Houshold Papers (SRO) E 34/7.
The pointis of the office of steward of the kyngis majestie hous … in Kyng James the V his dayis … to knaw of all provisiouns & furneissing … salbe entrit within the kyngis … hous … furneissing of fische & flesche [etc.] … he sould … pas to the marketts & se the … bying of flesche fische & wyld maittis … he sould se the … candle weyit anis in the oulk … he sould se the beif mowtoun & woull strukkin directely to the kichingis and to knaw the samin to be seruit trewlie agane to the tables of the hous … he sould convey the kyngis majesteis mait efter the maister houshald at dinner … & se the maister of houshalds table seruit … he sould knaw of the laying of mairtis, of the bying of butter, dry fische, herings and all sic vther provisiouns … he sould knaw of the inlaying of wyne … sic new fourneissing as salbe maid … the steward to be participant of the quantitie [etc.] … And finnallye to be … ane speciall support & helpar within the hous of my lord comptrollar and reddy to ansser vnto the maister of houshald in all poyntis concerning the fourneissing & provisioun brocht within the hous and to se the perfite ordouring and distributioun thairof … and to sit at the comptis daylie with the rest of the auditouris tharof & gif his oppinioun and mak anser

b. In fig. context: Said of a non-material thing viewed as affecting a person in the same way as a steward would. a1500 Henr. Fab. 2210.
The warld, ȝe wait, is stewart to the man, Quhilk makis man to haif na mynd of deid, Bot settis for winning all the craftis thay can
1554 Duncan Laideus Test. 151.
My maister houshald wes heich Oppressioun, Reif my stewart that cairit of na wrang

c. transf. One who dispenses, chiefly, spiritual, benefits. 1551 Hamilton Cat. 98.
Benefecit men … quhilk ressavis the patrymonye of Christ … teindis and offeryngis fra the Christin pepil … and wyll nocht mynister agane to the peple the word of God … For doutles thay ar bot dispensatouris or stewartis of the same
1562-3 Winȝet I 42/10.
The sewin diacones electit be the peple to be steuartis specialie to the pure in Godis Kirk
c1568 Lauder Minor P. i 484.
God send ȝow nocht the uictall … That ȝe the pepill suld fameis and confound Bot that ȝe sould thairof gude stewarts be Helpand the pure in thair necessite
1587-99 Hume 147/34.
The Lord is a wise & discreet stewart, and dispensator of his benefits
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 177/590.
[Good physicians are] Dame Natures counsallouris & the Allmichties agentis ay & steuartis & storemaisteris uyse of floorishing aage

d. fig. One who dispenses trouble or vexation. 1560 Rolland Seven S. 3516.
The sals that thow seruis at my hand I can not weill indyte … O rank rampand lyoun, … Stewart of sturt … Cleker of cair … Greit maistres to Mahoun

5. Passing, in early use chiefly from sense 1, into use as a surname; the surname Stewart. b. (Of) the family of Stewart (the last two examples may belong in 1 above). c. As a place-name. 1262 Red Bk. Menteith II 216.
[Omnibus Christi fidelibus hoc presens scriptum visuris vel audituris, Walterus Senescallus, comes de Menthet, salutem
1286 Red Bk. Menteith 219.
Patricius comes de Dunbar … Walterus Senescallus comes de Menethe, … Jacobus Senescallus Scotiæ et Johannes frater ejus [etc.]
1290 Exch. R. I 47.
Computum Jacobi senescalli Scocie, vicecomitis de Air, redditum anno lxxxix, per Reginaldum clericum et atturnatum suum, pro quo Joannes senescalli, frater predicti vicecomitis
1315–21 Reg. Great S. 11/2.
Jacobo Senescalli filio quondam Johannis Senescalli militis dilecto et fideli nostro
1315–21 Reg. Great S. 12/1.
Hac presenti carta nostra confirmasse Alano Senescalli dilecto et fideli nostro, pro homagio [etc.]
1315–21 Reg. Great S. 15/2.
Sciatis nos dedisse concessisse et hac presenti carta nostra confirmasse dilecto consanguineo nostro Roberto Senescalli, filio et heredi Walteri Senescalli Scocie, pro homagio et servicio suo, omnes terras nostras de Cunyngham
1342 Exch. R. I 506.
Et domino Johanni Senescallo de Dernely
1366 Rot. Sc. 901/2.
Salvi conductus pro … Jacobus Senescall & Alexander Skrymchur de Abirbrothoch cum octo sociis equitibus
1368 Acts I 171/1.
Johanni Senescall primogenito Roberti Senescall Scocie
1371 Acts I 181/1.
Dominus Johannes Senescallus regis primogenitus comes de Carric & Senescallus Scocie, dominus Dauid Senescallus filius regis iunior, comes de Stratheryn, [etc.]
1372 Reg. Great S. (1814) 127/1.
Alexandrum Senescall del Badenach
1385 Acts I 189/2.]
Dominus Alanus senescallus
b. 1333 Misc. Hist. Soc. II 27.
Mons. Watier Steward
1333 Misc. Hist. Soc. II 28.
Sire Aleyn Stiward
1358 Rot. Sc. 824/2.
Johannem Styward de dictis partibus Scotie
1377–8 Armorial de Gelre fol. 64, No. 12 in Scottish Kings (1899) 169.
Syr Alexsander Stuwart
1395–6 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 4.
Schyr Robert Stewart Erl of Fyfe
c1420 Wynt. viii 6303.
He and Alane Stwart, tha twa Oft dyd the Galluays mekill wa
c1420 Wynt. ix 1861.
Schir Davy Stewarte the kingis aire
1494–5 Treas. Acc. I 210.
Ane composicione maid with William Steuard of Rossith, convict of errour ijc li.
1494–5 Treas. Acc. I 210.
Thomas Steuard of Mynto
1584 Gowrie P. 30.
As touching the honouris which I have of his majestie in challenginge to be of his blod truly albeit I be not in name a Steward [etc.]
1650 Acts VI ii 628/1.
Sir James Balfour of Kinnaird … delivered to the kings maiestie … an old monument concerning the entailments of the crowne of this kingdome by King Robert de Bruce to the race of the Stewarts his maiesties ancient predecessors
1611-57 Mure Hist. Rowallane 242.
Adame Mure … father in law to King Robert Second, of the Stewarts
c. 1281–2 Reg. Paisley 380.
Illam terram in villa de Stewardton
c1515 Asl. MS I 239/20.
Galloway fra the watter of Cre west and Stewartoun outtane the landis of Pedynnane
1509 Glasgow Dioc. Reg. II 338 (see 1 c (b) above).

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"Stewart n.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 3 Dec 2022 <>



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