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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 2002 (DOST Vol. XI).

Turn, Tourn(e, Torn(e, v. Also: turn(n)e, twrn(n)(e, towrn, tern. [ME and e.m.E. turne(n (c1200), turrnenn (Orm), torne(n (Layamon), tourne(n (c1300), terne(n (Chaucer), OE tyrnan, turnian, OF torner, turner, L. tornāre.]

I. tr. 1. To cause to move round, esp. as if on an axis or around a centre; to turn to face another direction; to change the position of. Also fig.(1) 1375 Barb. iii 111.
Ane narow place … That wes sa strait … That he mycht nocht weill turn his sted
1375 Barb. iii 167.
Ȝone knycht … tournys sa mony tyme his stede That semys off ws he had na dred
?1438 Alex. ii 1205.
His hors hede he turnit thare, And drew his suerd
c1420 Wynt. iv 945.
Thai … Turnyd the luff and tuk the se
14.. Acts I 378/2.
Gif he turnis the tais of his fet quhar the helis stud before
1490 Irland Mir. II 40/38.
The angell … turnit the stane of the graf and opynnit it
1501 Treas. Acc. II 25.
For casting of the erd fra Mons and to turne hir and lay the twych hole vp
1560 Rolland Seven S. 1111.
He turnit his heid, and wald not thole hir kis
1581 Sempill in Sat. P. xliii 32.
To all estates vntruethfull, quhat sould mair, Turnand her volt lyke woddercok in wind
16… Macfarlane's Geog. Coll. III 196.
There is a place of the sea close upon the Mule [of Galloway], where ships if they enter, are quickly turned round and sunk down
(2) ?1438 Alex. i 2790.
He turnit oft his steidis heid To thame that he saw neir chaissand
c1400 Troy-bk. i 68.
Till Hercules and hys menȝhe He turnyt the face & thus saide he
c1420 Wynt. v 5626.
That ymage Had turnyd fra Romwle hys wysage
c1500 Makc. MS xv 8.
A quhill to me thow turne thi face
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 219.
He ful tendirly dois turne to me his tume person … And sais [etc.]
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 111/79.
Fortuna maior did turn hir face on thé
a1538 Abell 13b.
Diogen … la in ane twne … in symmir … he turnit the face of it to the north
1560 Rolland Seven S. 4958.
Greit images of irne, tin, bras and leid … Ilk ane … turnit thair face to the same regioun, To thame assignit
1569-73 Bann. Memor. 107.
We wan thair artailȝerie … and turned the samen to thaim self
1626 Kinghorn Kirk S. 31.
Alleadging … that scho uses to misbehaue hirselfe towardis his wyfe quhen scho meitts hir in that scho turnis hir ars to her
fig. ?1438 Alex. ii 6666.
Sa mekill haue ȝe desyrit of ill … That hale the name and the cry Of wrang … Is turnet halely in ȝow
c1420 Wynt. i 1347.
Sum steddys growys sa habowndanly Off gyrs, … bot thair fe Fra fwlth off mete refrenyht be, Thair fwde sall turne thame to peryle
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 107/14.
Quha is a tratour or ane theif Upoun him selff turnis the mischeif
c1520-c1535 Nisbet Luke xxiii 2.
We haue fundin this turnand vpsadoun our folk
1540 Lynd. Sat. 583 (B).
Fortoun turnit on thame hir saill
1615 Fraserburgh Kirk S. 11 April.
[Man acquitted of drunkenness in another's house] to be war that his hamlie faschiounis be not turnit to him for reprooff & challange

b. lit. and fig. To turn one's, etc. bak, to turn away from, go away, abandon; esp. to turn and flee in battle; to turn the (one's) wisage, to face the enemy and engage in battle.(1) 1375 Barb. vii 608.
Thai that war hendermar Saw that the formast left the sted Thai tornyt [C. turnit] sone the bak & fled
a1400 Leg. S. xxix 303.
Forton … Turnyt hyr bak one hym wrathly & hyme dissawit sudandly
?1438 Alex. i 2895.
He turnit nocht his back to fle Bot … turnit stoutly his vissage
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2231.
At the last Thai torned thare bakis and to go
c1420 Wynt. viii 2170.
All the lawe … turnyd the bak, and away flede
a1500 Bk. Chess 990.
It causis thaim to turne thair bak & fle Quhen thai suld fecht
1558-66 Knox II 67.
Sum brocht tymmer and uther impedimentis of wecht, quhilk … thay threw over the wall upoun oure men, bot especiallie quhen thay began to turne backis
c1578 Reid Swire 114.
After they had turned backs Yet Tindaill men they turn'd again
1581 Cal. Sc. P. VI 14.
I was purposed to have … turned my backe upon Scotland while I had sene further
1614 Lanark B. Rec. 121.
I say: ‘Gwdschir, come and resav yowr geir again’ … and leves them, and as I tornit my bake on them thay [etc.]
(2) 1375 Barb. iii 58.
Quha-sa-euer had seyne him then Prowe sa worthely wasselage And turn sa oft-sythis the wisage, He suld say he awcht weill to be A king
?1438 Alex. i 2897 (see (1) above).

c. To turn one's bridill, to turn one's horse and ride away. 1375 Barb. viii 351 (C).
Quhen he saw he tynt his pane, He turnit his bridill, and to-ga
?1438 Alex. ii 4040.
He turned his brydill and he to-ga To Porrus

d. specif. To cause (a wheel or spit (also, a door) to rotate on its axis or fixings, also of a person on a wheel or spit. a1500 Henr. Orph. 265.
Alecto, Megera, and Thesiphonee, Turnand a quhele … And on it spred a man
a1500 Henr. Orph. 506.
Scho send hym doun vnto the sisteris thre, Apon thair quhele ay turnyt [Asl. torned] for tobe
a1538 Abell 69a.
He fand ane wiche turnand the kingis ymage of wax on ane treyn speit
1560 Rolland Seven S. Schort Schawing 33.
Ga … scour pottis … Or in sum kitching turne the speit
1588 King Cat. 177.
As ane dur is tourned on the cruuks

e. To fashion by turning on a lathe. 1507 Treas. Acc. III 385.
To the turnour that turnit apilles to the king for the tournament
1531–2 M. Works Acc. (ed.) I 89.
To William Mure turnour that turnis the schorne werk xxiiij s.
1552 Treas. Acc. X 112.
To ane turnour turnand stoupis of beddis and charis in the said castell be the space of this moneth … iij li. iiij s.

f. fig. To turn one's (the) coat (cloik), to change sides, to accept an opposing view as one's own. a1538 Abell 110b.
He wrait for approbatioun of the consill of Basill bot quhen he wes paip he turnit the cloik on the todir schuddir
a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 760 (W).
Gif wilfull Will delytis in leis, Exempill in thy selfe thou seis, How he can turne his cote
1681 Colvil Whig's Suppl. (1681) i 93.
At others budding, He turn'd his coat for cake and pudding

g. To cause (a quantity of disparate material) to go by a turning motion in a place or on a person. 1566 Prot. Bk. Thomas Johnsoun 148.
[Alexander Heuch] tuk done the caile pott … and turnit the caile and met quhilk wes sethand in the said pott in ane foule tub
1636 Chron. Perth 34.
The moulis wer turnit on him in his grawe

h. To turn the key, to divine something by the rotation of a key. 1644 Kirkcaldy Presb. 272.
Anent some … mariners, who turned the key in a ship of Kirkcaldie it is ordeaned they sall mak thair publik repentance
1646 Kirkcaldy Presb. 293.
David Wood sailor, confessed he turned the key in Kirkcaldie, and that he learned it in ane English shipp where … they took the Byble and enclosed ane key into it and read the 50 psalm, at the 18 verse and named all the names in the shipp and when they lighted upon the man whom they suspected the key turned about
1646 Kirkcaldy Presb. 296.
Margaret Neilson confessed she saw Janet Dick turn the key tuyse, once in hir owne houss and once in Margaret Mastersons and that the said Margarets sonne held the key with the said Janet Dick. Margaret Masterson … affirmed that … Janet Dick offered to Beatrix Gedd to turn the key for trying something lost

i. To turn the riddill, see Riddil(l n.2 2 b for examples.

j. To cause (livestock) to turn round and go back, to turn away, turn back. 1583 Reg. Privy C. III 603.
To use gude neichtbourheid to … Thomas, turnand his guidis that sal happin to enter in the wod, or to poind thame
1650 Brechin Presb. 35.
Shee went to turn his sheep from the merch

k. ? 1615 Inverness Rec. II 138.
For the thifteous steling of ane lang tuel of twelf eln that wald contein fyif bolls beir … tournit the said tuel being ful of beir, and tuik and sta the sam

2. a. To direct (one's attention, thoughts, etc.) to, a (topic, etc.), to direct (one's speech) to. Also with non-personal subject. 1375 Barb. xvii 493.
Now … we … turne the cours of our carping To schyr Robert
a1500 Seven S. 110.
Thus leif I him science to ken And to the empriour tornis my pen
1590-1 R. Bruce Serm. 289.
In the fourth verse he amplifieth this deed … and that it may be the more pithie he turneth his speech to God

b. To direct (a person) (un)to (fra) a way of life, to direct (a person's mind), to change (one's intentions). 1375 Barb. xx 565.
It is als ill to ger him be Turnyt fra way of rychtwisnes Or ellis consent to wikkitnes
1460 Hay Alex. 699.
Gif he war fra ressoun turnit all He ressoning suld gar farrare fall
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 1066.
Schir Gawyne tretit the knight to turn his entent
c1475 Wall. (1570) i 9.
God turnit thair mynd & will, That greit kyndnes thai haue schawin vs till
c1490 Irland Asl. MS 72/5.
Prayand … for evill doaris that God of his grace wald turne thaim to the richt way
1490 Irland Mir. III 16/33.
The grace that this sacrament gevis to the man causis him tobe … constaunt … in the caus … of God … and for na aduersite … may be turnit tharfra
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 160/16.
Full mony ane man I [sc. Fortune] turne unto the hicht, And makis als mony full law to doun licht
1533 Gau 48/15.
To prech the wangel throw al the wardil … and to twrne mony to the halie Chrissine faith
1562-3 Winȝet II 28/9.
Quhow vehementlie inweys the blissit apostil Paul contrare certane men quha … wes turnit fra him
c1590 Fowler I 277/81.
I beseache thé turne The same from me, and with thy plagues which maks me now to murne

c. To turn (one's hart), to change the focus of one's mind or feelings, to redirect one's emotions or feelings to or fra something. c1420 Wynt. v 3830.
The byschopys hart in mare meknes At thir wordys turnyd wes
1456 Hay I 16/26.
Fals heretikis … and fals prechouris … has thair hertis sa hard that never will turne bot lyvis in dispaire
a1538 Abell 8a.
He had … 300 concubinis quhilkis turnit his hart fra God
1551 Hamilton Cat. 173.
The haly spreit … be his grace lythis and turnis our hart to God
1562-3 Winȝet I 44/17.
Quhat remede speir ȝe? But dout to turne vnfenȝeitlie of al our hart fra our idolatricall and insaciable auarice
1590-1 R. Bruce Serm. 360.
The other part of repentance, whereby we turn our hearts, and apply the mercy of God to ourselves

d. To turn one's mynd (ingyne) to (in, against), to change the focus of one's thoughts, etc., to direct (one's own or another's mind) to. c1460 Wisd. Sol. (STS) 89.
Quhen I wmbethocht me and turnyt my mynd in my-self, thinkand of al my warldly werkis
1490 Irland Mir. I 114/27.
My scister, Dam Justice, suld turne hire mynd to grace & pete
1533 Boece 78b.
To ane dissate he turnit his wikkit mynde
1643 Baillie II 57.
The king hes turned the parliament's ingyne against them

e. To turn one's hand, to set oneself to a task. 1513 Doug. viii vii 161.
Harnes and armour; now nedys it … lat se Quha nymlyast can cum and turn thar handis

3. To bring about a change in the physical state or substance of something, to change in (till) something else. Also fig. a1500 Henr. Thre Deid Pollis 40 (M).
Aganis dethe may no man mak defence … Pure and ryche salbe but difference Be turnd in as and thus in erthe translait
1490 Irland Mir. II 28/4.
The herresie of Apolinaris that said that the diuinite was turnit in the flech and body of Jhesu
1490 Irland Mir. III 20/20.
As the natural heit turnys & changis the nutriment in the natur of the persoune Richtsua the luf of Jhesu changis the persoune and turnis him fra syn
1528 Lynd. Dreme 1090.
Mydas … Turnit in gold, boith meit, drynk, and clethyng, And deit of hounger
15.. King Berdok 42.
The gratious god Mercurius, Turnit Berdok in till ane braikane bus
1551 Hamilton Cat. 89.
Our Salviour … kythit his first mirakil … turnand the wattir into wyne
a1568 Bann. MS 267a/25.
Quhen … all montanis ar turnit in to plane … Than sall my lady luve me
1658 Sc. Ant. IX 50.
Sex women … war turned all in the liknes of cattis
fig. 1570 Sat. P. x 127.
Scho … turnit day in nycht and nycht in day; All the nycht lang to sport, sing, dance and play

b. To change an aspect of something. c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 127/21.
I am ane auld hors … My maine is turned in to quhyt
1587-99 Hume 31/163.
The dow … Hir pourpour pennes turnes mony hew, Against the sunne direct

c. To (cause (a person) to) change in behaviour or attitude. 1618 Trial Isobel Inch 14.
The ministrie forsaid, finding her to be turnit, … they removit from hir hir husband and friends and ernestlie delt with hir of new
1667 Cramond Ch. Rathven 27.
The Tutor of Ranes … desyred … that the people might have preaching, and disciplin sould be exercised otherwyse they wold turne lowse
1691 Cramond Kirk S. III 8 Oct.
Helen Hutson … said she could not compeir befor the session, for it would turn her light in minde, as she had been formerly

d. specif. To change (a person's name). c1475 Wall. vi 315.
Thai turnyt his nayme … And cald him Jop

4. To change (one emotion, quality, condition, etc.) in, (in)to another, freq. of an opposite nature. 1375 Barb. viii 137.
He said his worschip suld be mar, & mar be turnyt in nobillay
a1400 Leg. S. xvi 602.
He cane dule in ioy turne
c1420 Ratis R. 1482.
Wyt is twrnyt in mail-engyne
1533 Gau 91/16.
Ve may turnne that to the best
1535 Stewart 5168.
Tha wer misleivit of his langage far, Sone efterwart that it suld turne to war
a1570-86 Maitland in Maitl. F. I 444/96.
1576 Douglas Corr. 204.
If some spedie ponishment be not made herein, it will torne to more vnconvenience
1590-1 R. Bruce Serm. 8.
Take me away ane of thir twa things … Turne me over the ane into the uther, sa that the substance of the ane starts up and evanishis in the uther, ye tyne the relation and sa ye tyne the sacrament
1660 Wodrow Hist. I (1828) 289.
Is our covenant with England turned to Hary Martin's Almanack?

b. To change the nature or status of an action, event, etc. (in, to) something else. 1456 Hay I 138/34.
Sen the accioun is naturale, it may nocht be turnyt in accioun civile
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 507.
‘Quhat nedis,’ said Spinagrus, ‘sic notis to nevin Or ony termis be turnit’
1533 Gau 13/13.
Thay that … twrnis the halie writ to lichtlines and scorne
1689 Acts XII 70/2.
A humble requeist to the king to turne the meetting of the estates to a parliament

c. To turn in merchandise, to use a commodity as merchandise, to deal in. 14.. Acts I 336/2.
Hukstaris … ar forbyaris of quhete … catall [etc.] … and turnis in merchandise and thar thai forestall

5. a. To divert or channel resources to one's profit, etc., to redirect funds. 1398–9 Liber Melros 489.
All the catill and gudez … to be distreignede throw the forsaidez abbot and convent … and in thaire profite to be turnide
1440 Cop. St. A. 201.
A certane sowm of money payit till ws thankfully beforhand at anys and in the oyis, proffit and utilite of oure abbay turnyt and convertit
1445 Glasgow Chart. II 440.
A certane sowm of silvyr to me beforehand … payit be the said Davy and in myne use turnit, in tyme of my grete necessite
1494 Acta Conc. I 368/1.
The quhilkis gudis wer takin be the kingis lettrez at the command of … Johne Abirnethy & turneit in his vse for the malez and annualis of the landis of Kinȝaltj
1495 Paisley B. Rec. 51.
The saidis soumes of money ar awand to the saidis abbot and convent … and wer turnit and disponit apone the thingis concernyng to the said burgh
1521 Liber Melros 632.
And the price of the sammyn in thar ws and profet turnyt
1596 Dalr. II 90/19.
The Inglismen turneng this schipwrak to thair proper vse, forȝhet al nychtbourheid, humanitie and kyndnes

b. To turn (a person) to (in) na prejudice, to cause (a person) no harm or disadvantage.See Prejudice n. 1 (6) for further examples. 1463 Acts XII 28/2.
That occupatioun & vse that I sal haue of the said landis … sal turn ȝow na ȝoure successowris in na preiudice
1466 Acta Aud. 5/2.
Dauid … protestit that quhat that beis decretit … turne him na his aieris to na preiudice in tyme tocum
1482–3 Acta Conc. II cviii.
That the said protestatioun … suld turne him to na prejudice anent his takkis
1482–3 Acta Aud. in Acta Conc. II cxxvii.
James Boner, as are … protestit … that quhatever the lordis did in this mater abonewritin suld turne him to na prejudice
1505 Dunferm. B. Rec. I 150.
That the clame … sulde nocht turne him na his arris to na preiudice
1529 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 101.
He protestit that this productione of this preff suld turne hyme to na pregutes
1530 Aberd. B. Rec. I 132.
Protestand what was done atour suld turne him to na pregiteise

6. To cause (a person) to change to a different religion. b. With noun complement: To embrace (a different religion). c1420 Wynt. v 5645.
Thai … gert the Jowys devotly Turnyd be to Crystyne fay
1562-3 Winȝet I 42/24.
Quhair reid ȝe euer in the Apostolis dais amang sa mony thousande Christianis turnit to the faith
1632 Lithgow Trav. iv 141.
He turnd Turke, and was circumcised

7. To transfer (property, a right, etc.) to, fra; to revert to the previous owner. 14.. Acts I 25/2.
Gif ony burges has hade twa wyffis … and … landis … tha landis at war gottyn in the tyme of the fyrst wyffe sall turne … to the childer … of the fyrst wyffe
1499–1500 Reg. Great S. 537/1.
Landis … to be haldin to the said Patrik and hys airis maill … the quhilkis failyeand turnand to me … and my airis
1563 Boyd Fam. P. No. 46 (2 Jan.).
Twrnand and transferrand fra me my airs and all utheris my assignayis the foirsaid actioun of eiectioun restitutioun therof to and all proffeitis that I maye persew
1587 Prot. Bk. J. Inglis 6 April.
Gilbert Wilsone … turnand & transferand his haill reycht of the premissis in the handis of the said Margaret
1587–8 Prot. Bk. J. Inglis 7 Feb.
Comperit Margaret Reid … with … assent of Johne Forbeis hir spous … turnand & transferand thair haill reycht & titill of reycht … in the handis … of … Thomes & his foirsaidis

8. To translate (something) (out of one language) in another language. 1573-1600 Burne Disput. in Cath. Tr. 127/27.
Gif al thingis var turnit in the propir langage of euerie cuntrey … al communicatione amangis Christiane pepil vald schortlie be tane auay
1573-1600 Burne Disput. in Cath. Tr. 128/4.
The prayeris of your deformit kirkis … ar chaingit according to euerie langage in the quhilk thay ar turnit
1573-1600 Burne Disput. in Cath. Tr. 131/15.
Thay quha turned the Euangelis out of Grek in Latene
1573-1600 Burne Disput. in Cath. Tr. 131/29.
S. Augustine vryttis that it is nocht lesum to turne Amen in onie vther vulgar langage
1640 Dundonald Par. Rec. 465.
Let them get a them to turne in Latein everie day

9. To change (language), alter the use of a word or expression. 1600-1610 Melvill 460.
Giffing to them of that name [sc. bishop] will justlie sklander them; because, these twentie yeirs, thair doctrin from the pulpit hes soundit against bischopes … And now sa soone to turn our toung, for hope of ritches and promotioun … will it nocht offer just occasioun of sklander?

10. With noun complement. a. To change (profession); to become (something else). b. Of a word: To change into another as a result of transposing the letters.a. 1657 Balfour Ann. III 421.
Mr. Johne Maule, a broken merchant, laitly master'd at Glasgow, and imediatly turn'd preacher
b. 1633 Lithgow Poet. Remains 112.
Yet anagram me lordes … And yee shall find my lords turne drols indeed: And so most are

II. intr. 11. To move as if around a central point, to turn and face another or the opposite direction, to toss and turn, shift body position, to overturn. Also fig. 1375 Barb. xvi 125.
The tother turnyt and schot agayne And at a schot his hors has slane
?1438 Alex. ii 3535.
Thay turned and ȝeid thare gate
c1420 Wynt. viii 5999.
Ogill turnyd and abade And thai in hy apon hym rade
a1500 Henr. Orph. 382.
Pas thy way, bot vnderneth this payne: Gyf thou turnis or blenkis behind thy bak We sall hir haue forewir till hell agayn
a1500 Henr. Orph. 410.
Quhare lufe gois, on forse turnis [Asl. tornes] the ee
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 191/11.
I walk, I turne, sleip may I nocht
15.. Christis Kirk 227 (M).
His wyf bad him, gang hame … And sua did Meg his mother, He turnit and gaif thame bath thair paikis, For he durst stryk na vther
1560 Rolland Seven S. 4529.
The tabill turnit, and all the meit doun flang
1560 Rolland Seven S. 6195.
The twa bricht swordis into his mouth he tuik The same schynand, vpon the armie schuik. Quhilis turnis eist, and vther quhilis west
1570 Misc. Bann. C. I 50*.
Cut fra the schulderis up for the first falt, and that will gar thame all trymbill and thair hair turn widdirshynes
1663–9 Sel. Biog. I 155.
We turned, and made good way with an main-cross and an litle of ane foretop-sail
fig. c1420 Ratis R. 1194.
All has He turnand one a pyne As hyme lyst luf and deil in twyne
1490 Irland Mir. II 147/35.
All the mater turnis on this point
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 120/43.
On thair conscience … May turne aucht oxin and ane wane
1672 M. P. Brown Suppl. Decis. II 698.
The Lords having considered this debate, and finding the hinge of the whole controversy turned on the single point of the lippie or muttie … ordained [etc.]

b. Of a wheel, etc.: To turn, revolve. Also in fig. context. c. Of a planet, sun or figure in astronomy: To rotate.b. a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii 549.
A quhele … Sharpe swerdis scherand in al syde, Hym that nere it com behowit abyde. Quhen it turnyt rycht than suld de
a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii 560.
The quhele … turnyt nocht
a1500 Adv. MS 25. 4. 15 95, 96.
Sic cruffis and the ingynys ternand betwene salbe at the lest … twa inch in linth and iii inch in breid
c1500 Makc. MS v 6.
Fortonis quheill is ay turnand Quhil to weil and quhil to wa
c. c1400 Troy-bk. i 494.
The sonne wndre Eclyps turnand With course contynuale
c1400 Troy-bk. i 503.
A cercle that turnys in heven, One some ane of the planetes seven
1549 Compl. 48/29.
The spere, on the quhilk lyne or extre the speris & hauynis turnis on
a1595 Cullen Chron. Aberd. 59.
This warld our all Turnit [pr. Turint] as ane ball
a1649 Drummond II 28/11.
No wonder though the earth doth change her face, New manners, pleasures new, turne with new sunnes

d. To turn the ground, to plough. Also fig. 1526 Carnwath Baron Ct. (SHS) 55.
The inqueist ordanis dykis to be maid about corn & medo … & utowth the dykis to turn & schar
fig. a1400 Leg. S. xxx 121.
For of sorcery scho cuth do & as scho mycht did turne & chare

12. To change course, go in a different direction, to set one's course to, fra, etc. a place, to go in the direction of.(1) 1375 Barb. iii 106.
Quhen thai … saw him torne sa mony tid, Thai abaid till that he was Entryt in ane narow place
1375 Barb. ix 369.
He furth on his wayis rad As he ne had will agayne to turn [C. turne] Na besyd thaim mak mar soiourn
(2) 1375 Barb. vii 638.
Tharfor till Ingland turnyt he With mar schame then he went of ton
a1400 Leg. S. x 470.
A frawarte wynd … Gert the fyre … Turne apone Yrtacus in, & brynt his palace sa clene
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 1689.
The Grekes had tone vpone hand … for to torne Frome Troye, withoutin more sudiorne, Thai passit
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 1979.
Tharfor in haist to the rowme se Thai torned and held on thar way
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 2.
The king turnit on ane tyde towart Tuskane
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 224.
Thai turssit vp tentis and turnit of toun … Thay drive on the da deir be dalis and doun
c1515 Asl. MS I 304/20.
Segor a litill cite that reset Loth tornyng out of Sodome
c1475 Wall. i 380.
The lorde Persye, was captane than off Ayr; Fra thine he turnde and couth to Glaskow fair
a1508 Want of Wyse Men 11 (Bann.).
Quhen levit King Saturnus, For gudly gouernance the warld was goldin cald; Nou ellis we wat, forsuth, quhithir it turnis
a1578 Pitsc. II 151/7.
Scho [sc. the queen] … past to Stirling witht hir men of weir … and swne efter turnitt to Falkland
1596 Dalr. I 103/21.
Thay vse to luge … strangers that turnes in to thame
1596 Dalr. I 108/1.
Euerie nobil man, neir to the bischope, … turnet in to the bischopes lugeng cheiflie

b. fig. To change the direction of one's life. c1420 Ratis R. 1686.
The sevynt eild … changis kindly cours twrnand To latis ȝong & wncunand
c1409-1436 Kingis Q. § 186.
Quho that will noght for this prayer turn, Quhen thai wald faynest speid, that thai may spurn
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 1444.
Bot he sa lang lay into pane, He turnit to be ane chirurgiane

c. fig. To imply or mean something, to suggest some outcome. 1584 Sempill in Sat. P. xlv 976.
Whairto it turnes I can not tell

d. Of a bonnet: ? To turn in the direction of (the head), to be close-fitting. 1611 Reg. Panmure I xcv.
The second sectione … hes tua pourtraits of men … On thear heads thay heawe clos bonnets twrnand hard thearto

13. a. To retreat, flee. b. To return, go back to.a. 1375 Barb. xvi 594.
He … askyt thaim weill sone quhat hy Maid thaim to turne sa hastily
b. a1400 Leg. S. xxiii 290.
He … thocht to turne his falouys til & tel thame of this gret ferly
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2939.
Thelagonius … Syne torned to the laif agane And has of thaim sone fyftene slane

14. Of a thing: To change in physical state, to become something else. Also fig. 1513 Doug. vi Prol. 130.
I say nocht … that sawlys turnys in othir bodeys agane, … we … may preif be haly write, Our sawle and body sal anys togiddir remane
a1538 Abell 23a.
Thre sonnis wes sene in the firmament quhilkis turnyng hastelie in ane
1647 Durh. Univ. J. XXXIV 62.
She confest their apeired to her a number of kats that simed as greate as sheipe, and witin a littell speace theirafter they turned ower to men and wemen
fig. a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 23 (Asl.).
Sa now all staitis of grace lakkis the licht Baith spirituale temporall & men of religioun The day of wertewe tornand in the nycht Throw syn ar blyndit

b. To change an aspect, become different in some respect. Also, turn to be, ? turn out to be. 1607 Crim. Trials II 525.
Be hir … incantatioun … fra that tyme furth, the said brewing of aill turnit, in sic soirt, that it becam altogidder rottin and blak
1663 Lauderdale P. I 131.
This amongst other great shott may turn to be a pluff

c. To turn to (a particular effect), to result in, bring about a change or development in a state of affairs. 1543 Corr. M. Lorraine 32.
Thai met and spak togydder … and all this done be the consaill of maister Dave Pantere … To quhat effek this tornes [ed. tormis] to I cane writ to your grace how sone as I heyre

15. Of an emotion, quality, etc.: To change, alter in state in or to another opposite in nature. ?1438 Alex. i 2485.
All our gude sall turne to shame
c1460 Regim. Princ. 147 (Maitl.).
Quhen the well of justice was gane dry … Thair grit gloir turnit in derisioun

16. To direct one's intentions, thoughts, desires, etc. to. a1400 Leg. S. xxi 622.
Off this matere now no mare I tel, Bot to the story twrne I sel Of Sancte Clement
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2676.
To Pirrus now oure story Tornes agane
?1438 Alex. ii 3308.
That he suld with his body do His will, quhat euer it turned to, To leif or de or to presoun
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2375.
Now will we turne vnto the vther tway
a1500 Colk. Sow iii 62.
Thairfoir I turne vnto my first text
1533 Boece 180.
Fulgence persaving him frustrate of pece turnit to ane vthir cast

b. To turn to (God, etc.) for comfort or salvation; to direct one's desires, attention, etc. to (in). Also to turn (away) fra. Also absol.(1) a1400 Leg. S. vii 265.
Nocht-thane he bad thame, fore to se Gyfe that thai wald repentand be Or twrne to Hym
a1400 Leg. S. xii 463.
Thai … turnyt to God, & baptisme tuke
1490 Irland Mir. III 68/24.
Geue the synnar humilis him nocht befor God turnand to pennaunce
a1570-86 Kennedy in Maitl. F. 342/4.
Eschew lust and plesour turne in pennance
c1520-c1535 Nisbet II 67 marg.
Sa dide Moyses pray the Lorde … that he wald nocht twrnne to the sacrifice of Corath
1567 G. Ball. 173.
Turnand till Goddis infinite
1622-6 Bisset I 58/30 (see (2) below). 1681 Cloud of Witnesses (1714) 123.
I think, God hath a turn to put in their hands yet, if they would espouse His quarrel, and turn to Him
(2) c1490 Irland Asl. MS 13/27.
It helpis ewill liffaris to torne fra thair syn
c1520-c1535 Nisbet Heb. xii 25.
We that turnis away fra Him that spekis to vs fra heuenis
1562 Stirling B. Rec. I 80.
[He] hes promest … to turne frome his wickitnes
1622-6 Bisset I 58/30.
This Makbeth, turned [Bell. Boece II 264, returnit (see Return v. 4)] fra all meiknes, to his innative crowelty
(3) 1533 Gau 109/17.
That thay suld noth se nay heir … and suld turne that I micht heil thayme

17. To turn till (to), to change sides, go to the side of a foe in battle. Also, to turn contrare, to turn against, turn in defiance. 1375 Barb. ii 508.
He Thaim fra thar fais mycht nocht warand Thai turnyt to the tother hand, Bot threldome … Gert thaim ay ȝarne that he fur wele
c1475 Wall. i 110.
Erle Patrik than … Till our fa turnd, and harmyng did ws mast
1533 Boece 279.
The army of Vortigerne in the vantgarde, to empleis Ambrois turnyng contrare thare awne chiftane quham privately thai hatet
c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus i 340.
The day sall cum thy barnelie insolence Contrair sall turne

III. reflex. 18. To move oneself as if around a central point, to turn oneself to face another or the opposite direction. Also const. to (a person or thing) or to do something. Also fig.(1) 1375 Barb. xix 450.
He [sc. Douglas] bad ilk man turn him in hy Rycht as he stud
?1438 Alex. ii 4179.
Turne thé, vassale! schame is to fle!
1460 Hay Alex. 2970.
Quhan sche saw cum Alexander the king Sche turnit hir with ane murmuring, And to the seye furth-with in haist scho past
(2) 1375 Barb. iv 734.
He may rycht weill refreynȝe his will … And to the contrar turne him all
a1400 Leg. S. xviii 265.
I ma nocht me turne to thé, For schame that thou me voman se
?1438 Alex. ii 4418.
Turne thé to me, or in this feild Thow sall de fleand, gif I may
c1515 Asl. MS I 320/4.
He torned him to the wall and wepit
a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 709.
To the wemen, that maid sa hie a mane He turnit him
fig. c1490 Irland Asl. MS 78/13.
I have synnit aganis the haly gaist quhen he has send to me gud and hevinlie inspiracoun … I haue torned me to the warld

19. To direct oneself to (in) something, to direct one's attention, thoughts, etc. a1400 Leg. S. xli 242.
Men sal … twrne thaim to the Cristine fay
1490 Irland Mir. I 115/1.
Ezechias turnit him in prayere and repentaunce
1551 Hamilton Cat. 32.
Thai turnit thame to the brekaris of the law

IV. With adverbs.

20. tr., intr. To turn about, to (cause to) turn over or change position, to (cause to) rotate or revolve around a central point or axis, to turn in the opposite direction. Also a1400 Leg. S. ii 390.
The hevid than to the fete thai lad; And … A-bowt turnyt the ded body
1513 Doug. vi ix 30.
Deiphobus … with that saw, About turnyt hys pays, and gan withdraw
1591 Crim. Trials I ii 246.
The wemene maid fyrst thair homage, and wer turnit sax tymes widdersounes about
1587-99 Hume 33/219.
Turne our gude about, Now time is to go hame
intr. 1456 Hay I 119/13.
As the dure turnis about apon the herre
1513 Doug. x xi 106.
This ilk schaddo … Turnyt abowt, and gaif the bak and fled
1560 Rolland Seven S. 2320.
He culd not sleip … He turnit about, and mist his wife away
1610 Edinb. Test. XLVI 176b.
The gould ring callit pense that turnis about in the ring
1688 Sinclair Doctrine Sphere 2.
The circles of the material sphere, while the Primum Nobile is turning about, are either parallel … or oblique
reflex. a1500 Henr. Fab. 473.
‘Quhat?’ quod the cok. ‘He wald, and haif na dout, Baith wink, and craw, and turne him thryis about’
?a1500 Dewoit Exerc. 245.
Allace, sueit Lord, for that gret pane that ȝe had quhen ȝe turnit ȝow about to the wemen of Jeruselem with that hevy croce apoun ȝour blist bak
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 146/185.
I … awoilk … And with a braid I turnyt me about To se this court
a1540 Freiris Berw. 346 (M).
In the west he turnit him ewin about
a1585, a1568 Montg. P. v 17.
‘Humff!’ quod the Helandman, and turned him abowt

21. To turn agane. a. To (cause to) turn back in the direction one has come, go back, return. b. To return to (a previous or original state, condition, etc.); to revert to (a subject).a. intr. 1375 Barb. ix 369.
He furth on his wayis rad As he ne had will agayne to turn
1375 Barb. xviii 494.
Quhen he saw nane wald cum out He turnyt agane with all his rout And till his ost he went in hy
?1438 Alex. ii 1280.
He sesit his brydell … And said, ‘fare eme, ha! turne agane! Me think it tyme, withoutin weir. With-draw vs hyne of thare danger!’
?14.. Ship Laws c. 12 (A).
& gif the maister … gifis ony of thaim a buffat with his neff or with his palme & gif he strikis him mar he aw to turne again
a1500 Henr. Fab. 562.
Hungrie thow art, and for grit trauell tyrit … and may not ferther fle: Swyith turne agane and say that I and ȝe Freindis ar maid and fellowis for ane ȝeir
1490 Irland Mir. III 37/32.
The gret ryver and flud Jordanis turnit agane the cours
1513 Doug. xii v 76.
The other fowlys heich in the sky Turnyt agane … to assail thar aduersar
1535 Stewart 50564.
Williame … blamit him befoir thame all rycht plane, Quhilk causit him than for to turne agane, And all his men war with him les and moir
a1578 Pitsc. I 355/30.
The king sieand that thair was no remedy bot he behovit to turne in Scottland againe
tr. 1456 Hay I 60/31.
Julius Caesar … destroyit a citee that was callit Turannes, that rebellit till him, and turnyt him agayn in the landis of Gallie
b. intr. 1456 Hay II 105/5.
All wald be nocht but turne agayne as to the begynnyng of the warld
1490 Irland Mir. II 39/17.
Sudanly he turnit agane to lif and raisit him-self
c1500 Barounis Lawis 13a.
Eftir the deceis of that ilk lady the thrid part turnis agane to that ilk lord
1535 Stewart 41753.
To ȝoung Edgair now will I turne agane, And of my storie tell ȝow to remane
tr. c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 121/75.
It is so lang in cuming me till, I dreid that it be quyt gane will, Or bakwart it is turnit agane
1567 G. Ball. 42.
Baith heuin and eird sall turne againe, Or Thy trew word cum to decay
c1520-c1535 Nisbet Gallath. iv 9.
Quhen ye haue knawne God … how ar ye turnit agane to the febile and nedy elementis, to the quhilkis ye will agane serve?
1611-57 Mure Psalms cxxvi 2.
When God did the captiuitie Of Sion turne again

22. To turn away. a. tr. To send away, dismiss. Also fig. b. To avert (the eyes, etc.).a. 1375 Barb. i 167.
The tothir [sc. Edward I] wreyth him [sc. Bruce] and swar That he suld have it neuer mar And turnyt him in wreth away Bot Schyr Jhon the Balleoll … Assentyt till him
c1520-c1535 Nisbet Acts xix 26.
This Paule consalis and turnis away mekil pepile
fig. a1595 Cullen Chron. Aberd. 48.
Lord, towrn Thy wrathe away
b. c1568 Lauder Minor P. i 456.
Ȝe clois ȝour ears, and turnis away ȝour eyis

23. intr. To turn back, to go back in the direction one has come, reverse one's course.The Wynt. quot. may belong in 1 b above. c1420 Wynt. iv 343.
He changid purpos … And turnyd bak, and tuk the flycht
1596 Dalr. II 207/2.
He commandes him … to turne back and cum nocht nerr the king
1633 Lithgow Poet. Remains 92.
They come, but with an empty hand, And to turne back, morgadging heere more land
1665–7 Lauder Jrnl. 14.
I turned back as fast as I could and betook me selfe to another street wheir I thought I might be safe

24. tr. To turn down, to send in a downward direction. 1590 Prot. Bk. J. Inglis 13 July.
Tomas Haye … past to ane … part of the saidis James landis … the fauldis in Clwnhill & thair maid interruptione & turnit done & cuist of the cartis certand faill, that the tenentis … haid cassin

25. tr., intr. To turn hame(wartis, to (cause to) return home, to (cause to) go back to(wards) one's home. Also in fig. 1375 Barb. xviii 343.
Quhen the king Robert hard say That thai war turnyt hame agayn … In hy his ost assemblit he
a1538 Abell 12b.
Ciyr lowsit the captiuitie of the Jowes & 50 thousand he gart turne hame to Jowrie
1635 Dickson Wr. 73.
If they be overheyed, they are turned hame at once
intr. a1400 Leg. S. xviii 1437.
This Zozomas … Twrnyt hame til his abbay
c1420 Wynt. viii 5219.
Bot turnand hamwart be the way Off ane hurt endyt Jhone the Hay
?14.. Ship Laws c. 21 (B).
Gyf thai swa do [sc. become shipwrecked] the mayster is haldyn to borow thaim siluer … qwhyl at thai wate at thai sal turne hame in thair awyn land
a1578 Pitsc. I 61/20.
The earle of Saillisberrie … invaidit Scottland … and brunt the toune of Dumfreis … and turnit hame againe witht goode prayis of guidis and bestieall

26. tr. To turn off, to dismiss from office. 1709 Conv. Burghs IV 494.
That they turn off yearly at Michalmass four of their old counsell

27. To turn ouer. a. intr. To turn the pages of a book. b. tr. To overturn; change. Also fig. c. To transfer; to hand over.a. a1540 Freiris Berw. 343 (M).
The freyr … tuk his buik … And turnis our and reidis on ane space
b. 1566-70 Buch. Comm. on Virgil Æn. i 85.
Ruunt, raises, turnis our
fig. 1566-70 Buch. Comm. on Virgil Æn. i 9.
Tot volvere casus, turne our sa mony chances
1566-70 Buch. Comm. on Virgil Æn. i 262.
I sall seik out and turne over farder the determination of the goddis
1590-1 R. Bruce Serm. 107.
Feare sall not alwayes remaine, but sall be some times turned over in security; nather sall that security alwayes byde, but sall be turned over again in fear
a1599 Rollock Wks. I 424.
The troubles that sall be laid on thee … sall be sa turned over, that they sall serve to thy weill and consolatioun
c. 1632 Lithgow Trav. iii 91.
[He] was turned ouer to the new captaine for fiue yeares more
1632 Lithgow Trav. vi 273.
That house … is turned ouer for a shelterage to sheepe
1651 Dumfries Kirk S. 26 June.
The sessione vpon considerationes have turned her over adoctavum, or to further tryall
1653 Dumfries Kirk S. 25 April.
Turned over till Thursday nixt
1662 Aberd. Council Lett. IV 220.
This practique is of treuth bot would not be moved leist the Parliament turne it over to the Lords of Sessioune

28. To turn out. a. To fold outwards, turn out. b. To dismiss from office, etc.a. a1585 Polwart Flyt. 586 (T).
With laidlie lippis and lynning-syd turnd out
1651 Melville Corr. 233.
[Sir George Melvill] did inform him that all his esteat was loouse, and his successours hade no rights to brook his lands … [and asked] that he might putt in for his freindship and turn us all out of what wee had gotten
b. 1682 Lauder Observes App. iv 303.
The lounes … fell intil a debate … whither … ane mastiffe tyke, who keept the outmost gate, might not, by reasone of his office of trust, come within the compasse of the act, and swa be obleadged to take the test, or be turned out of his place
1690 Dunkeld Presb. II 153.
Mr. John Andersone … being tourned out for not complying with Episcopassie

29. intr. To turn vp, to turn upwards. a1570-86 Maitl. F. 342/11.
Than sall all turne vp that is down

30. To turn widdirshynes, to turn backwards, to stand on end. 1570 Misc. Bann. C. I 50*.
That will gar thame all trymbill and thair hair turn widdirshynes

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