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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1983 (DOST Vol. V).

Partie, Pairtie, Pertie, -y(e, n. Also: pairtt-, peirt-, peart- and -i, -ij, -é; (purtie); plur. -is, -ys, -es, -ies, -ieis, -iis, -ice, -yis, -yes, -yce, -yse, -ei(e)s. [ME. and e.m.E. parti(e, -ye (13th c.), -y, pert- (c 1400), F. partie (12th c. in Hatz.-Darm.), L. partīta a division (fem. p.p. of partīre Part v.), also F. parti, L. partītum that which is shared: cf. also Parti(e a.]There is some coincidence in use and, esp. in the plurals partis, -ys, etc., in form, with Part n.: see also note to Part n.

1. A part or portion (of anything, material or immaterial); a share; a quantity (of a commodity); some but not all (of a body of persons, horses or articles).The maist party, the greatest part. (A) gret party, (a) large part.In (into), also on, (sum, etc.) party, partly, in part.Also a (ane) party, in part, somewhat (ME. aparty (Rolle), a parti (Wyclif), OF. en partie): see also Partie adv.(1) a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii. 884.
Men … gat away prywely Of his relykis a party
?1438 Alex. ii. 3432.
And his cheualry may betyde To faill ane party of thare pryde
1407 Douglas Chart. 47.
The partie of this endenture dwelling toward the forsayd kyng
14.. Acts I. 308/2.
And a parti of his salt sauld
1456 Hay I. 2/18.
The principale parties of the buke forenamyt
Ib. 15/8.
The thrid party of the erd was brynt
Ib. 13/22. 1494 Loutfut MS. 32 b.
Ane monstre in the sey that in his first partye is in form of ane armyt knycht
1513 Doug. xi. xv. 64.
Phebus … grantit to fulfyll Of hys axin a party
1533 Boece v. ii. 165 b.
Consider … quhat partie ȝe haue in this iourneye
1538 Treas. Acc. VII. ii.
The tapister partiis for the kingis littecamp
Ib. 40.
Summa of this partie [118 frs. 17 s.]
1623 Dundee B. Laws 605.
His first pairtie of the haill siluer
a1633 Hope Major Pract. II. 300.(2) a1400 Leg. S. xxvii. 1072.
& of his clerkis gret party
c1420 Wynt. viii. 4497.
And off thaire hors thai slwe party
(3) 1375 Barb. ii. 215.
Off Scotland the maist party Thai had in-till thar cumpany
Ib. iv. 640.
Or ȝe pas I sall ȝow schaw Of ȝour fortoun a gret party
Ib. xvi. 156.
Of thair fayis a gret party
c1420 Wynt. i. 1364. 1535 Q. Margaret in St. P. Henry VIII V. 22 n.
The maist partie of oure landis
(4) 1375 Barb. iii. 292.
He sall eschew it in party
Ib. v. 115.
And then cesit in-to party The noyis [etc.]
Ib. 129. a1400 Leg. S. vii. 572.
He fel in the parlesy & haltyte als in sum party
Ib. xxx. 89.
He leit hyr wyt in sum party His wil
c1420 Wynt. viii. 4554 (W).
Than were thai in to gud party To do weill
1490 Irland Mir. I. 121/3.
Thi realme jn gret parti standis desolate
1534–5 Misc. Spald. C. II. 188.
In party
(5) ?1438 Alex. i. 1005.
Licanor was a [pr. ane] partie broun
Ib. ii. 4825.
Quhen Fezonas hard him aperty Sho was aschamit
Ib. 4721. c1420 Wynt. iii. 354.
Wytht sevyn corddys … Off hert cynownys noucht all dry But a party fast ware I Bundyn doutles I war than Bot [etc.]
14.. Reg. Episc. Aberd. I. 247.
Fra thine a perty northest

b. A side (of a human body); a flank (of an army). 1375 Barb. x. 75.
At thai war swa Assalȝeit apon twa parteis
Ib. xiii. 350.
And thai had on the tothir party Bannokburne
a1400 Leg. S. xix. 582.
Ane erow in the ee Hyme hit & made hyme blynd one that party

c. plur. A region or district. (Cf. Part n. 4). 1456 Hay I. 47/3.
In the parties of Rome and of Poyle
Ib. 59/2.
In thai parties
Ib. II. 111/12. 1616 Douglas Chart. 323.
To depairt … to the pairties beyond sea, of France or … Germanie allanerlie

d. A part or organ (of the body). (Cf. Part n. 2 b.) e. A quality of character. (Cf. Part n. 13.) c 1420 Liber Calchou 449.
To the principale party nest, that is the leuer
1456 Hay II. 151/28.
Of quhat parties that ever he be sa that he be vertuous [etc.]

2. A division of an army, or other military body; also, a detachment from a larger force. 1375 Barb. vi. 537.
And the lest party of thame twa Wes starkar fer na he and ma
Ib. ix. 155.
Thai of the erlis party
Ib. vi. 565. c1420 Wynt. viii. 6760.
That baithe the partyis failyeid aynd
c1475 Wall. vi. 529.
On the gret ost thi partice fast can draw
Ib. ix. 504.
Thus hapnyt thai amang the gret party
1549 Compl. 15/3. 1562 Peebles B. Rec. I. 281.
[They] devidit thame selffis in sindry partiis
1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 300.
The said cuntrie men … schote dispytfullie the pairtie of Edinburgh without
1672 Rothesay B. Rec. 236.
Johne Pollok serjand of the pairtie now at Bute in my Lord Levingstouns companie
1681 Aberd. Council Lett. VI. 330.
A peartie of troupers ar gone north to Mernes [etc.] … to quarter for the supplie

b. A group (of people). c. An armed company. 14.. Acts I. 26/2.
Hym behofis to haf a party of burges and a party of thaim at duellis upolande to wytnes
c1500-c1512 Dunb. G. Targe 143 (Ch. & M.).
The party was so plesand for to sene

3. A body of supporters or adherents, collectively; a political party or faction.To be of (grete, etc.) party, to have (much, etc.) support.(1) 1375 Barb. v. 153.
The queyn & othir ma That till his party war heldand
c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 1407 (D). c1420 Wynt. viii. 4313.
Hys wil wes til enherde To the Scottis mennys party
1474 Thanes of Cawdor 61.
Injuris done to hyme his brethir kyne men ande party be the saide Huchowne
1481 Fam. Rose 143. c1500-c1512 Dunb. lxx. 29.
Help this pure realme in partiis all devydit
1519–20 (c 1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I. 194.
I will be of resoluit mynd … that thair be na pairteis in the said toun
1533 Boece xi. xiiij. 433 b.
Gryme … kepit kyndenes to the partie of Constantine
1533 Bell. Livy I. 14/12.
Nane of thir partyis [v.r. pertyis] war glade of the chancis falling be this fechting
1567 Reg. Privy C. I. 505.
Certane factious … personis … intendis to disturb the said electioun … be stering up of partiis within the said burgh
1567 Sat. P. vii. 140.
Bot he was king quhais pairtie did preuaill
1568 Argyll Fam. Lett. 7.
My soveranis letteris … commandand me nocht till invaid nane of hir aduersar partie
1570–2 Facs. Nat. MSS. III. lxii.
Parteys
1617 Acts IV. 540/2.
Vpone the apperance of anye fraye or stirre betuix pairties [etc.]
1650 Rec. Kirk Scotl. 638.
Under the specious name of the Godly Pairty
1653 Binning Wks. 590.
The terrors of God raise up a terrible party within a man's self
1689 Cramond Kirk S. III. 6 Dec.
By the prevailing of ane Antichristian pairty there [Ireland]
(2) c1475 Wall. iv. 392.
Son he consawyt … In to that land quha was of maist party
Ib. viii. 538.
The felloun stryff … Agayn Inglande was off so gret party

b. To draw to parties, to form factions or come together into opposing sides. — 1375 Barb. vii. 624.
Clyffurd and Waus maid a melle … And athir syne drew to partis
a1400 Leg. S. v. 321.
The bischope … Raisit a gret sedicione In the puple of that towne Sa that thai drew to partyse thare
1596 Dalr. II. 199/15.
Quhen this amang the peple was spred the hail cuntrie drue to pairties

c. To make or be partie, to join in support or form a faction (with one person or against another). 1409 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 72.
Alsua gif ther happynnis ony discorde … amang thair men … thai sal mak thaim na party with thaim bot in sobir manere as the lach will
1563 Peebles B. Rec. I. 293.
In compleining to outlandis men to maik pairty aganis thair aldirmen
a1578 Pitsc. I. 87/14.
He thocht to bind ane lige witht sic nobillis as wald be partie

d. Faction; factiousness. — c 1600 Paterson Ayr & Wigton III. 32.
Quhen he durst not for feir of pairty … resoirt opinly with in the cuntry
c1610 Jok Uplandis Newis fol. 3 b.
To seave them from all partie and cummer in time to cum

e. ? attrib. as adj. ? Factious. a1500 Henr. Fab. 1089 (Bann.).
Thay … fand that he was fals Off murthour thift and party tresoun als

4. A side, in a battle or contest. 1375 Barb. iii. 19.
Bot the folk off the tothir party Fawcht with axys
Ib. xvi. 316.
He had apon his party The Eryschry and Vllister
?1438 Alex. i. 1610. c1420 Wynt. viii. 5357.
For thai war on the lest party Ane hundreth armyd jolyly
Ib. 6964.
Qwhen gret men off the tothir party Come dayis off trwys for till hald
1456 Hay I. 52/31. c1475 Wall. v. 90.
Betuex parteys than Wallace ischit out
1533 Boece v. ii. 166 b.
Quhen innowmerabill war slane nowthir partie apperit leif the feild
1535 Stewart 51242. a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. clxxix. 90.
Giff God wpone thi pairtie stand Quhat misteris thé for to tak feir
a1578 Pitsc. II. 44/23. 1596 Dalr. I. 76/22. a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 889.
It is hard to serve tua maisters and please baith the pairties

5. a. A contestant in a legal action, a plaintiff or defender, a litigant. b. The opposing party in a legal action. c. A party to a contract, dispute, etc.Juge and party, see also Juge n. 1 (4).On or for the partie of, for the part of, in the interest of.(1) 1389 Wemyss Chart. 25.
Bath the partys … the gret ath … has sworn
1410–1 Reg. Brechin. I. 30.
We assignit til the partieis the law day … nixt eftir Michelmes
c1420 Wynt. vii. 3006.
The qwene Profferyd hyr to swere bodyly Bot that assythyd noucht the party
1429 Acts II. 18/1.
Quhare twa partiis apperis at the bar
1447 Reg. Episc. Aberd. I. 244.
And admittit be the partys
1450 Liber Aberbr. 77.
Parteys
1456 Ib. 89.
Parteis
1456 Hay I. 233/31. Ib. 250/22. 1464 Charter (Reg. H.) No. 59.
Baith the partis sall be in lyk in costis thairto
a1500 Henr. Fab. 1203 (Ch.).
Parteis
1491 Acta Conc. I. 197/1.
Becaus thai war gevin without congniscioune of the caus & the partij nocht summond to ansuer for ther interes
1492 Reg. Episc. Morav. 244.
Parteis
1494 Acta Conc. I. 333/1.
Partij
1498–9 Ib. II. 310.
Til abid his parti this day
1503 Fam. Innes 92.
Parteis
1525 Crim. Trials I. i. *31.
And becaus he durst nocht compeir, he being innocent, for feir of his parti, I [his cautioner] am vnlawit
1535 Facs. Nat. MSS. III. xx.
That nane tak mair for the executioun of thair office bot efter the forme of the act of parliament bot giff it be beneuolence of party
1557 Digest Justiciary Proc. B. 145.
Parteies
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 107.
In respect of the greitnes of his partie
1626 Justiciary Cases I. 49. 1629 Justiciary Cases I. 114.
Parteis
a1633 Hope Major Pract. II. 155.
Letters of horneing against a minor should be execuit against him as principall partie
1640 Mouswald Kirk S. 1 July.
When parteis are to be proclaimed to be married [etc.]
a1658 Durham Comm. Rev. 741/2.
The second thing cleared in this judgement is the parties, who is the judge and … who are the judged
1699 Misc. 3 Spald. C. II. 96.
Ludovic Grant … partie lesed
(b) 1460 Montrose Baillie Ct. 12 a.
And set ane curt to the said pairty
1539–40 Edinb. B. Rec. II. 98.
Becaus thair is dyuers pure persouns convict of distrublance and hes na guids to assyth the pairty
1549–50 Crim. Trials I. i. *347.
That na assise wer summond nor na pairty compeirit to persew thame for the saidis allegit crymes
1562 Armstrong Hist. Liddesdale I. ciii.
Pairteis
a 1568 Sempill Sat. P. xlvii. 100. 1612 Orkney & Shetl. Ct. Bk. (ed.) 18. 1614 Crim. Trials III. 267.
Ane continuatioun … that in the meyne tyme thay may haif lasure to advyse with the pairtie in the caus
1615 Lett. & St. P. Jas. VI 254.
The question can not be setled bot in presence of the pairtyes having interesse
1662 S. Ronaldshay 37.
The minister seeke … directed the schoolmaister … to proclaime the pairtyes who wer to be marryed
1662 Sc. N. & Q. 2 Ser. II. 64.
And the defuncts pairtie irresolute
?c1675 J. Gordon Hist. I. 176.
The Assembly was pairtye and therfor could not be ther judge
1697 Fraser P. 151.
Bothe pairties lawiers being fullie heard
1699 Conv. Burghs IV. 293.(c) 1416 Liber Melros II. 539.
To make frenschippe vnite and gude concorde betwix pertyes discordand
1428 Ib. 519.
Wyth assent and consent of all the saide pertis
1459 Perth Guildry 36.
As the pertis will tyne and wyne
1485 Reg. Episc. Aberd. I. 318.
To tak the sade preif … and to warne the perty tharto
1529 Linlithgow B. Ct. 24 Nov.
And warnis al pertis … to bryng thair rychtis with thaim the said day as thai will wyne & tyne
1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 233. 1603 Inverness Rec. II. .
And seinge na persone nor pertie to oppone in contrar the petitioun foirsaid
1612 Ib. 100.
And the wther halff thereof to the pertie harmit
(d) 1509 Rec. Earld. Orkney 82.
As the said peirteis alegens [etc.]
(e) 1585 Dunferm. Hammermen 9.
Pearties
(2) a1578 Pitsc. I. 65/11.
He being iudge and partie spoillȝeit them saiklislie of thair lyues
(3) 1456 Hay I. 258/20.
And he war summond at instaunce of party before the king
c1460 Regim. Princ. 201 (F).
Quhen party complenȝeis to the croun Thai send thaim to thaire awyn iugis agan
1491 Dunferm. B. Rec. I. 26.
Wytht consent of party
1491 Acta Conc. I. 212/1.
Quhare that the knawlage micht cum to the audience of pertij for ther interes
1496 Ib. II. 10.
Withowt prejudice of party
1564 Crim. Trials I. i. 443. a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. clxxx. 69.
To thi leiges do iustice equalie Without respect to persoun or pairtie
1599 Crim. Trials II. 97.
The said [King's] respect is … null … it being grantit without satisfactioune of partie
(4) 1482 Edinb. Chart. 146.
That than it salbe … kepit and accomplesit on the partii of our souerane lord [etc.]
1489–90 Acta Conc. I. 127/2.
Beand als present for the partij of our souerane lorde

d. Comb. with a following noun that defines more specifically the nature of the ‘party's’ involvement in the action, contract, etc. 1397 Acts I. 208/1.
His borous sal … mak assecht to the party pleygnand
1429 Cal. Doc. IV. 405.
At the soyt of the perti playntif
14.. Acts I. 377/2.
Gif ony man … be jugit … to bring furth witnes or pruff again his perty aduersar [etc.] … perty deffendour … perty folowar
1488 Breadalbane Coll. No. 24.
The partij kepar … the partij brekare
1503 Acts II. 246/1. 1574 Reg. Privy C. II. 366 (see Persewar n.). 1583 Waus Corr. 28.
[The] parteis contracteris … consentit the contract matrimoniall … to be … registrat in his buikis
1590 Conv. Burghs I. 337.
The pairtie mollester or persewar of vtheris vtherwayis than be the law sall find the haill burrowes to … assist with the pairtie offendit vnto
Ib.
Pairtie molestar
1600 Crim. Trials II. 120.
The partie rasar of the lettres
a1633 Hope Major Pract. I. 134. a1652 Dickson Psalms .
So is He party contracter in the covenant of redemption
1679 Fountainhall Decis. I. 54.
Party-user
1695 Misc. Maitl. C. I. 431.
Pairtie rewer

e. A combatant in a trial by combat. 1456 Hay I. 272/11.
Quhen a bataill is … begunnyn in felde the parties fechtis lang
Ib. 285/26.
[If] appellacioun of bataill be maid and the party ressavis the gage of bataill [etc.]
Ib. 74/2. a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 1306.
Had ony preiudice apperit in the partyce It had bene grete perell
c1515 Asl. MS. I. 294/21.
Thir partijs met in the feild at a set daye
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 1242.
Thairfoir sweit hart I reid ȝow fle … Ȝe ar na partie to defend

6. One concerned with or participating in an action (against, or on behalf of, another). Also, freq., quasi-adj.

a. A protagonist. 1453 14th Rep. Hist. MSS. App. iii. 9.
Partyse
1456 Hay I. 155/34.
And to hald me harmles of the thef and his party
1635 Dickson Hebrews 64.
God is the partie with whom the hearer of the Worde hath to doe

b. An antagonist or adversary.(1) c1475 Wall. iv. 560.
Bettyr thai war and thai gat ewyn party In feild to byde othir with suerd or speyr
(2) c1515 Asl. MS. I. 295/10.
He had the victorye and oure come his partye
1513 Doug. vii. iii. 38.
Ilkane bissy his party forto irk
1515 Acta Conc. Publ. Aff. 45.
War ane uthir man my partie than the paipe [etc.]
1535 Stewart 49846. a1605 Montg. Son. lv. 14.
My pairties ar my javellour and my judge
1598 Edinb. B. Rec. V. 227.
Thai will now … strik thair parteis with battouns [etc.]
1635 Dickson Hebrews 287.
Hee maketh their partie sinne
Id. Psalms 82.
Such … do in a sort engage God to be their party
a1658 Durham Scandal 304. 1685-8 Renwick Serm. 170.
He is a very sore party for the sinner that stands in opposition to Him

c. A supporter. — 1685-8 Renwick Serm. 50.
Yet it concerns all the people of God to take Him as their party and to study to have Him on their side

Predicatively, quasi-adj.: d. Concerned, personally involved, interested; also, actively concerned, active, in, or accessory to (an action or scheme). e. Antagonistic, hostile (to another), personally involved or engaged (against).d. ?a1500 Remembr. Passion 461.
Grant me tobe party in the keiping of Thi commandementis
1546 Corr. M. Lorraine 173.
With the empriouris ambassatour quha schew him party
1548 Ib. 233.
Na thing that I can do may satesfy my lord governour to gif me my pece albeit the party be content, bot he wilbe party himself
1560 Misc. Wodrow Soc. 77.
My Lord James and my Lord Arrane pretended they had hindered them, albeit they were not partie, for the countrie would not remaine together
1590-1 R. Bruce Serm. 296.
And he findeth the wind more nor partie as the carcases of men and ships … doth testifie
1600 Crim. Trials II. 144.
And quhen ewir ony partie ingyres [pr. -gyues] him selff willinglie in that quhilk nawyis appertenis to his office, he man be estemit as partie
1615 Ib. III. 356.
Quhairas the said Robert was evin now … about the on-drawing of sum one pairtie to his designes
1629 Kirkcaldy Presb. 45.
In so farr as he … has kythit and professit himself partie … in the caus
?c1675 J. Gordon Hist. II. 18.
Since the bishopps declyne the Assembly as pairtye etc.]
e. 1586 Warrender Illustr. Sc. Hist. 23.
That wer to mak him pertie to the quene my mistress
1606 Forbes Rec. 536.
The wrong done to us … in drawing in your highnesse to be pairty to us in this action
1635 Dickson Hebrews 212.
He [Christ] is partie to all the foes of His Kingdome: they are His enemies

7. (One) capable of opposing another; a match, equal.Only predic., const. to oppose or attack the opponent, to the opponent, and absol. 1533 Bell. Livy I. 20/7.
Romulus seand him self nocht party to invade the king be opin violence [etc.]
Ib. 57/20.
Howbeit he mycht nocht be equale partie [L. par] to fecht aganis all the thre curacianis at anis
Ib. 156/30.
Seand he mycht nocht be partie to sedicius lymmaris [L. nec par factioni esset]
1548–9 Corr. M. Lorraine 295.
Had the Franch men in Dombar beyn half parte to tham thar had few Inglis men past away
a1578 Pitsc. I. 115/14.
The Erle of Douglas quhome he knew to haue sa money favouraris … that it was onpossibill to him to be pairtie to the said Erle gif he pleissit rys aganis him and gif him battell
Ib. 118/26.
Thinkand … he sould be pairtie to the king and gif him battell
Ib. II. 20/18.absol. 1570 Sempill Sat. P. xii. 103.
Thay ar na partie and ȝe speid ȝow sone

8. a. A person proposed or intended as a marriage partner. = Mariag(e n. 3. b. A lover; a paramour. c. A spouse.Also, once, a (bird's) mate.(1) 1492 Acta Conc. I. 244/1.
That thai offerit the said Malcum a sufficient partij and mariage but disparising
1498 Ib. II. 292.
To be marit with ane competent persone and parti without disparage according to the lawis
Ib. 245. 1559 M. Napier Mem. J. Napier 67.
My sister, your pairte
1562 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. ii.
Becaus syndrie … ar handfast … and as yit vill nocht mary … nother for fear of God nor luff of thair party
1562-3 Winȝet I. 110/15.
A man or woman being lang absent fra thair party or haifand thair party impotent throw seiknes
1564 Canongate Kirk S. (ed.) 8.
That his parte quhome he callit his wif wes departit of ane barn
1564 St. A. Kirk S. 222.
Sche [his wife] sall becum actitat to be ane trew party … to Robert in tym cuming
a1568 Scott i. 198.
Thow … wes King Frances pairty maik and peir
1569-73 Bann. Memor. 57.
I ressoned … that being single without one pairtie I mycht the moir easilie spend my tyme
1575 Edinb. Test. III. 330 b.
Vnto the tyme that the said Nicolas & Bessie be mareit & tocherit with honest parteis
1576 Ib. IV. 148.
Als lang as ony of thame clethis nocht with ane partie nor mareis
a1578 Pitsc. I. 360/7.
Pairtieis
1587 St. A. Kirk S. 581. 1591–2 Elgin Rec. II. 23.
His lemmane and partie with quhome he haldis hous
1596 Misc. Bann. C. II. 221. 1624 Perth Kirk S. MS. 27 Apr.
That he hed carnall deall with Katherine Ronnaldsone the said Williamis pairttie
1635 Dickson Hebrews 105.
A man could condescende no farther to give his partie satisfaction nor God hath condescended to satisfie us
(b) 1597–8 Misc. Spald. C. I. 178.
And so will I … cause thy purtie marie thé
(2) a1605 Montg. Misc. P. xli. 15.
The turtill … Hir pairtie perseuis

9. a. In on the ta party … on (apon) the tothir party, on athir party, etc., on one (the other) side, on either side, etc., in senses 4 and 5 a above. 1375 Barb. xvi. 689.
Quhen thair levis on athir party Wes tane he vent to schip
?1438 Alex. ii. 6274.
And Caneus on the vther party Come hard
1420 (1430) Reg. Great S. 30/1.
At thir condicionnys sai be … trewly kepyt on bath the partis
1432 Lamont P. 13.
This indentur … betwyx … Robert Lawmanson on the ta party and his deyr cosyn … on the toder parte
1456 Hay I. 146/16. 1541 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 453.
On that a partie … on that othir partie

b. A game, contest, match.Cf. F. partie, common in the same sense, which however appar. does not otherwise occur in Sc. or Eng. ?1438 Alex. ii. 7279.
We ar in sic ane party [F. le geu] That quik or ded ouris is the land

c. To mak (one's) partie gude, to hold one's own; to achieve success. 1594 Charteris Wall. Pref. 168.
Quhen he enterit in combat, he was scarce able to mak his partie gude, to the … subversioun of this commounwealth

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"Partie n.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 7 Oct 2022 <http://www.dsl.ac.uk/entry/dost/partie_n>

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