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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1963 (DOST Vol. III).
This entry has not been updated but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Knaw, v.1 Also: knawe, knau(e, cnaw, kna, kenaw. P.t. knew(e, kneu(e; knawit. P.p. knawin, -ing(e, -yn(e, -yng, -en, -ein, chnawyn, knauin(g, -yn, -en; knayne; knawn(e; knaw; knawit. [ME. (north. and north midl.) knaw(e, knau(e, cnawe, (midl. and south.) knowe(n etc., earlier cnawe(n, p.t. knew, kneu, cne(o)w, etc., also cnawed, knowede, p.p. knawen, knau(e)n, knowen, y-)knowe(n, etc., early i)cnawe(n, also knawed, knau(e)d (a 1300), knowed (14th c.), OE. (ᵹe)cnáwan, p.t. -cnéow, p.p. -cnáwen. Cf. Know v.The p.p. form knaw, in imitation of the Chaucerian, south midl. and south. ME. knowe, is confined to Douglas. The p.t. and p.p. knawit is rare.]Practically synonymous with Ken v. branch II.

1. To recognise (a person or thing) at sight or by tokens; to identify. Also, to know one person or thing from (by, be) another.(a) 1375 Barb. iv. 501.
James of Douglas herd him blaw, And he the blast all soyn can knaw
a1400 Leg. S. ix. 47.
The taknys … quhare-by we ma Knaw hyme by vthire men
Ib. xxi. 242.
Thu mon dysimle thé to knaw Hyme
1456 Hay I. 279/26.
Bot, and mony men bare ane armes, how suld ony man … knaw men
1500 Acta Conc. II. 448.
Til recognisce and knaw his hand writ contenit in the sade obligatioun
1513 Doug. vi. xiv. 5.
I knaw his canos har
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 2875.
Quhen scho wes in tyll armour dycht Mycht no man knaw hir be one knycht
1562-3 Winȝet I. 6/5.
To walke attentlie … vpon ȝour flok and knaw diligentlie the samyn be face
a1578 Pitsc. I. 272/11. 1596–7 Misc. Spald. C. I. 94.
Thow … , hir heid being doun, nocht knawing thé, … spak thir wordis
a1598 Ferg. Prov. MS. No. 51.
Ane woll-seller knaues a wolbuyer
1600 Crim. Trials II. 250.
Ony man that wald sie it, com to me, and sie gif thei can knaw his hand-wryt
(b) 1375 Barb. xii. 35.
Schir Henry of Bowme … knew the King, for that he saw Hym swa araynge his men on raw
a1400 Leg. S. xxxiv. 317.
He knew hyre nocht
1535 Stewart 48964.
This Robert Fleming, quhilk him knew and kend
(c) ?1438 Alex. i. 910.
Vneis micht thai knawen be, Or sene, amang that grete menȝe
1456 Hay I. 281/30.
Gif a maister armoureur … in his werkis had a takyn that his werkis war knawin by
c1520-c1535 Nisbet I. 15.
How the spret of God may be knawin be the spret of erroure
1560–7 Argyll Rec. 419.
He had ever … two or three plaidis of divers kyndes … when that he wald not be knawen openlye
c1590 Fowler II. 80/28.
[The disease,] not being at the first knauen nor cured, it becummeth easele to be perceaved bot impossible to be remeded
1626 Garden Worthies 130.
So be that … bage, All come of thé are knaw'n in everie aige
(b) 1513 Doug. ix. vii. 193.
The spulȝe led away was knaw full rycht

2. To recognise, identify, perceive, detect (something non-material); also, to come to know of, learn of. ?1438 Alex. ii. 6840.
Quha had knawin the gude will and lufing, He mycht haue knawin at leif-taking … Quha that … luffaris war
1456 Hay I. 36/1.
Be thir takenis thou sall knaw the nobles of curage
a1500 Seven S. 1979.
He suld sone knawe sekerly The great lesingis of that fals py
1513 Doug. i. x. 47.
That our dissait be nowder persave ne knaw
1535 Stewart 9461.
That tha micht knaw thair wisdome in to weir
1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 523.
So may ȝe knaw the courtis inconstance
1568 Lyndesay Pref. 3.
Seing the samin may be maist esilie and perfytelie knawin be his awin pen
a1578 Pitsc. II. 60/3.
The fourt pairt of this sermon, was how herasie sould be knawin
c1590 Fowler II. 106/5.
A prence can not … be called … forseing that can not knaw the euil bot quhen it cummeth

3. To perceive or experience with the senses: to see, observe or feel. Also absol. c1450 Cr. Deyng (S.T.S.) 135.
Swetnes is the bettir knawing, at swetnes [? sournes] has ben befor taistyt
1490 Irland Mir. I. 145/26.
Bot eftir the bvist be opynnit, the sauour and sueitnes of the liquore js knawin
1513 Doug. iii. viii. 152.
Nowthir lycht of planetis mycht we knaw, … nor in the ayr a starn
Ib. viii. iii. 6.
With … hows hedis on raw Skatterit dispers and bot a few to knaw
absol. c1590 Fowler I. 194/10.
I walk with light, and taks a blynd for guyde; Yea, not attentiue, I bothe heare and knawe

4. a. To recognise or come to know (a person or thing) for what he or it really is. b.To recognise (a person) as of a specified character. ?1438 Alex. i. 653.
The Kingis freindis sall to-day Be knawen in this hard assay
1456 Hay I. 188/8.
It is suthe and certane that we knaw perfitely wele thir fals Jowis
c1460 Thewis Wysmen 75.
Fore al mankind is knawin, I wys, Be froyt that of hym cumand is
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 409.
Thir wisemen, thai wait that all wiffis euill Ar kend with ther conditionis & knawin with the samin
1562 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 8.
Adulteraris, manifest and oppinlie knawin, to be cartit throcht the toun
c1568 Lauder Minor P. iii. 89.
The godlie men ar knawin be thir werks
1567 G. Ball. 40.
In the frute sall knawin be the tré
a1578 Pitsc. II. 39/17.
[The noise of firing] was so terribill … to heir … , it wald haue caussit cowartis to haue bene knawin

5. To have, or seek to have, understanding of a. God, b. oneself. = Ken v. 11. a1400 Leg. S. xxviii. 830.
To ger thaim God parfitly knaw
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 1481.
And man his God wald knaw and eike him sell
1533 Gau 98/24.
To knaw thé, O heuinlie fader, … giff vs thy … help
1571 Ferg. Serm. iii Malachi B iv. b.
Israell that knew God or (as the Apostle sayis) rather wer knawin of God
a1570-86 Maitl. F. clxxix. 58.
Remember also quhou sic chaystninge Dois ws allour our selffis to knaw
a1585 Polwart Flyt. 120 (T).
Learne, scybald knave, to knave thy sell

6. a. To acknowledge, admit to knowing, accept, own (a person or thing).(1) a1400 Leg. S. xi. 175.
Quod thai, It war mare bettire thinge To knaw Hyme & His helpe crafe
c1460 Thewis Wysmen 157.
Quhen euer thai dome, thai knaw na face, Bot doys justice efter the cas
a1538 Abell 104 b.
Yat he wald nocht knaw be parcialite or distribution hes awn kynnismen
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 15.
Not anis to attend upon him, … nor in a maner to knaw him
(2) c1420 Wynt. i. Prol. 78.
Noucht as bondage wndyr lawe, Bot that lykyng grace sulde knawe
1513 Doug. xii. v. 97.
This gud takyn I ressaue and ratify And knawys the goddis favour in our supple
1549 Compl. 26/12.
Sa that ve vil knau His mageste, ande to retere fra ouer vice
(3) Arundel MS. 238/6.
And I knaw thé my Lord God ... and me thy pure creatour

b. To acknowledge, admit or confess (a fault, or that one has committed a fault). Variously const.(1) a1400 Leg. S. l. 74.
With-thi that thu Knaw thi malyes
c1490 Irland Asl. MS. I. 11/6.
He that offendis his prince … suld … knaw his falt be fre confessioun
1533 Gau 97/21.
Ve knaw our sine befor Thé
a1578 Pitsc. II. 65/9.
As quhene Dawid sayith, I thocht I wald haue knawit myne iniquitie aganis myself into the Lord
(2) 1467 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 27.
The said Thomas sal … opynly knaw that he has offendit til him
(3) c1500-c1512 Dunb. ix. 105.
I knaw me vicious, Lord, and richt culpable In aithis sweiring
1562-3 Winȝet I. 66/3.
Thare iniquitie, of the quhilk we knaw our selfis nocht giltles

7. To have knowledge of (something); to know or have learned what or which it is or of what it consists; to understand. Also absol.(a) a1400 Leg. S. xxvii. 129.
Quha is, Goddis wit ma knaw?
?1438 Alex. ii. 623.
Fair nece, thow knawis nocht our kynd, Na quhen we come, na of quhat strynd
Ib. 2449.
I sall schaw, Efter the wyt that I can knaw
c1460 Wisd. Sol. (E.E.T.S.) 635.
Till inquere of thing that pasis his wyt till wnderstand and belangis hyme nocht to knaw?
Ib. 688. 1496 Acta Conc. II. 27.
Ane inquisicione of the best and worthyest, lest suspect, that best knawis the veryte
a1500 Seven S. 1602.
I merwell of that saw, To speir the question that ȝe knaw
1512 Lett. James IV 258.
[Forman] quha best knawis oure mynd in this materis
1535 Stewart 41500.
Ane knycht wes, I knaw nocht weill his name. Apeillit hes [etc.]
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 556.
Thow knawis the cunning that we maid
1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 48.
Knawing weill the quenis nature, that quhen sho wes miscontent [etc.]
1588 King Cat. in 1573-1600 Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 205.
Vnles he sowld knaw the difference betuix the tua kallendars
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 1133.
Manie speirs the gait they knaw ful weill
1629 Justiciary Cases I. 115.
He knawis nocht in respect he was nocht neir thame quhan thai sufferit
absol. c1420 Wynt. viii. 940.
At the crown … Till the Ballyoll suld fall off law, In als fere as thai couth knawe
1496–7 Acta Conc. II. 48.
To bere … suthfast witnessing in sa fer as thai knaw
1588 Glenartney Doc. MS.
We haif commandit oure cousing … and vtheris quha best knawis to in roll and gif vp [etc.]
(b) ?1438 Alex. ii. 2061.
The ginnes knew he hale … To forȝet dule
c1450-2 Howlat 262.
Thir fowlis he franyt Of thar counsall in this cais sen the richt thai knewe
a1578 Pitsc. I. 197/17.
Gif he knew ony thing of the Kingis crowne
(b) a1586 Lindsay MS. 69.
Litill knawit he & ewill kepit he that commendit his scheip in the keping of ane wolff
(c) c1420 Wynt. v. 3682.
Oure nature, certys, ay suld be Knawyn, and owre mortalyte
c1450 Cr. Deyng (S.T.S.) 111.
To thank hyme of al his … gyftis, at ar al fore the best and thai war weill knawing
1525 E. Loth. Antiq. Soc. V. 30.
That the rycht merchis may be knawine and vnderstand
1562-3 Winȝet I. 4/6.
That the passage and dew course is partlie tyll vs knawin
c1650 Spalding I. 218.
[He] held both the King and thame in hand for his awin endis, not yit knawin

b. To obtain knowledge or understanding of; to learn or come to know (what it is, etc.). Also absol.(a) 1375 Barb. vii. 387.
[To] haf his spyis on the Kyng, To knaw alwais his contenyng
a1400 Leg. S. xxii. 24.
He gaf spiritual heryng To gere men cnaw hewynly thing
1456 Hay I. 1/17.
Be the quhilkis men may better knaw the process of the said buke
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 1298.
He did the conquerour to knaw all the cause quhy
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 562.
That … euery one Mycht knaw the law, and so the same ensew
1568 Hosack Mary Q. of Scots 543.
Diuers noblemen writt to hir, requiring to knaw the trewth of hir strange and irreverent handilling
1567 Sat. P. iii. 66.
Ane culuering they leit crak, To teiche thair feiris to knaw the appoint tyme
1643 Ancram & Loth. Corr. I. 152.
He is a man not very closse for a states man, and is very essy in a short spece to kenaw alle his conseption, hauing schauet me alle his expeditioune
absol. c1590 Fowler I. 363/13.
Quod he, ‘if thou so curious be to knawe, Hir name beginis & endeth with an A’
(b) c1552 Lynd. Mon. 4538.
From tyme thay knew the veritie, Thay did contempne all propertie
(c) 1456 Hay II. 162/11.
Thus may be knawin be the message the wit of the maister
1562-3 Winȝet I. 54/17.
That I micht hef knawin my aduersaris strenthe

8. To make judicial inquiry (into), to investigate authoritatively, to take legal cognizance (of). a. tr. Also absol. b. intr., const. upon.a. c1420 Wynt. vii. 1871.
Hawand full … powere fra the Papys Se All that matere for to knawe And do that suld be don off lawe
1425 Acts I. 11/2.
His chancellar [etc.] … quhilk sal knaw examyn conclude & … deteemyn all & sindry complayntis [etc.] … that may be determynit befor the Kingis consal
1457 Ib. II. 47/2.
The saidis lordis of the sessione sall haif full power to knawe and decide all spoliacionis [etc.]
absol. 1534 Crim. Trials I. 167.
Jugis arbitratouris … chosin betuix the saidis pairties to knaw and decide … anent [etc.]
b. 1457 Acts II. 47/2.
The causis that the lordis of the sessione sall knaw apone
1478 Acta Aud. 60/1.
Chosin be the schiref deputis of Forfar to inquire and knaw vppoun the landis and gudis pertening to Walter Ogilvy
c 1532 Stirlings of Keir 339.
I am contentit that ȝour lordschipis justifie and knaw vpon the said appelacioun
1609 Skene Reg. Maj. i. 118.
The judge may of law gar knaw vpon the dead be ane assise

9. To be acquainted or familiar with (a thing); to be conversant with or versed in (a branch of knowledge, etc.); also, to become conversant with, to learn, study.(a) 1375 Barb. iv. 355.
I knaw rycht weill that cuntre, And the castell alsua knaw I
c1420 Wynt. vii. 1530.
‘Qwhy lyis thy body now sa lawe?’ ‘The hycht my spyryt for to knawe’
1456 Hay II. 23/3.
Becaus that … pertenis wele wisdome … of clergy to knaw the lawis
a1500 Henr. Fab. 724.
God ȝeild ȝow, Schir, for that text weill I knaw
1513 Doug. i. Prol. 345.
Reid quha hym [Virgil] knawys, I dar this Vndertak [etc.]
1540 Lynd. Sat. 486 (B).
For I knaw nocht the craft perqueir Of luvis gyn
a1540 Freiris Berw. 237.
Quha be this that knawis sa weill my name?
a1570-86 Maitl. F. clxxxii. 9.
Thow quho knawis his birth, hys lyfe, his end
1567 G. Ball. 2.
The text of the Catechisme, … quhilk is necessarie till euerie man … to knaw and exercise thame selfis daylie thairin
a1578 Pitsc. I. 285/4.
He hes not our leid nor knawis not the nature of our contrie nor our lawis
1587-99 Hume 21/129.
He knawes the strange instinctions all, … Of fishes and of flichtring fouls
1596–7 Misc. Spald. C. I. 98.
In respect God hes nocht gewin … to trew Christians sic … hid misteris to knaw
a1598 Ferg. Prov. MS. No. 316.
Courtesie is commersome to them that knawes it not
c1616 Hume Orthog. 7.
We … borrow our symboles from the Romanes. Quherfore, to rectefie our aun, first it behoves us to knaw their's
a 1690 N. Burn Leader Haughs vii.
Brighaugh and Braidwoodsheil she knaws. And Chapelwood frequenteth
(b) c1515 Asl. MS. I. 251/23.
Sanct Oswald interpret it … , that knewe baith the tungis
1567 Sat. P. iv. 159.
The day that I thee, Scotland, knew
a1605 Montg. Misc. P. xxvii. 3.
I wot ȝe never kneu A harte more treu
(c) 1556 Lauder Off. Kings 389.
Goddis worde suld cleir to thame be knawin
(b) 1513 Doug. viii. iv. 131.
Hys [Cacus'] inwart cavernys all, Wont tobe dyrk, worth patent now and knaw

b. reflex. To have knowledge or skill, be versed or experienced in. = Ken v. 14 c. c1475 Wall. xi. 412.
Wallace beheld, quhilk weillin weir him knew

c. tr. To know or be familiar with, by personal experience; to have experienced. c1460 Thewis Gud Women 302.
Of wysmen that … has … mekil honor knawin & sen
a1500 Bernardus 319.
It cordis il in ȝouthhede of a childe … Diuersiteis of wynis for to knaw
a1500 K. Hart 94.
Thir vther flouris … Quhilk hes na craft to knaw the wynter weit
1549 Compl. 19/16.
He possessis vthir pure pepil that knauis his gudnes
a1568 Scott x. 11.
Albeid I knaw Of luvis law The plesour & the panis smart

d. To know how to do something. c1590 Fowler II. 123/2.
Knawing weill eneugh how to handle the warld of that sort

e. intr. To know of or about. c1460 Regim. Princ. 93.
Thair suld neuir caytif counsale be to king; Na king suld neuir of his smal countis knaw

10. tr. To have or obtain knowledge of (something to come); to have foreknowledge of; to anticipate. 1375 Barb. i. 130, 133.
In this warld … Is nane … that sall Knaw thingis that ar to fall, Bot God, that is off maist poweste … For to knaw, in his prescience, Off alkyn tyme the mowence
c1460 Wisd. Sol. (S.T.S.) 208.
Quha ledis man to sik knawledge that he knawis the thing that sal be in tyme to cum?
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 546.
Of his deid … Is na man knawis the tyme nor ȝit the place
1560 Rolland Seven S. 190.
Greit foirsicht hes bene in this ladie, Perrellis to cum, sa perfytelie to knaw
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 1021.
Knaw before quhat sall come efter

11. To know of or about (a person); to have observed or have heard of; also, to learn of. Also intr., const. on. 1375 Barb. iv. 686.
Thai prophetis so thyn ar sawin, That thair in erd now nane is knawin
1456 Hay II. 89/8.
That thair gude renoune be wyde sawin … our all realmes and quhare they are knawin
a1500 Henr. III. 142/10.
Ane nobill lord ane tale aucht weill to weye, Knaw the tellar, and on quhome it is tauld
1511 Selkirk B. Ct. fol. 13 a.
[That] ony nycht wakaris that can bene knawin sal be puneist
a1538 Abell fol. 31 a.
He at is part takair with ane theif … alswa he that knawis thame and schawis thame nocht to the speraris
c1590 Fowler I. 59/46.
The gentlest men and courtesest that evir men did knaw
1622 Elgin Rec. II. 171.
I knave sum that hes bein at ther communioun in Ballormy
intr. 1686 Stuart Joco-Ser. Disc. 39.
They … smeuthly jimm'd, Like some I knaw on, when they trimm'd

b. p.p. Known by report; notorious; famed, celebrated. c1500-c1512 Dunb. lix. 6.
I sall him knawin mak hyne to Calys
1585 James VI Ess. 11.
So (worthy prince) thy works sall mak thé knawin

12. To be personally or familiarly acquainted with (a person). b. In the passive, to be well-known or familiar (with or to someone). c1420 Ratis R. 1232.
Beware, my sone, fra thow hire [Dame Reason] knaw, Honore hire [etc.]
a1500 Rauf C. 558.
That war ane foull scorne, That thow suld chaip, bot I thé knew
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 343.
I knaw yone bauld berne better than ye
a1570-86 Maitl. F. xlv. 7.
Ane woman thocht scho seme meik, scho is ewill to knaw
1596 Dalr. I. 77/9.
Eftir lang consuetude togither and ilk knew vthir weil
1608 Breadalbane Lett. (Reg. Ho.) 24 March.
Ȝour sone Robert knawis me weil yneughe
b. (1) c1420 Ratis R. (S.T.S.) 1034.
And ȝhit bot thow be knawin veill, Thow sal bere al the blame ilk deill
1560 Bk. Disc. in Knox II. 248.
That the bannes be publictlie proclamed thre sundayis, onles the persones be [so] knawin that no suspitioun of dangear may arise
1597 Misc. Spald. C. I. 109.
Quhair evir the said Helen is knawin or hes reparit … sche hes bene … reportit be all … to be a … witch
(2) 1375 Barb. vii. 145.
I will That ȝhe ga forrow vs, quhill we Bettir with othir knawyn be
a1500 Rauf C. 253.
For I am knawin with officiaris
Ib. 533.
‘I am knawin with the Quene’, said Schir Rolland
1560 Rolland Seven S. 677.
My lord, … Ȝe haue ane sone quhilk is not to me knawin

c. To know carnally. a1500 Henr. Orph. 34.
Quhilk Jupiter … to wyf can ta, And carnaly hir knew
c1508 Ch. & M. Prints 204/21.
I knaw no man, my maidynhede is vnfylde
c1515 Asl. MS. I. 286/19.
By the craft of Dedalus this bull knew hyr fleschelye
1561 St. A. Kirk S. 128.
[He] knew hir carnale efter promys mayd betuix tham

13. To be aware of (something) as a fact or as something of which one is informed, to be apprised of, to know of; also, to apprehend as a truth, be assured of.(a) c1420 Ratis R. (S.T.S.) 69.
Till that Godthatknawisall
1456 Hay I. 132/12.
Trewly I, knawand his rycht, aw nocht to mak defens
1490 Irland Mir. I. 73/26.
It that God wait and knawis and wist eternaly
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xvi. 46.
To sweir all that his maister sayis, Thocht all the contrair weill knawis hie
1513 Doug. ii. ii. 59.
That I say weyll I knaw
1531 Bell. Boece (M) I. 193.
Mogallus, knawing this conspiracioun be counsale of iuglouris
1562-3 Winȝet II. 81/3.
The sones of Cham quha, knawing ony licht falt … in thair forefatheris [etc.]
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 142.
For certanetie he suspectis of the thing ȝe knaw, and of his life
c1616 Hume Orthog. 31/1.
We avowe that quhilk we knaw
(b) a1570-86 Maitl. F. lxxxviii. 36.
Althocht the contrair all the cwntrie knais
(b) 1375 Barb. x. 268.
He knew his worthy wassalage, And his gret wit
c1420 Wynt. ii. 540.
The Kyng … That in tyll Egypt ras of newe And off Joseph no thyng knewe
?1438 Alex. ii. 3578.
Ideas, that knew it wele Apartly of the ielusy
c1475 Wall. vii. 170.
Wallace raturnd, and tuk with him bot thre; Nane of thaim knew this endentour bot he
1489 Acts II. 222/1.
Of the quhilk takyng [of caups] … our souerane lord … knew na … ressonable caus
1533 Bell. Livy II. 15/32.
For thocht he was exaltit be favoure of pepil to honouris, he knewe weill thare inconstance
1570 Sat. P. xiii. 131.
His fatheris murther also ȝe cleirly knew, Myschantly hangit
a1570-86 Maitl. F. xxxv. 65.
Than furth scho schew all that scho knew
Ib. clxxviii. 128.
Thair hois maid of wantoun hew, And quhene thai gange, as thai nocht knew, Thay luift thair goune

b. To knaw something to (= of or concerning) someone. 1558-66 Knox II. 87.
Paul Meffen, to quhom was no infamie then knawin
1651 Strathbogie Presb. 196.
He knew noe thing bot honestie to him, [he] was no tipler

c. intr. To know or come to know of. 1535 Stewart 57011.
Quhen that the Scottis of his cuming knew
a1578 Pitsc. I. 17/18.
Certaine men that knew of hir purpois
1588 Conv. Burghs I. 288.
Gif they befoir thair heircuming had knawin … thairof
1591 Reg. Morton I. 177.
My lord Hume knew nocht of thar owtryding quharat his lordschip is heichly offendit

14. p.p. Known as a fact, well known (to any one). b. Widely or generally known or recognised.(a) a1400 Leg. S. xviii. 21.
Sa that to the Saweoure Be knawyne the changinge of vil
a1500 Rauf C. 378.
To Wymond of the Wardrob war the suith knawin
c1536 Lynd. Compl. Bagsche 42.
Quhen to the King the cace was knawin Of my vnhappy hardines
1560 Rolland Seven S. 6712.
Thow seruis weill to be … drawin, Gif sic thing war vnto our nichtbouris knawin
a1585, a1568 Montg. P. v. 40.
By art and prouff thai craff [= thy craft] is knayne [: orthraune, etc.] To me
1633 Justiciary Cases I. 227.
In regaird of the sufficiencie … of the said Mr James knawin to ws
(b) 1513 Doug. i. ix. 82.
Of Troy … The distructioun has beyn weill knaw to me, Thy name alsso
b. (a) c1450-2 Howlat 912.
I am cummyn of thar kyn, be cosingage knawin
1456 Hay I. 278/21.
That it [the coat of arms] war kyd and knawin till him and his lignage
1485 Breadalbane Coll. No. 22.
Efter the said interruption be noturly knawin and ourtane apone me
1513 Doug. ii. i. 16.
Ane ile, Weil knawin by name, hecht Tenedos vmquhile
1562-3 Winȝet I. 71/13.
All hæresie … , except sum in few countreis knawin
1570 Lennox in Campbell Love-lett. Mary (1824) 229.
To mak … innocency to appear quhair the contrary is sa weill knawin
a1585 Maitland Maitl. Q. ii. 29.
Thair wovin hois of silk ar schawin … To gar thair courtlines be knawin
1596 Dalr. II. 42/5.
Throuch the wisdome of king James thair subtilitie is sa weil tryet, and thair craft sa weil knawin
1597 Misc. Spald. C. I. 100.
Ewident takins … , seyn and knawin to all the wardle
1599 Aberd. Council Lett. I. 80.
Newer any sic rycht hes ather bein knawin or bein in use, in any of … our predecessors tymes, or gif the same hes bein knawin to theim they haif appearandlie gainstand it
c1616 Hume Orthog. 29.
Al men's vertues are not knawen
(b) 1513 Doug. i. vi. 132.
My fame is knaw abufe the eliment
Ib. xii. xiv. 132.
The fey gyrdill … With stuthis knaw and pendes schynand cleir

15. With dependent constructions: To perceive, learn, become informed or aware; to know as a fact or a truth, be informed or aware, have learned, be assured; to understand, apprehend (that something is so, etc.).(1) a1400 Leg. S. x. 378.
Knawand that Eufagen[e]a, … Is spousit to the Kinge of hewyn
c 1390 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 21.
Syn we vndirstand ȝhe knaw well that it ys reson that he mak obedience tyll hys byschap
1490 Irland Mir. I. 123/9.
I, God, … makis kend [etc.] … ; I wil ȝe knaw, anens the gret discensioune [etc.] … , that befor me … has comperit my childer [etc.]
a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 323.
Knaw, kene skald, I hald of Alathya
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xi. 21.
Sen thow knawis thy tyme is schort
1513 Doug. i. Prol. 233.
All men may knaw thar he [Caxton] forvayt quyte
1560 Rolland Seven S. 8976.
Ȝe knaw lechis will haue ane lang proces
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xvii. 12.
Quhen he plesis He can gar princis knaw That it is He allane that rewlis aw
Id. Ib. xxvii. 13.
Gif we … nowder will persaue nor kna That god for syn will lat ws fa
a1578 Pitsc. II. 106/33.
The governour … wald not knaw that inconvenient was to … follow heirefter concerning the libertie of … Scotland
1581–2 Waus Corr. 238.
Giff he knawis that he man flit, he vill care all avay
1590 Doug. Corr. 242.
That the cuntrie may knaw that owr frendshipis ar jwnit in the ald maner
c1590 Fowler II. 27/2.
Knawing assuredly that be the King his edict of pacificatioun … I wald esilie bene absoluit
c1615 Chron. Kings 87.
Knawing that the cardinall appoissid him selff to sik interpryssis
(b) ?1438 Alex. ii. 4589.
Be his hew … he knew full weill That he na louit him neuer a deill
a1500 Colk. Sow i. 260.
[They] knew be thair array That all nolt hirdis wer thay
1596 Misc. Spald. C. I. 87.
Quhilk scheittis quhow sone thow knew hed takin heitt … , immediatlie thow … tuik thame agane fra hir
(c) 1562-3 Winȝet II. 47/14.
That al Catholikis almaist hes knawin that thai suld resaue the doctouris with the Kirk
(2) a1400 Leg. S. xviii. 1474.
To knaw quhou hewynnis kinge Is redy ay to succure all
1456 Hay I. 14/33.
Tharfore ȝe suld knawe how Sanct Johne was banist in the said ile
1530 Edinb. B. Rec. II. 22.
We traist ȝour lordschippis knawis … how that we ar vnyt … with the … walkaris
1533 Boece vii. x. 271.
He knew be new signis how that invios nacioun devisit to occupy his kinrik
Ib. xiv. 283.
Knawing … how infortunately thare nacioun had fochtyn
1581 Hamilton Cath. Tr. 85.
Thair is na induollar of Abirdene but knauis hou Katharene Lyon … come to the kirk [etc.]
(3) 1375 Barb. xii. 177.
Quhen thai … knaw suthly on quhat maneir Thair avaward … War reboytit
?1438 Alex. ii. 4308.
Quha hurt or haill was, nane micht knaw
c1460 Wisd. Sol. (E.E.T.S.) 705.
Quhay may knaw be his wordis quhether he was vys or nocht?
1490 Irland Mir. I. 17/12.
Sene we knaw nocht be way of jnscicioune of nature … hou we May cum to eternall felicite
1498 Treas. Acc. I. 318.
I haf resauit ane othir steik of tanne, … and of quhat elnis I knaw nocht
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xx. 54.
Thow knawis best quhair bindis thé thi scho
1513 Doug. i. Prol. 287.
I knaw quhat payn was to follow hym fut hait
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 636.
Nocht knawyng quhat the preist dois sing nor say
1588 Aberd. Council Lett. I. 47.
I knaw how ye ar handillit
c1590 Fowler I. 47/13.
Alreddie I hawe knawen … what thow woldest hawe thé shawen
Ib. II. 26/35.
I wald knaw of this impudent lier, quhat coulour the rector could pretend to sic suddane commands
1607 Highland P. III. 101.
We … beseik ȝour Maiestie to latt us knaw hou far we sall go with the Marquis
c1616 Hume Orthog. 2.
The printeres … wil not paen themselfes to knau whither it be orthographie or skaiographie
1622-6 Bisset II. 216/8.
To knaw howe they aggrie with the sea lawes … of Scotland
1686 Stuart Joco-Ser. Disc. 20.
My tongue … glents and glyd's I knaw not whither
(4) (God knawis: see also God n. 4 (4).) — 1560 Rolland Seven S. 6003.
Scho said gude man ȝour bidding I mon do, Bot greit God knawis gif my will be thairto
1568 Hosack Mary Q. of Scots 533.
Quhat he resauit thair God knawis
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 134.
God knawis how I am punischit for making my god of ȝow

b.? To ascertain, ensure. 1495 Acta Conc. I. 407/1.
With all … commoditeis fredomez [etc.] … except at the said Dauid sall knaw the dod wod be obseruit and kepit

c. In parenthetic phrases.(1) a1500 Seven S. 1370.
My lord, as thow knawis, is auld
1535 Stewart 36037.
Gold is so glittis, as ȝe knaw and ken
Ib. 58220.
It is the Douglas, rycht weill as I knaw, Hes wroucht all this
1556 Lauder Off. Kings 203.
Haistelie, or euer ye knaw, Ye salbe plaigit
1588 Aberd. Council Lett. I. 46.
So knawis God quha may preserve yow
c 1605 Old Ross-shire I. 30.
His chise is, as the Lorde knawes, to agrie with the laird
(2) c1475 Wall. i. 440.
Thir tythings sytts me sor, And be it knawin, thow may tak scaith tharfor
?a1500 Steel Roy Robert 161.
At Myttoun, as it is weill knawin, Thair haistellie ȝe war ourthrawin
1513 Doug. ix. iii. 19.
A fyr wod, the quhilk into dante Full mony ȝeris hed I, as is knaw
1626 Justic. Cases I. 52.
He hes ane auld grudge and wald conqueis his estait, as is nottourlie knawin
(3) 1570 Sat. P. x. 409.
To quhome, God knawis, he schew his greit clemence
1570 Ib. xxiii. 105.
Murther thow knawis will not vnpuneist be
1588 King Cat. 32 b.
Nocht sua greate [thanks], I knaw, as I aught
1615 Highland P. III. 263.
Whiche traid, the Lord knawes I abhore
(4) 1596 Dalr. I. 121/21.
Sche wil be in wrang to her housband, gif that he knaweing, sche offend

d. With a pronoun (it, that, quhilk, etc.) standing for what is known. Also in the passive (= sense 14).(1) a1400 Leg. S. i. 246.
Than, that to ger the pupill knaw, He ordanyt certane day and place
c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus iv. 708.
That weill I knaw by thy beld heid & ene
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 139.
Tak heid that nane that is heir se it, for all the warld will knaw it
c1590 Fowler I. 154/14.
I wott not quhat I wishe, bot this I knaw, they [eyes] bring me bayle and bliss
Ib. II. 63/39.
He did tak his flesh and bluid in his hands quhilk the faithfull knawis
1596–7 Misc. Spald. C. I. 115.
He inquerand of thé quhy thow blew thairvpoun, thow answyrit him, ilk persone knew nocht that
(2) passive. 1400 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 44.
And it peraventour nocht knawen on yhour parte
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 153.
Gif I sauld hym his awin, It war wrang to be knawin
1481 Antiq. Aberd. & B. II. 330.
Within fourty dayis next it be notable knawyn the said James … sall infeft the forsaide Williame [etc.]
1567 Lanark B. Rec. 36.
Quhay that raveillis ony thing that the said provest [etc.] … dois, befoir thej mak all the samin opinly kend, gef the samin kan be knawing, … sall pey ten pundis
1585 Misc. Spald. C. II. 344.
That the haill writtis … ar in his chartour kist quhilk … is knawin weill anewche to syndrie his freindis
1636 St. A. Baxter Bks. 102.
Quhilk wes notorlie knawen To the haill brether of craft

16. Const. object and infinitive. a. To know, perceive, understand. b. With reflex. pron. object omitted: To perceive or realise oneself to be or do something. c. In passive: To be known or seen (to do so) (= 11 b and 14).a. 1431 Reg. Great S. 43/2.
Till all and syndry, … yhour universite sal knaw me … in my myster til haf wedset … my landdis
1562-3 Winȝet I. 124/12.
Quhom ȝe knaw to hef incallit the sanctis
Ib. 133/10.
As ȝe knaw science to be the gift of God
1570 Leslie 144.
The King … knawing his bordouris nocht to be sa weill plenysit [etc.]
a1578 Pitsc. I. 157/24.
Sche knawand hirself to be regent
1581 Sat. P. xliv. 149.
That skipper crous can crau, Sua that he knaw the iurnay to succeid
1597 Misc. Spald. C. I. 108.
He knawand euidentlie hir to be giltie of death
1639 Haddington Corr. 177.
I knew him euer to be the gretest knau alyu
b. c1490 Irland Asl. MS. I. 9/28.
Quhen euer he knawis or doutis to be in dedly syn
1581 Hamilton Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 90/14.
For the peple not knauing to ressaue vther thing bot bair breid and vyne as thaj do at hame
c. (1) c1568 Lauder Minor P. iii. 93.
For as no wayis, the fyre, it can be knawin To be ane fyre, withouttin heit or lycht
1577 Conv. Burghs I. 51.
The conseruatour … is knawing to be ane man, abill and qualefeit
1596 Dalr. I. 18/33.
Sum of thame are knawen to haue four or fyue hunder … scheip
1616 Crim. Trials III. 397.
Reput and haldin, knawin and callit to be Egiptianis
1616 Reg. Privy C. X. 655.
In certane derne … placeis … [quhair] thay wer not knawne to wander abroad … [according] to thair accustomed maner
1629 Justic. Cases I. 132.
Being knawin to the said Katherene … to be ane warlok
(2) 1494 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV. 429.
All … vther thingis to do … that to the office of balyery is knawin to pertene of law
1509 Reg. Privy S. I. 288/2.
All uther thingis that to the office of lauchful assignay is knawin to pertene
1524 Montgomery Mem. 100. 1539 Bk. Carlaverock II. 468. 1588 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III. 427.
All and sindrie thingis to do … that to the office of executorie datiue is knawin to pertene

17. Const. object and complement: To know, understand; to learn, perceive, discover, ascertain; to consider, regard (the person or thing to be as stated). c1420 Wynt. v. 86.
Be ane starn apperand newe Than borne the Kyng off Jowys [they] knew
1456 Hay II. 149/1.
Quhen thou has provit thame lang and knawin thaire counsaile gude and trewe
1511 Selkirk B. Ct. fol. 13 a.
The said ballȝeis … knawand this allegeance trew
1513 Doug. ii. ii. 71.
Knawyng hym self gylty
1533 Bell. Livy II. 209/24.
The auld men, knawing thame self assignit … to the deith
1562-3 Winȝet I. 109/21.
Knawand haly matrimonie being sa ernestlie commandit indissolublie to be keipit
a1578 Pitsc. I. 316/20.
The Earle of Angus knawand … the Earle of Lennox gadderand aganis him
1596 Dalr. I. 319/30.
A man quhome thay knaw vset in the weiris
1596 Misc. Bann. C. II. 220.
Knawing nathing mair certane nor daith, and nathing mair incertane nor the hour thairof

b. To acknowledge, accept (a person, as entitled to a position or dignity). a1400 Leg. S. vi. 120.
That thai thé knaw The suthfaste God that lestis ay
1535 Stewart 52868.
He gart thame sweir … ay to knaw him for their prince and king
1559 Old Ross-shire I. 8.
The saids tenents knaw me as thair maister

c. In passive: To be known, understood, seen, detected, admitted (to be as stated). (= 11 b and 14). 1375 Barb. xi. 161.
He set ledaris in ilk battale, Knawyn war of gud gouernale
c1420 Ratis R. 339.
Gif ilke man that his is knawinge
Ib. 1378.
The vyce … makis thé bot a kepar knawin, Quhar thow suld lord be of thin awin
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 541.
Ane man … That knawin is for cruel
?a1500 Steel Roy Robert 91.
Ane Dane in ilk ane hous was knawin
1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 33.
Thinking … thai sould not be knawin as counsallouris of the deid
1581 Burne Disput. 7 b.
Gif ȝour alleageance var maid in forme of argument, the reason alleagit sould … be knauin maist sophisticall
1591 Crim. Trials I. ii. 256.
Annie Sampsoun, knawin ane notorious wich

18. In impersonal construction with dependent clause: It is (wele, notourly etc.) knawin.(1) c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 1291.
To the Troyiens … What the palladinar myght be, Was nought knawyne
1425 Acts II. 11/2.
Quhil it be knawin … at the cuntre be vnscaithit of thaim
?1438 Alex. ii. 1236.
Men hes me tald, and knauin is, That Alexander cumis and all his
c1475 Wall. xi. 1190.
How that was done it was knawin to yow aw
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 5714.
Quhat restis behynd I wald wer knawin
1555 Edinb. B. Rec. II. 227.
It nocht being knawin … giff ony personis be … decessit in thair viage
1562-3 Winȝet II. 28/7.
It is knawin to al men quhow greueouslie … inweys … Paul contrare certane men
1591 Aberd. B. Rec. I. viii.
Na … court buik … extant, nor ȝit knawin that only buik … wes before [1380]
(2) 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
That it is well knawin that trewis war … sworne [etc.]
c1420 Wynt. v. 4949.
Till me it is welle knawyne That thai clathys ar noucht thi awyne
c1475 Wall. i. 12.
It is weyle knawyne on mony diuers syde, How thai haff wrocht
1488 Liber Melros 618.
It is euidently knawyng … be clar documentis that [etc.]
1508 Reg. Privy S. I. 258/1.
It is notourly knawin that thare is dedely inimyte betuix thaim
a1568 Bann. MS. 138 a/73.
It is weill knawin I am weill bodin
1607 Melrose Reg. Rec. I. 33.
As it is manifestlie knawin that [etc.]
1640 Kirkcudbright Min. Bk. 87.
It being notorlie knawn that the said William … tuik a pairt of the said monie frae him

b. Be it knawin. = Ken v. 22 b.Appar. only in early texts. 1388 Douglas Chart. 32.
Be yt chnawyn til al men thruch this presens, vs … haf frely grantyt [etc.]
1395 Menzies Chart. MS. 10 Feb.
Be it knawyn tyl al throw thyr present letteris that [etc.]
1423 Reg. Great S. 11/2.
Be it knawyn … us … til haff set [etc.]

c. That is to knaw, = that is to say, namely, to wit. Only in Douglas. (Cf. L. scīlicet.) 1513 Doug. iv. Prol. 137.
Lufe euery wyght for God, … That is to knaw, lufe God for his gudnes, … ; Nixt luf thi self …
Ib. v. iv. 44.
Heir first gude hope arays to the twa last, That is to knaw, Mynestheus and Sergest
Ib. viii. iii. 3.
The fyry son be this ascendit evin The myddill … regioun of the hevyn; That is to knaw, be than it was myd day
Ib. vii. xiii. 123. Ib. ix. iii. 148.

19. To mak(e knawin. Variously const.(1) 1459 Peebles B. Rec. I. 132.
[An assise chosen] for tyl mak knawyn … makeris of that fechting
1483 Edinb. B. Rec. I. 48.
And this till all quhom it efferis … we mak knawin faythfully be thir our presentis
1527 Acta Conc. MS. XXXVII. 170.
This I intimy and makis knawin on to your grace
1560 Rolland Seven S. 7956.
For to mak knawin hir fenȝeit halynes
Ib. 9995.
I wald the same [secrets] ȝe sa mak to me knawin
a1599 Rollock Wks. I. 370.
Als sone as ever the warld was created, this wisdome … was reveilled and made knawin to men
(2) 1446 Reg. Episc. Aberd. I. 244.
[The assize] passit furth … , tha ilke chapellanis passand befor in propir person makand knawyn quhat thai clemyt
c1475 Wall. ix. 1196.
Falowis, I mak yow knawin, The purwyance … We will nocht tyne
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 191.
I am your cousing of kyn, I mak to you knawin
(3) 1409 Exch. R. IV. ccx.
Gif ony … wittis … ony … perele apperand til other, he sal … ger it to be … made knawin to the tothir part
c1475 Wall. xi. 1324.
I sall … mak it knawin thou art ane heretik
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 1211.
I mak that knawin and kend, his grete kyndnes
1525 E. Loth. Antiq. Soc. V. 29.
Gud cristyne pepyll and ȝe gud folkis of this paryschyne her I mak it knawine to ȝow [etc.]
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 1673.
My friends, … , I mak it knawin The greit vengeance that God hes schawin
(4) 1385 Red Bk. Grandtully I. 139*.
And at al this … wes thus dune in dede on Mononday [etc.] … tyl al men I mak knawyn throw theis present lettrys
1407 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 65.
Tyll all men that this lettre sall see … we … makis knawen that … we … hafe fullily grauntit [etc.]
1436 Coll. Aberd. & B. 394.
To yhur vniuersite I mak knawin that in the hede court of Slanis … comperit befor me [etc.]
(5) 1402 Reg. Panmure II. 184.
To yhur universite be it made knawyn me tyl haf gyffin [etc.]
1570 Leslie 201.
Quhan it wes maid knawin … that the hoill cuntrey men wes asseilying so eirnistlie

20. To knaw (a person) to (a piece of land): to admit formally to occupation. = Ken v. 6 b. 1468 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 28.
At ther is now cammyn befor yow the dochtir of the fyrst wyff, clamande the said lande as air thairto, and to be knawin be yow to the samyn and richt
1566 Prot. Bk. W. Douglas 81 b.
The forsaid landis … to be knawin to the samyn … be thak and raip, clape and hoppir, … as ws is in sic thingis

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