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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1990 (DOST Vol. VII).
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Ring, Rign(e, v.3 Also: ringe, ryng(e; rygne; ringn(e, ryngn-; rung-; ringin. P.t. rang(e, rangne, ragn(e; raigne; rong; also ringit, ringnit, ryngnyt. P.p. rung(e, rong, roung; rogne, rougne; rungyn, rongin, rongyn(g; roungin. [Sc. var. of Regn(e v. Cf. Reng v.The strong forms of p.t. and p.p. are only Sc., appar. developed on the analogy of other verbs orig. belonging to OE ablaut series III.]

1. intr. To hold or exercise the sovereign power in a state; to rule or govern as a king or queen; to reign.(1) pres. 1375 Barb. i 78.
He suld … lat him ryng that had the rycht
Ib. xix 28. c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2702.
The kynryke of Matenafe In quhilk Orestes ryngand was
c1420 Wynt. vi 1777.
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 495.
Yone is … the straitest of stuf, with richese to ring
a1500 Henr. Bludy Serk 6. a1500 Lanc. 2128.
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 45 (Asl.).
King Salamon … Ryngand as roy in all rialte
c1515 Asl. MS I 193/23.
Our souerane lord that ryngis now present
Ib. 259/17.
He began to ryng the ȝere of God [1040] … and he regnit xvj ȝeris
1513 Doug. Comm. i iii 100.
Concupissence to ryng or haf warldly honouris wald draw him … to the actyve lyve
c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus ii 220. c1552 Lynd. Mon. 4496. 1560 Rolland Seven S. 1566. 1567 Sat. P. iv 2.
I, Henrie Stewart … Sum tyme in houpe with reuerence to ring Within this realme
a1570-86 Maitl. F. 208/44.
Ring may no king bot in renowne
1558-66 Knox I 252. a1585 Maitland Maitl. Q. 53/97.
Quhen he is of aage to ring
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 63/28.
That grace, wherewith God maks him for to ring
16.. Wode's Psalter (ed.) 239.
Lord keep his grace lang for to ring
(b) c1420 Wynt. vi 1675.
Quhen that Saynt Thomas Wes martyryde, he wes kyng rygnand In to the kynryk off Ingland
Ib. 1884.
Quhen he wes kyng wyth crowne ryngnand
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 424.
For na largese my lord noght wil he neuer let … to rigne
1549 Lamb Resonyng 31/22.
Ȝour kyng [sc. the English king] socht … that na wyis nor expert man of weir suld ringne or gyd the Scottismen
1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 163.
Being all of ane factioun … to haue the quenis grace rignand
a1578 Pitsc. I 370/4.
In thy default this crwell tyrrane ringnes
1596 Dalr. II 339/4.
(c) 1584 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. I 189.
At the peace and faith of our souerane lord King James the Sext now rungand
p.t. ?1438 Alex. ii 9918.
Gude Alexander … Rang seuin ȝeir as nobill king
c1450-2 Howlat 937 (A).
The rent and the ritches that thow in rang
1531 Bell. Boece I 40.
He … rang with … odius tyranny
1535 Stewart 35047.
In all his tyme so equallie he rang
Ib. 35458.
His sone Edmond than rang into his steid
a1538 Abell 2*b.
Arthur wrangusly rang in Briton for he wes bastert
1549 Lamb Resonyng 89/20. 1551 Hamilton Cat. 147.
70 yeiris eftir the ring of the Emperour Caius Julius, the secund emperour rang
15.. Dunb. App. viii 17.
The regeand tirrant that in thé rang, Herod, is exilit … Juda
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. 447/76.
a1578 Pitsc. I 408/20.
The most nobillist prince that ever rang [1728 ragn] in the realme of Scottland
c1650 Spalding I 286.(b) 1549 Lamb Resonyng 93/7.
1596 Dalr. I 135/21.
He rangne in Scotlande ȝeiris xxix
(c) 1625 Garden Kings 67.
All those that reigned when thow raigne [: wrang]
(d) 1625 Garden Kings 69.
A prince, of all the most renovn'd that ragne [: amang]
p.p. a1500 Sir Eger 2707.
The emperor … Might have rung in such royalte
a1586 Maitland Geneal. Setoun 5. 1573 Davidson Sat. P. xl 214.
James, our gude Regent, … had rung ȝit wer not his richteousnes
a1578 Pitsc. I 145/13.
1587-99 Hume 76/270.
Our princes … bot sluggishly hes rung
(b) 1513 Doug. i v 66.
Quhen … thre wynteris he rungyn has all haill
(c) 1531 Bell. Boece I 199.
He had roung viii yeris
1545 11th Rep. Hist. MSS. App. vi 36.
The kingis … that hes heddertillis roung be just richt of successioun
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 2797.(d) 1531 Bell. Boece II 162.
Eftir that thay had roungin [M. rongin] … mcli yeris
(e) 1596 Dalr. I 151/12.
Quhen he had rougne [48] … ȝeiris
(f) c1610 Melville Mem. 384.
Of thir tua sortis of kingis … Of the first in Scotland, ther hes rong ouer few; and of the last ouer many
(2) c1420 Wynt. viii 1585.
Edward, that that tyme wes ryngnand Kyng wyth the lang schankis in Ingland
Ib. 1643.
Than rygnand Crownyd kyng
1549 Lamb Resonyng 87/24.
Malcolme continewalie and peceablie rang kyng of Scotland quhill his deceis
1626 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 267.
King Robert … quha was than ringinge king
1684 Law Memor. 7.
Oliver Cromwell rang Protector untill the year 1658
(3) fig. 1513 Doug. viii ii 24.
Hornyt ryver, ryngand as lord and kyng Our all the fludis
a1624 Edinb. Univ. MS La. ii 319.
Wertewe as quein scho onlie ringis

b. To ring (abone, abuf, apone, on, our, etc., a people or nation).(1) 1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 1659.
The Romane kingis abone the pepill rang
1533 Bell. Livy I 43/24.
Ane hundreth kingis rignand abone thame quhare thai suld haue bot ane
1549 Compl. 91/21.
Ane cruel tirran ryngand abuf them
a1595 Cullen Chron. Aberd. 35.
Owir kyngis grace, James the Saxt … quha ryngis nowe aboyf ws
(2) 1490 Irland Mir. I 9/16.
Thar rang in hie powere apone the Asserianis xvii kingis
c1515 Asl. MS I 199/5.
And conquest ȝow halely and rang on ȝou and held ȝow in sic thrildome that [etc.]
Ib. 189/16.(3) a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 170.
This gr[a]cius prince Herod trowit suld ringe Oure all Jowry
1513 Doug. iii v 24.
Helenus … Rang kyng our mony citeis in Greik land
1551 Hamilton Cat. 147.
Quhen the Jewis hais nocht a propir king … ringnand ouir thame bot a strangear
1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 266.
Rather desyreing ane stranger to ring and empire over thame than ane native Scottisman
1581 Sempill Sat. P. xliii 62.
Tane fra the stabil ouer Persia to ring

c. With God or Christ as subject. Cf. 7 below. ?1438 Alex. ii Colophon 41.
God … That ringis ane in trinitie
c1450-2 Howlat 474 (A).
Our saluatouris sepulture … Quhar he rais … richtuis to ryng [: king, thing, hyng]
?a1500 Remembr. Passion 704.
Jesu Crist, that levis and ringnis with him in ane or vnite with the Haly Gaist for euire maire
a1500 Rois Garlandis 557.
[Christ] the quhilk rignis now in hevin
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) 197/30.
That sone … is king of kingis, In hevin and erth his majestie ay ringis
c1520-c1535 Nisbet II 170 marg.
Not that Crist sal ryng na mair
1528 Lynd. Dreme 517.
In the heuin impyre … quhare God … Ryngis
1551 Hamilton Cat. 258.
That thow may sa rigne in our hartis be grace, that [etc.]
Arundel MS 261/60.
& me convoy Quhair that thou rignis, o ryall roy
1567 G. Ball. 103.
God … ringand in his throne
1567 Sat. P. v 13.
He that ringis euer moir
1600-1610 Melvill 370.
When yie war in your swadling-cloutes, Chryst Jesus rang friely in this land

2. To exercise authority of any kind; to rule, wield power.Also const. on (apon) or our a people or territory.To rax and ring, see Rax v. 5 (2).(1) pres. a1500 Henr. Fab. 2714.
Thre kynd of wolfis in this warld now rings
Ib. 131. c1475 Wall. i 18.
We reide of ane richt famous … Of worthi blude that ryngis in this regioune
a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 1013.
Thow art vnricht as justice for to ring
1513 Doug. vi xiii 24.
Quharby our kynrent and famyl alswa Sal ryng and lordschip hald
1535 Stewart 1196.
This fatall stone, … Quhair it wes brocht in ony land … the Scottis thair suld ring
1546 Lynd. Trag. Card. 74.
In to this realme no hiear could I ryng Bot I had bene Pape, emperour or kyng
c1560 Stirlings of Keir 415.
I Robert Buchquhanane of Lany that ringis now. … I am cheif of the avld family of Lany
a1578 Pitsc. I 13/9.
Sa lang as the king is ȝoung greit men ringis at thair awin pleasouris
1581 Sat. P. xliv 181.
Smeton, thou grantis the kirk this day to rigne [: ding, maligne]
(b) a1568 Bann. MS 26a/41.
And prowd men that thay ringin not to lang He severit hes
p.t. c1475 Wall. ix 1144.
The Scottis at large throu all Fyff thai rang
1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 423.
Quho rang in court more hie and tryumphand Nor Duke Murdoke
1533 Bell. Livy I 271/2.
Throw thare perpetuale sleuth the tribunis of pepil rang with oure lang auctorite in dammage of the common weil
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 854.
The Scripture makis no mentioun Quhow lang thay rang [sc. Adam and Eve] in that regioun
c1576 Anal. Scot. II 7.
To him Gulielmus Bell succeidit [sc. as bishop] … bot he rang not long
p.p. c1475 Wall. xi 1315.
He has rong lang in contrar my hienace
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 1981.
Quhen one prouince … Had … power imperiall … Abufe all … nationis, … Off quhome I fynd four principall, Quhilk heth rong sen the warld began
(2) 1494 Loutfut MS 5b.
The admirall of richt is ane office that suld ring and be exersit be the sey to war
(3) c1515 Asl. MS I 199/5.
The Danys … rang on ȝou and held ȝow in … thrildome
1513 Doug. i iii 80.
Byd Eolus … Do cloys the presoun of wyndis and tharon ryng
Ib. ii ix 85.
That ryal prince vmquhile our Asya Apon sa feil pepil and realmys alswa Ryngnyt in welth
1609 Garden Garden 70.
Since such a roy Neu'r over thy regions rang
(4) 1533 Gau 98/10.
The deuil … desiris to ringe in vs and to expel thé out of us
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 5235.
One gretar Antechriste to ryng Nor thare hes bene
1567 Sat. P. iv 191.
Gif rubbers ring, na subiect salbe suire
proverb. a1598 Ferg. Prov. MS No. 1387.
The devil rignes in his coble horne that cannot count his awin kinch

3. Of a planet: To be dominant; to hold sway.Also, said of Æolus (or the winds). c1420 Ratis R. 850.
Sum-quhill as constellacions Rignys of generaciouns
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) 111/74.
Mars … Rong in the hevin at thyne nativite
1529 Lynd. Complaynt 8.
Saturnis creueltie Ryngand in my natyuitie
15.. King Berdok 2.
Quhen Phebus rang in sing of Capricorn [etc.]
c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus Prol. 34.
Be sindrie inclinatiounis Of the planeitis ringand vnder the heuin
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) 142/33.
Lord Eolus dois in thy sessone ring

4. With a non-material thing as subject: To have power; to be predominant; to prevail, be prevalent (in/into) a place, community or person); freq., of harmful or evil things.(1) pres. a1400 Leg. S. xxvi 58.
In [to the] nobile land Quhare philosophy wes ryngand
c1420 Ratis R. 1414.
[In the fifth age] ringis the perfeccioune Of resone and discreccioune
a1500 Lanc. 781.
Gawane … In qwhome rignith the flour of cheuelry
c1475 Wall. v 634.
This will nocht graithly be, Amors and wer at anys to ryng in me
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 123 (Asl.).
And than suld … justice ryng with pece & polise
a1500 Bk. Chess 947.
Quhen luf and lawte ryngis thaim amang
c1500 Fyve Bestes 408.
The wertuis foure that in a king suld ryng
a1570-86 Arbuthnot Maitl. F. 50/33.
That cheritie doith ring in none estait
a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 1596 (Wr.).
And blesse Him Whose glore eternall rings
p.t. a1497, 15.. Gray MS iv 110.
In me als lang as ȝouthed rang [etc.]
1535 Stewart 2263.
In his dais rang … Larges … and honestie
(b) 15.. Clar. v 2247.
So the terrestrial fame victoriall Ringit in him of knightlie governance
a1568 Bann. MS 78a/14.
Than ringnit gud rewll and reasone held thair rinkis
(2) a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 499 (Asl.).
The hell In quhilk is … cruell cupidite Till God and ressoun ryngand as rebell
a1500 Bk. Chess 1982.
For in thaim ryngis filth of lichorye
c1515 Asl. MS I 209/2.
To correk the faltis of haly kirk and of errasy quhilk rang … in that realme
1513 Doug. vii Prol. 12.
The frosty regioun ryngis of the ȝer
Ib. x xiii 12.
That sik distres rang amang mortal wightis
1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 526.
Quhat gret mysreule in to this regioun rang
1531 Bell. Boece II 334.
Sic enormiteis hes rogne perpetually in the kirk
a1538 Abell 10*b.
Symony now ryngis in Haly Kyrk patently
1540 Lynd. Sat. 25. 1549 Compl. 26/7.
The calamiteis that ringis presently vitht in ouer realme
a1561 Q. Kennedy Breif Tract. (ed.) 126/14.
Quhat blindnes … ryngis in the hartes of men in thir miserabil days
1567 Sat. P. vii 182. a1568 Bann. MS 86b/58.
Sic rugrie reif ryngis in this regioun
a1568 Scott v 25.
[Abbots of Unreason, etc.] Quhais falsatt, fibilnes and tressone, Hes rung thryis oure this zodiak
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. 41/21.
Thocht that all vycis rang in thair persoun
Id. Maitl. Q. 59/2.
Treasone is the maist schamfull thing That may in onye countrie ring
1558-66 Knox II 367.
The corruptioun that ringes in the synagoge of Sathan
a1578 Pitsc. I 139/8. a1599 Rollock Wks. I 415. 1622-6 Bisset I 21/23.
Quhill darknes rang in … peoples hartis
1638 Henderson Serm. 260.
Atheism … rings in the hearts and lives of many
(3) 1581-1623 James VI Poems I 78/3, 4.
Quhylis ioy rang Quhylis noy rang
(4) 1460 Hay Alex. MS 19658.
Into this realme thair rang a pestilence fell
1502–3 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 97.
The pestilence that hes rongin thir certane yeiris bygane
1531 Bell. Boece II 110. Id. Livy II 259 (B.M.).
A terribill pestilence rang abone the Romanis
1539 Aberd. B. Rec. I 165.
The contagius infeckand pest, callit the boiche, quhilk ryngis in diuerse partis
1554 Knox III 104.
Hunger, pestilence, or weir cuming or appeiring to ring
a1568 Scott xxxi 46.
Aboif the pest and plaig that ringis

5. a. Of an institution, viewed as having duration: To continue to exist, to endure, to last. b. Of a period of time: To continue; to be in existence. c. Of a characteristic: To exist.a. 1494 Loutfut MS 7a.
Quhen the office wes exercet be thaim … the said office rang in rycht gret honour and excellence
a1538 Abell 76b.
He [sc. God] tholis this craft [sc. of witches] ring
b. 1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 1576.
His brether … war maist worthie quhil thair dayis rang
1549 Compl. 43/22.
In thai dais quhen the goldin varld rang
c. 1535 Stewart 3215.
For multitude withoutin vnitie, Lang but discord it can nocht rycht weill be, The quhilk repungis in ane god till ring

6. Of a person: To ring (furth) in, to continue in (a condition or activity, freq. one involving evil or hardship); to persist in.(1) c1475 Wall. ix 206.
In tyranry thus haiff we rongyn lang
Ib. 1879.
In cowatice he had rongyng so lang
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 613 (Asl.).
[It] is profund secret … Quhy Christ … Sufferis opyn synnaris … To ryng in gladnes
c1530-40 Stewart Bann. MS 36b/108.
Thow lykis in lust & ryalte to ring
1556 Lauder Off. Kings 184.
The liegis of the vngodlie kyng In daylie trubbyll thay sall ryng
Id. Minor P. iii 123.
Bewaill, ȝe weked, that in sick vicis rings [: sings]
1567 Sat. P. vii 117.
Thocht scho bewitcheit wald in ruttery ring
1573 Davidson Three Reformers 84.
For quha mair surely into royat rang
(2) c1475 Wall. vi 75.
Bot Wallace furth in till his wer can ryng [: ȝing]
Ib. viii 1359.
Than rang I furth in cruell wer and payn
Ib. x 1062. c1515 Asl. MS I 210/6.
Thairefter rang his son Eduard of Wyndissore furth in his cruelnes

b. To continue to live (in a place); to live; to flourish. c1475 Wall. ix 258.
I wald … no langar in to that realm to ryng, Than to take leyff, and cum off it agayn
1513 Doug. Concl. 9.
The bettir part of me salbe vpheld Abufe the starnys perpetualy to ryng, And heir my naym remane
a1578 Pitsc. I 147/8.
About the same tyme rang money cuning men be quhose labouris … goode letteris flurischit

7. In references to eternal life: To continue to live for ever (with God or Christ) (in bliss, heaven, etc.).Also, once, to ring in Christ).(1) a1500 Henr. Thre Deid Pollis 61 (Bann.).
That … we may ay leif & ring With the hie fader be eternitie
1567 G. Ball. 79.
That we with Him ring euer moir
1584 Perth Hammermen iii fly leaf.
And efter this lyfe endit be To ryng with him eternalie
1599 Rollock Wks. I 295.
With quhom as he ringis now in saul, sa sal his body
?1668 Jervise Epitaphs & Inscriptions I 63/2.
They shall ring with Christ for ay
(2) a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 1294.
Eternaly to ring in glor divyne
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 2124.
That efter this in thy hie blis we ring
Arundel MS 261/53.
Grant me … In hevin with thé to ryng
1567 G. Ball. 52.
To ring with Christ in gloir
a1568 Bann. MS I p. 8/55.
With angellis hie To ring in hevinly lufe and pece
1591 Edinb. Test. XXII 356.
Scho commendit hir saull to God trusting assuredlie to ring with him in his euerlesting kingdome
1595 Ib. XXVIII 356.
1597 Ib. XXXI 55.
I leue my saull to Jesus Chryst to rigne with him in glorie
(3) 1609 Garden Garden 58.
They shall To rest and ring in their Redeemer rise

8. tr. (or ? quasi-tr.). a. To instal as a ruler or governor. c1500 Justiciary Rec. I 154.
The king … quham it plesis the eternall God to ring abone ws
1596 Dalr. I 284/6.
Malcolm … quhome, in hope to rigne, he maid gouernour of Cumbirland

b. To spend (one's) life (in evil). Cf. 6 above. c1475 Wall. xi 1331.
Thow has [1570 thy] lyff rongyn in wrangwis deid

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"Ring v.3". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 24 Feb 2024 <>



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