A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)
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First published 2000 (DOST Vol. VIII).
This entry has not been updated but may contain minor corrections and revisions.
Sal(l, S(c)hal(l, aux. v. Also: sale, sel(l, scal; chall; sol. 2nd pers. sing. (with thow) also sal(l)t. 3rd pers. sing. (once, in Doug.) salt. P.t. suld(e, swld(e, swild, scwld, sould(e, sowld(e, sowlld, (sovuld, swold), seuld, sewld, sald, sud(d, suid, soud, sowd, sold(e; s(c)huld(e, schwld, chuld, (suchuld), s(c)hould, s(c)hold, shud(e, shood. 2nd pers. sing. suldist, -est, (suldelst) (Doug.), souldest (Knox, Pitsc.). 3rd pers. pl. sulden, -yn, schulden (Doug.). [Early ME sæl, sel (Layamon), sal (Bestiary), north. and north midl. ME sal(l (Cursor M.), 2nd pers. sing. also salt (Cursor M.), pl. early ME sale (Owl & Nightingale), north. ME sal (Cursor M.), early ME sulen (c1175), sollen (Layamon), p.t. early ME sollde (Orm), sulde (Bestiary), north. suld(e, sould, sud, salde (Cursor M.), 2nd pers. sing. also suldes (Gen. & Ex.), ME and e.m.E. pres. 1st and 3rd pers. sing. schal (Owl & Nightingale), shal(l (Orm), ssal, schel, 2nd pers. sing. shallt (Orm), schalt (a1225), etc., shal (a1400), pl. sholen (c1300), shuln (Piers Plowman), etc., shule (Orm), etc., p.t. sholde, sholte (K. Horn), sschulde (14th c.), shuld (Wyclif), schude (Pecock), chuld (1471), should (1515), etc., OE preterite-present strong verb sceal, sculon, sc(e)olde: cf. MDu. sal, sullen, solde. Cf. also the reduced variant, S1 b and Is, Thous, etc.]The following also occur written as one word: salbe, salbehald, salber, salcum, salhappin, salhave, and (only in Doug.) suldbe: cf. late ME selbe (1458–9), late ME and e.m.E. shalbe (c1400).S(c)hal(l, s(c)huld(e, etc. are found chiefly in anglicised or late texts.An auxiliary and modal verb with the infin. of the main verb without to: Shall, will; should would; etc.
A. pres. Shall.In various senses, the reference may be either to a single future action, immediate or delayed, or to action extending through an indefinite future.
1. In a question asking for a decision as to which of several possible courses of action is most appropriate or expedient: Should, ought. = B 10 d. 1562-3 Winȝet I 4/32.
Bot quhidder sal we begin ȝour commendation … at ȝour haly lyfes, or at ȝoure helthful doctrine, we ar doutsum
2. In stating necessity or inevitability or a necessary condition: Must, must needs, will have to. a1500 Henr. Fab. 2667 (Bann.).
Off his awin deid ilk man salbeir the pais c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 186/36 (B).
Ȝit to the iuge thow sall gif compt of all 1607 Bk. Carlaverock I 307 (see A 6 h below).
3. In instructions or commands or statements of what is appointed or agreed or is in accordance with the law. a. In the second person, virtually equivalent to an imperative.Ȝe sall understand or wit, = Understand, know, in expositions.(1) 1375 Barb. ii 118.
On this maner weile wyrk thou may: Thow sall tak Ferrand my palfray a1400 Leg. S. xxvii 1348.
Bot ȝet sall thu duell in this stede Thre ȝere in Godis corne to wirk ?1438 Alex. ii 2141.
And ȝe thre damysellis sall bere Cumpany to this bachelere c1420 Wynt. viii 6679. a1500 Henr. Fab. 2047.
And ȝe sall follou ane lytill efterwart And gadder hering, for that sall be ȝour part a1500 Seven S. 1172, 1173.
Ȝe sall remane Quhill somere & I sall with ȝow ga 1513 Doug. iii vi 68.
I sall thé schaw takynnys tharof ful meit, Quhilkis thou sal hald within thi mynd secreit 1530 Crim. Trials I i 145.
Justice clerk … , ȝe sall geif to him [etc.] 1533 Gau 9/4.
Thou sal notht tak the nayme of God inuane 1549 Compl. 48/26.
Ȝe sal ymagyn ane lyne that passis throucht the spere [etc.] 1558 Q. Kennedy Tractive 107.
Gif thare ryse ane mater to hard for thé in jugement … than sall thow aryis … and cum unto [etc.] 1559 in Knox I 395.
To quham ye sall gif creddeit 1560 Rolland Seven S. 3351.
Thairfoir ȝe sall in all times furth to cum Gif hir na faith a1578 Pitsc. I 91/10.
Ȝe sall dyne and we sall talk together Ib. 309/8. 1583 Waus Corr. 27.
Cusyng commisser, forsamykill as ye sall nocht faill to insert this contrat [etc.] … and this ye faill nocht as my traist is in yow 1607 Sc. Ant. XV 141.
Ye sall caus my mother send me twa pair of soillis to my hois(b) 1542 State P. (Reg. H.) No. 30a.
Ȝe sell informe the King of Ingland … of [etc.] 15.. Misc. Spald. C. II 191.
Secundly ye sel schaw our said cousing [etc.](c) 1513 Doug. iii vi 111.
And the left syde lang salt thou … Cyrkil(2) 1513 Doug. Comm. i iv 41.
Ȝe sall ondirstand Virgill in all partis of his proses, quhat maner [etc.] 1531 Bell. Boece II 515.
Heir sall youre grace understand how [etc.] c1520-c1535 Nisbet III 323/19.
Sallt 1543 Corr. M. Lorraine 46.
Madame, your grace sall wnderstand [etc.] 1568 Q. Mary in Facs. Nat. MSS III lviii. 1569-73 Bann. Memor. 173.
And caused one to wryt on this maner: ‘Willie, thow sall wit that I am haill [etc.]’(b) 1617 Aberd. Council Lett. I 144.
Ye schall schaw the provest that [etc.]
b. In the third person: Is to, are to.(1) In direct or indirect speech with the verb of the main clause in the future present (active or passive) or perfect tense. (2) In indirect speech with the verb of the main clause in the past tense, but with future reference of the predicate of which sal(l is the operator. (3) In the phrase it salbe leful (lesum).(1) c1360 Facs. Nat. MSS II xix.
Cum omni genere bladi crescentis in dicta terra … quod molent [gl. that thai sal grind] pro sustentacione sua Ib.
Dicti eciam Edmundus [etc.] … edificia … construi [gl. be made] facient [gl. sal ger] competencia 1387 Edinb. Chart. 36.
The qwilke werke the forsaide masounys sal warande watir thicht 1399 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 6.
Sale 1405 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 200.
That the saide Erle of Mar hase gifin his … consent that the saide Schir Dauid [etc.] … sal hafe … the lordeschip of Caueris 1409 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 72. 1420 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 182.
Alsua it is accordit that our lord the governour sall giff [etc.] 14.. Acts I 24/2.
Na man bot a burges sall by woll to lytt Ib. 351/2.
Gif it happinis a presoner to be takin … he salbe at the command of the wardane 1442 Aberd. B. Rec. I 9.
The smythes and hammermen sal fynd the three kingis of Culane 1456 Hay I 149/28.
The doctour concludis that the man of armes sall byde and serve his lorde 1457 Acts II 47/2.
The causis that the Lordis of the Sessione sall knaw apone a1500 Henr. Fab. 2048 (see a (1) above). 1478 Acta Conc. I 16/1.
Sale 1487 Aberd. B. Rec. I 42. 1488 Reg. Paisley 406.
And gif thir persons thinkis expedient to chese other twa persons … thai sal have leyffe to ches thaim 1504 Edinb. Chart. 188.
We … grantis that thar sall na cryme be imput to thame thairthrou 1513 Doug. ii xi 55.
Lytil Julus salbeir me cumpany 1528 St. P. Henry VIII IV 500.
Send certaine discrete personis … to the Bordouris, quhar our commissionaris salcum and meit for … new tretting of peax 1531 Reg. Soltre 104.
He sall find ane man that can and sall hald the plewch 1540 Lynd. Sat. 1443, Stage Direction (B).
Heir sall thay harle Chestety to the stokkis and scho sall say [etc.] 1585–6 Reg. Privy C. IV 42.
Aganis the lawis … maid … ordaning that the saids magistratis salbe yeirlie exchangeit and [etc.] 1594 Bk. Univ. Kirk III 823.
That the samein barrons sall not be licentiat to returne home againe to the saids north parts 1606 Peebles Gleanings 11.
That ordour be takin quhat salbe the price [etc.] 1633 Elgin Rec. II 225. 1671 Forbes Baron Ct. 288. 1671 Edinb. B. Rec. X 109.
Sall 1673 Ib. 145.(b) 1437 Reg. Dunferm. 285.
And thai sel kepe the wateris lauchfully … , Alsua nan sell pind vthir vnlauchfully 1527 Carnwath Baron Ct. (SHS) 63.
He sell ansuer to the laird of Jariswod(c) 1560 Bk. Disc. 215.
In the first [college] shalbe ane classe of dialecticque ?1570–2 Facs. Nat. MSS III lxii.
Soche as ar dispossessed shalbe restored to thair landis … rowmes and possessiouns withoute alteratioun 1574 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 16.
Admonition wes gewen … [that they] shal reteyne them those dayes at theyr lessonis 1648 Misc. Maitl. C. II 467.
That they will lett know … who shall be generall 1671 Goudie Shetl. Antiq. 235.
[The baillie] sall use all means [etc.] … and that he shall use all endevour [etc.] 1673 Cramond Kirk S. II 15 June.
He shall lift up the small teynds of Nether Cramond 1675 Edinb. B. Rec. X 215.
The said tenement … shall be layable in no more annuitie then according to the rent 1694 Old Ross-shire I 89.
That all heretors, life renters, wadsetters, heads … of clans shall find caution [etc.](d) 1385 Rot. Sc. II 73/2.
That day that chuld be halden the xix day of Averill chall be chot to the xv day of May(2) 1486 Aberd. B. Rec. in Misc. Spald. C. V 30.
It was ordanit … that Thome Gray … sal cum in his lynnyne clathis this next Sonday … bair fute [etc.] 1513 Ib. (Sp. C.) I 87. 1531 Bell. Boece II 277.
King Malcolm … gaif to Makduf … iii privilegis: first that the Erle of Fif sal croun the king Ib.
It was ordanit … that fre baronis sall mak jebattis(b) a1650 Row 130.
It was concluded … that he shall be lowsed fra the said sentence(3) 1427 Wemyss Chart. 53.
It salbe leyffull to the said Jone … to make [etc.] 1536 Dunferm. B. Rec. I 17.
It salbe lesum to ony gild … to tak the said gudis fra the said James 1564 Stirling B. Rec. I 82.
In that caice it sall nocht be levesum to that persone to be servit as na air 1587 Aberd. Trades App. 332.
It sall be liesom to the said craftismen to choise [etc.] 1632 Aberd. B. Rec. III 47.
Quhan any stair … salhappin to fall … it sall nawayis be lesume to the heretour [etc.](b) 1606 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 54.
Except allanerlie that it shal be lesum to fyve or sex … of the speciall freyndis of the defunct to be present at the lyk walk
c. In indirect questions complementing verbs of instructing, informing or knowing. a1500 Bernardus 257.
How sal thow byg castel towne or toure This clerk he kennys 14.. Maner of Battale 226.
Heir techis us Vigeis … how battale within listis salbe governit 1511 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 107.
Your lordschipe man … send me vord quhat I sale do tharto 1533 Gau 8/9.
The Pater noster leris al man quhow thay sal … get that same help 1543 Corr. M. Lorraine 47.
Beseikand your grace to schaw … the berar quhat we sall lyppin to 1544 Hamilton P. II 385. 1560 Rolland Seven S. 423.
I can not tell trewlie How our scoller examit weill salbe 1649 Wemyss Chart. 231.
This is my uill, quhaitt sall bei doune uith my bodei clothes quhain itt sall bei Heis blist uill to kaill mei from thes leif
4. Expressing the speaker's intention or determination that the event stated shall take place or the state of affairs described shall obtain; used in promises, threats and other assertions. a. In the first person.Often little more than an expression of the intentional nature of the action and thus virtually equivalent to a simple future auxiliary. Cf. also A 5 a.sing. 1375 Barb. i 156.
Gyff thow will hald in cheyff off me … I sall do swa thow sall be king Ib. ix 28.
I sall thole a quhile & se On quhat wys that thai pruwe thar mycht a1400 Leg. S. ix 229.
Fore thu dyd the apostilis bydynge … Of the bandis I sal louse thé Ib. l 596.
Fra His luf I neuirmare sall Be departyt ?1438 Alex. ii 2741.
Bot gif that I may … Leif, … Ȝit sall I [F. Je vodrai] athir wyn or tyne c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 6/60.
Thy name I sall ay nevyne 1540 Lynd. Sat. 1942.
Theif loun, I sall slay thé 1549 Compl. 12/29.
I sall apply ane exempil conformand to this samyn purpose 15.. Wyf Awcht. 20.
I salbe hussy gif I may c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 320.
Vpon the grene Befoir ten houris I salbe sene Ib. 969.
Pas and seik ane dispensatioun Than sall I wed ȝow with ane ring 15.. Clar. i 279.
I cry ȝow mercie flour of gentilnes As I that sall … ȝow serve a1568 Scott xxiii 39.
I sall awysit be Or I hir luve agane Ib. xxvii 25.
Will scho absent, Hyne sall I went a1570-86 Maitl. F. 364/152.
Sweit hairt … Found sall I neuer this forrest fro Quhill ȝe me confort kyth a1599 Rollock Wks. I 303.
Opponing thy self to deith saying I will not die and I sall not die 1600 Sc. Hist. Rev. XXXVI I 7.
Alwayes stay, my lord duik, and I sall gang up and get your lordschip the veritie … thairof 1619 in Calderwood VII 364.
Ye are but a gouke, sir; I sall fasten your feete, sir 1662 Crim. Trials III 608.
[The witch says] I sall goe intill a craw(b) a1400 Leg. S. xxi 622.
Off this matere now no mare I tel, Bot to the story twrne I sel Of sancte Clement 1539 Aberd. B. Rec. I 159.
I sell leid thé to the place for the freir swewyt thé c1600 Montg. Suppl. v 20.
For luf I sell nocht say ‘ales!’(c) 1518 Elphinstone Mun. 191/1.
I … Archibalde Erle of Angwissche … schall not … keipe her [sc. the Queen's] courtis, nor medle in the same 1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 35.
To cheis ane of ws … vnder quhais counsale … wee schall fecht Ib. 161.
As we schall eftir schaw 1565 Q. Mary in Facs. Nat. MSS III lvii.
Efter your nixst aduertissement Y schal vreit furader 1588 Cal. Sc. P. IX 648.
[I] shalbe verie laithe … to lippin ether my denner or soupper to that maiter in caice I should die for hungar 1629 Bk. Carlaverock II 114.
Give your lordship doe, I shall chalange yow for wnkindnes 1636 Fam. Innes 225.
Lat them call in my name att Mr. Wm. Settone … I schall laue derections by himpl. ?1438 Alex. ii 4982.
Quhill I leif, We sal be freindis 1401 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 8.
Send vs word & we sal late hym wit c1475 Wall. i 310.
Will God I leiffe, we sall ws wreke on part Ib. viii 44.
In lyff or dede in faith him sall we haiff Or ger him [etc.] Ib. ix 816.
In Elchoch park … we … gert feill Sothron de … ; So sall we her a1500 Bk. Chess 518.
Or of ȝow lordis sall we no man saif 1558 Q. Kennedy Tractive 107.
And first sall we considder that [etc.] 1560 Rolland Seven S. 3280.
We sall be blyith, and mak mirrie … For [etc.]
b. In the second person.Sometimes in ambiguity with A 3 a.(a) 1375 Barb. v 247.
Sen … That thow sic ȝarnyng has to ga Thow sall pas furth with my blyssing a1400 Leg. S. ii 253.
Lene [me] thi curch … And thu sall haf it in schort space ?1438 Alex. ii 3154.
For gif I leif in liege pouste, Thow sall of him weill vengit be Ib. 4092. c1475 Wall. ix 139.
Stryk, doggis, ye sall de a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 35.
Fantastik fule, trest weill thow salbe fleyit 1550–1 Corr. M. Lorraine 347.
Ye sall find that I sall gippart my lyfe in your service 1560 Rolland Seven S. 3412.
Thy falset thow sall rew … For the greit leis thow did inuent … With this same knife I sall cut out thy gorge Ib. 8956.
Ȝe sall richt wonder welcum be And weill intreit(b) 1540 Lynd. Sat. 3616 (B).
And ȝe sell se ws sone degraid thame c1600 Montg. Suppl. v 5.
King Cupaid … , Thow sell nocht hurtt this hairtt of myne Ib. xxxiii 95.(c) ?1438 Alex. ii 7106.
[For] that thow me lufes steidfastly Of the thrid thow salt be Lord and ledar and with thé Sall be weill neir fyftene thowsand 1513 Doug. xi xvi 31.
Ne salt thou not that schame suffir, trast me 1540 Lynd. Sat. 1948 (B).
Lowp or … thow salt [Ch. sall] lois thy heid a1568 Scott xxxvi 77.
This sacrifice than thow salt have Off thy just pepill(d) c1420 Wynt. i 938 h. of ch. (R).
Next schall yhe wyt on qwhat kyn wiis [etc.] Ib. ii 144 h. of ch.
Off Abrahame now schall [C. sal] yhe here 1655 Sc. N. & Q. 2 Ser. VI 43.
There is no landis that I have that can be spairit but you shall haue it
c. In the third person.(a) 1375 Barb. v 166 (C).
Bot and I lif in lege pouste, Thair ded sall rycht weill vengit be a1400 Leg. S. xxvii 1341.
Quhateuire it be … That quhemfull be to ȝou to do … It sall be done 1416 Red Bk. Menteith I 286.
As the berare of this letter … sale lat yhow wit a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 1042.
Sall neuer sege … se me with schame a1500 Henr. Fab. 937.
My celsitude … With micht and mercie myngit sall be ay a1500 K. Hart 487. c1500-c1512 Dunb. Flyt. 69.
Throw all Bretane it salbe blawin owt How [etc.] 1513 Doug. ii xi 54.
Apon my schuldris I sal thé beir … Quhat euer betyde … Salbe common … to ws baith 1533 Boece 99.
Of this mater mare largelie sal efterwart be tretit c1552 Lynd. Mon. 3084.
It sall nocht be; no wourdis Sall gar me passe frome my purpose 1562-3 Winȝet I 2/24.
Quhen thair apperit ane daingerous seditioun in Edinburgh, … as efter sall follow a1605 Montg. Flyt. 351 (T).
Thy gall and thy gwisorne to the glaidis salbe gevin 1600 Facs. Nat. MSS III lxxvi.
For my awin part he sall knaw of all that I do 1619 Innes Sketches 521.
Bot it salbe sent with the nixt berar, God willing 1624 Aberd. Council Lett. I 223.
He sall have my mailles of Ferryhill to help him 1662 Crim. Trials III 607.
I knok this ragg … To raise the wind … It sall not lye vntill I please againe(b) c1600 Montg. Suppl. v 15.
In spaitt of thé itt selbe sene, Fra leuff I sell leif ever fre Ib. xxix 80.
My trest Sell ever be in hem(c) 1513 Doug. ii Prol. 11.
Bot followand Virgil … Ane othir wys now salt that bell berong(d) a1500 Lanc. 2211.
Bot thus shal pas no mo bot as yhow lest 1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 36.
And quhilk of thame ȝe think maist proffittabill schalbe plesand to ws 1544 Douglas Corr. 153.
My faithfull mynde the wiche shall indure the tym that I have to leve a1585 Polwart Flyt. 68 (H).
Sitt thow this chairge, I will assuire thé The second shalbe [T. salbe] something sairer c1616 Hume Orthog. 7.
The voual is judged be the sound, as shal be shaued hereafter 16.. R. Gordon in Macfarlane's Geog. Coll. II 397.
As shalbe sayd
d. In clauses of purpose. 1375 Barb. i 156.
I sall do swa thow sall be king c1420 Wynt. iv 967, 968.
I sall … Hald off were oure inymyis That we sall welle excus oure name And yhe sall sauffe be fra defame 1531 Bell. Boece II 136.
And that the noblis of Scotland sal be mair mindful of this present lyig, to the King of Scotlandis armes … was eikit [etc.] 1533 Gau 22/18.
We suld dant the body onder the spreit that it sal noth lewe as it desiris bot efter the wil of God 1540 Lynd. Sat. 3369.
I gif … To divers … lords ane ȝeirlie pensioun To that intent that thay … sal plainlie tak my part 1571 Ferg. Serm. iii Malachi in 1563-72 Tracts 71.
God willis it not so bot that ȝe salbe seruit be the ministerie of men
5. In expressions of undertaking or commitment, in contracts, oaths or the like. a. In the first person.A contextual use of A 4 a above.(a) c1379 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 1.
I sall gif hym my charter vndir my seyll 1388 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 12.
We haf heft trevly we sal manteyn hir [etc.] c1400 Troy-bk. i 122.
Say to thy kynge We sall fulfill all hys bydding 1474 Fam. Innes 82.
We … sal leli and trewly defend [etc.] 1486 Stirlings of Keir 255.
I or thai sall entyre and lauchfoully infeyft … the said Wylȝhame [etc.] 1527 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 307.
Be it kend … ws … to be bundin … in faithfull manrent [etc.] … And sal gife thame our … trew and best counsail 1550 Lochwinnoch Par. 18.
We sall content and pay [etc.] 1613 Glasgow Merchants House 112.
I sall mak concord quhair discord is … I sall give my leill … judgment [etc.]. … Swa help me God 1673 Sc. N. & Q. 1 Ser. XII 169.
I sall governe no unfrieman's guids under colour of my own. I sall scott, lott [etc.](b) 1501 Moncreiffs 58.
And gef I dar nocht … impyng my scaid lordis deshonour … I scal warn hem tharof
b. In the third person, where the commitment is that of the protagonist.Sometimes in ambiguity with A 3 b (1), but not the same as A 4 c, where the intention is that of the speaker. 1391 Lennox Mun. 43.
That Schir Murthow … sal haue to wife Isabel … and sal indow hir in the barony of [etc.] 1395 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 4.
That the forsayd Robert sal resyng vp al his rychtis … in our lord the kyngis handis 1399 Holyrood Chart. 113.
Gif the fiffe mark … mai be recuverit … therfore it sall be likand to the said Davy … that [etc.] 1402 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 54.
That the said Alexander is oblyst … that … the said Alexander or his ayris sale fulli … deliver [etc.] 1443 Highland P. II 179.
Sal 1465 Colquhoun Chart. 292.
It is … accordit … that als soune as … our souuerane lord the king set his justice are in Dunbertane the said Robert Lorde Fleming salcum thare … withoute ony impediment or stopping 1469 Ayr Friars Pr. Chart. 51.
The said … convent sall do … yerly … placebo and dirige 1482–3 Acts XII 31/2.
Sal 1520–1 Peebles Chart. 50.
It is … appontit and concordit betwix honorable men … the said Schir Patrik sall indot … certane landis … to ane altar … in the parisch kirk 1549 Sutherland Bk. III 110.
[They] sall aduertis wtheris thairof be thame selff or sum mediattis 1566 Misc. Maitl. C. I 45. 1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 94.
And [she] sall never mary nane uther husband
6. In predictive statements, where the events predicted are seen as independent of the volition of the speaker or of the protagonist.Sometimes in ambiguity with earlier senses.
a. In the second person.(a) 1375 Barb. iv 656.
With-in schort tyme ȝe sall be king a1500 Seven S. 2588.
The child said, Fader … Scho syngis … That ȝe sall me the basyng hald [etc.] … The fader thairof said, Thow sall le c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 159/38.
In hevin ȝe salbe sanctis full cleir Thocht ȝe be knavis in this cuntre 1513 Doug. vi ii 157.
So at the last, of Stix the cayrful schaw … Thou salbehald Ib. vii v 92.
Nevir Heccuba … Was deliuer of sik flambis … As thou salber Ib. xiii ii 88.
And Lavinia … to me as spous in hy Sal [Sm. sald] ȝeld lynnage to ryng perpetualy c1520-c1535 Nisbet Mark xi 2.
Ye sal [P. schulen] find a colt bundin 1551 Hamilton Cat. 32.
Cursit and wariit sall thow be. … Thow salbe cursit comand in and gangand furth 1567 Sat. P. iii 133.
God to ȝow will rais sum Josuay, Quhilk sall ȝour bairnies gar sing wallaway 1591 Crim. Trials I ii 251.
Weill, madin, haif ȝe lattin this be done? Ȝe sall repent itt a1595 Misc. Spald. C. II xxx.
With this rub your heid and ye salbe eisit 1598 Melvill Propine 148.
Thou thy paines sall neuer repent: … Thou'll think it nathing to that glore Whilk thou with me sall ay injoy, When lust hir lykers sall destroy(b) a1500 Henr. Age & Yowth 42 (Bann.).
For thy cramping thow salt baith cruke and cowre 1513 Doug. iii vi 167.
Law within a cavern Thar salt thou fynd the godly prophetes Ib. vi ii 27.
b. In the third person.(a) 1375 Barb. iv 709.
Bot me think it war gud maistri Till ony astrolog to say, This sall fall her & on this day Ib. ix 2 (C).
Douglas, that sall haf litil rest Till the cuntre deliuerit be a1400 Leg. S. iii 364.
Ane of ȝou betrese me sall 1456 Hay I 15/13.
The sevyn angelis signifyis the sevin partis of the tyme that the warld sall lest c1460 Wisd. Sol. (STS) 209.
Quha ledis man to sik knawlege that he knawis the thing that sal be in tyme to cum? a1500 Henr. Abbay Walk 11.
Thy kindome … Sall nocht indure … Bot as the wind will wend away a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 277.
Or he be strenyeit … Mony ledis salbe loissit 1513 Doug. iii ii 96.
Our navy salt [Sm. sall] … The thrid morow be at the cost of Crete Ib. xi xvi 30.
Nor this thy slauchter but ramemberyng Amang all pepill sall not be Id. Direct. 114.
Perchans that wark [sc. translating Ovid] sall occupy thame a quhile c1520-c1535 Nisbet I 3, etc. a1568 Bann. MS 83a/103.
This tyme sall haif ane end, that tyme sall nevir faill 1570 Sat. P. xiv 95.
Now sall appeir … Quha is the trew man, quha is the trature … The trew liege … salbe kend a1570-86 Maitl. F. 173/127.
Thir sawis … Quhair euir thow hapnis for to be … It sall thé richt gritlie amend a1585 Maitl. Q. 275/13.
Lang sal he liue 1587-99 Hume 35/47. Ib. 37/106 (see (b) below). 1649 Wemyss Chart. 231 (see 3 c above). 1662 Crim. Trials III 607.
I shoot yon man in the divellis name, He sall nott win heall hame! … Thair sall not be an bitt of him on lieiw!(b) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 235.
Nor the Troyiens the toune shall tyn Whyle at that token is with-in a1500 Lanc. 115.
Al magre thine a seruand schal yow bee 1567 G. Ball. 15.
Quha will beleif … Thay salbe saif, and neuer mair shall dee 1570 Bann. Memor. 62.
The howlat sall leid the beir to his baine. The court of England … Shall shortlie be brocht to confusioune [etc.] 1581-1623 James VI Poems I 3/13.
And after thee none worthier shalbe seene c1590 Fowler I 29/88.
c. In the first person. 1549 Compl. 130/18.
Quhen the committaris of trason ar tryit furtht it sal be fundyn that I [etc.] … sal be clene and innocentis of that foule cryme a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. 337/18.
To reid … the holie writt Trew knawlege sall I get in it Id. Ib. 337/13. 1568 Anderson Collect. Mary IV i 117.
Quhome, I take God to witnes, I have luiffit als dearly as evir I did, or sall, any levand creature a1578 Pitsc. II 89/28.
Ȝour lordschip sall sie … that I sall mak eassie passage to ȝone castell 1671 Short Testimony Concerning Catherine Allardes.
Its like I shal be but little believed by the benighted world
d. In a statement of the result that is predicted to follow the fulfilment or non-fulfilment of a condition expressed in an accompanying clause of contingency.For some further examples, see A 9 a and b below. a1400 Leg. S. vii 414.
Will thu in hym trew … , But dowt he sal gyf thé thi hele ?1438 Alex. i 466.
Say to our nobill king of micht, Bot he vs helpe … He sall not sie vs on lyfe leuand Ib. ii 3780.
Quhen it lykes to Venus … I sall haue lemmen c1420 Ratis R. 1561.
Bot quhay sa leffis eftirwart Sall fynd to wytnes weil my part c1420 Bute MS fol. 141.
And gyf thu be the man that that felon ref nytys he this said A. … sal ger it be provit apon thé a1500 Lanc. 3210.
And if it so befell … In his defalt … , This warld sal have hyme vtraly defamyt 1513 Doug. iv x 85.
Thou salt onon behald the seys large All ombeset with toppyt schyp … Gyf quhil to morow tary in this land thou wald c1520-c1535 Nisbet Luke xix 40.
For gif thir salbe still, staanys sol [P. schulen] cry 1567 G. Ball. 1.
Bot quhen thay heir it sung into thair vulgar toung … then sal thay lufe thair Lord God c1580 Waus Corr. 541.
Ye subscryfand this letir, the lard sall geif you ane wdir of his that [etc.] 1628 Aberd. Council Lett. I 289.
Howbeit ye stay some two or thrie dayes and kyth in that action as commissionar … it sall not be amiss
e. In a statement of the result predicted to follow the fulfilment of a condition stated or implied in the context. ?1438 Alex. i 2345.
This [turn of events] is weill like That all the war sall ouris be a1500 Seven S. 1106.
Lat me in or I sall de 1531 Bell. Boece II 516.
All thir properteis sal be patent in reding the livis of gud and evil kingis Ib.
The deploration of thair calamite sall move the redaris to imitatioun of virtew c1550 Lynd. Test. Meldrum 73.
Quho list to knaw … Let thame go reid the legend of my life; Thair sall thai find [etc.] 1598 James VI Basil. Doron 113/4.
But … ye sall be this uyse forme of doing escheu the inconuenientis that … I fell in 1600 Bk. Arran II 101.
[The effect of which … would be that] the haill cuntrey salbe disquyetit be the insolence of that clan
f. In a sentence or clause of result introduced by an adverbial or adverbial conjunction of consequence or result, as sa, thareby, sa … that, that, etc.Chiefly following the sentence or clause which expresses the condition from which the result follows. a1400 Leg. S. xxvii 1346.
Thu … blissit is For-thi … with me Sall hewynlik are & falow be Ib. xxxvi 1094.
Thu sal gere sla al thai … That in presone I gert be done, Sa sal Juda haf sorow sowne ?1438 Alex. ii 4979.
We sall for fyue dayis treux ta … , Throw freindis help sa get sall we Ib. 10113.
That he … sic martyr on thame hes maid That mony ane madin but held salbe 1456 Hay II 89/11.
And syne that he speke wele avisitly till his awin peple. … And thus sall he be … lufit 1513 Doug. iii iv 92.
For … hungir sal ȝe stand in sik state … That with ȝour chaftis to gnaw ȝe salbe fane 1531 Bell. Boece I xxv.
Thow sall find thaim … sa fowsumlie growin … that thay sall appeir als uncouth … as [etc.] c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 5988.
Refusand thame ȝe me refusit … Tharefor ȝe sall [etc.] 1567 G. Ball. 44.
Jesus … chargeit thame … That lufe amang thame suld incres, For thairby it sall cum to lycht That ȝe ar my disciplis rycht Ib. 203.
For I sall bring downe … Thair pryde … Than cleirly sall my word be schawin And all thair falset salbe knawin c1590 Fowler II 74/21.
So that … thow sal have these for enimyes quhome thow hes vexed … Nather yet sal thow retene … these for freinds [etc.] 1593 Cochran-Patrick Coinage I 264.
Thomas Foullis hes fund the meinis how that sowme sall be preserved
g. In a clause introduced by and, which states a consequence of what is stated in the preceding co-ordinate clause. ?1438 Alex. ii 2838.
Thay will ishe furth to vs sone And we sall fle … Quhill [etc.] c1420 Ratis R. 1089.
My sone, do as I say, And it sal lyk thé c1420 Wynt. v 2831.
To the byschope Sylvestyr … Thow send and he sall informe thé [etc.] a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 1560 (Arund.).
Schaw weill in werk & … Thow sall in hevin be euir lawreat a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 396.
I sall dyng thé … And thou sal lik thy lippis [etc.] 1522 Acta Conc. MS XXXIII 18.
The lordis … ordanis … to call the said Williame and Janet thairfor and justice salbe minsterit as efferis 1600 Facs. Nat. MSS III lxxvi.
The kingis hwnting vill be schortly, and than sall be best tyme
h. In a co-ordinate sentence with or (ellis) as the co-ordinating conj., with sall as the operator of the verb in both clauses.In which the clause following or (ellis) states a consequence of ignoring a condition stated in the preceding clause. 1607 Bk. Carlaverock I 307.
I sall ather be furthe of the castell this nycht, or ellis sall loise my lyiff
i. In a (chiefly post-posed) sentence or clause of reason or explanation introduced by for or another conjunction. a1400 Leg. S. vii 539.
I ma sum thynge Do that may be lykyne; For it sal ese gyf Ib. xii 33.
Throv hyme sal al his kyn be lorne, Fore he sal be a bysyne man c1460 Wisd. Sol. (STS) 207.
He said that … he fand nathinge bettir to man na to mak gud chere of the gudis he wynis … quhill he is heire fore na mar sal he ber away with hyme 1531 Bell. Boece II 515.
For sic thingis sal nocht onely move yow to imitation of virtew bot sall [etc.] 1560 Rolland Seven S. 1568.
Sall c1590 Fowler II 146/16.
To adhere vnto the one of these two be reasoun that thow salt occasion thairby [etc.]
7. a. In noun clauses dependent on verbs and equivalent expressions of affirming, promising, undertaking; believing, knowing, trusting, and the like, in senses A 4-6.With future reference, whether the main clause verb is in the present tense or, less frequently, a past tense.(1) 1375 Barb. v 67.
I say ȝow sekyrly Thar sall na perell that may be Dryve me eftsonys to the se a1400 Leg. S. xxxvi 1090.
Sa treuly thu hicht me til My byding that thu sal fulfil 1381 Douglas Chart. 29.
We lely heichtis & grantis … that in case gif [etc.] … that our … systir … sall at hir lykyng entir … all hir thrid of the landes ?1438 Alex. ii 2270.
Ane vthir grant heir mak I thé … That I sall lufe thé all-thir first Ib. 5177.
Ȝe sall be lousit, I tak on hand 1456 Hay I 189/22.
He sais … that the tyme salcum that thare salbe bot a pastour and a schepe faulde c1475 Wall. viii 47. Ib. xi 816, 1364. 1508 Aberd. Sheriff Ct. I 71.
Ande Thomas Strachin … come lawborrouys [etc.] … that the said Johnne Broys salbe unskaithtit of the said Alexander [etc.] 1531 Bell. Boece II 515.
Thairfore … I dare baldly afferme na othir besines sall be mair fruitfull to your hienes [etc.] Id. Livy I 125/8.
Gif me ȝoure handis & faith that the adulterare and deforsare of me sall nocht leif vnpunyst 1545 Stirling Ant. IV 204.
John Cowane and Wm. Loury obleist them that the gudes … to be loissit at this instant tyme sal be unsuspect 1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 225.
Hys gres has sad that we sall be na lesars c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 760.
I mak ane vow That Scotland salbe quyte of ȝow 1568 Q. Mary in Facs. Nat. MSS III lviii.
I am resolut … that thai sal find na thing in preiudice of my honour 1585 Bk. Carlaverock I 264.
We … willis and declairis that this our reuocatioun salhaue als grite effect [etc.] 1639 Peebles Gleanings 201.
Charles Cleg drummer … hes enactit himself … to do the towne service … and that he sall never absent himself [etc.](b) 1518 Elphinstone Mun. 191/1.
I … promitte … that … I sall not … medle witht [etc.] … no schall receiue [etc.] a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 1109 (Wr.).
I pledge, ere all the play bee plaid, That some shall lose a laike 1662 Forbes Baron Ct. 230.
John Donaldson hes inacted him selff … that … he shall leiwe peiceblie(2) 1375 Barb. iv 653 (C).
Bot wit ȝhe weill … That … Thair sal no mycht … Ger ȝow furth pas of this cuntre ?14.. Ship Laws c. 21 (B).
Qwhyl at thai wate at thai sal turne hame in thair awyn land c1475 Wall. xi 466.
I think als sa God … me saiff At my twa handis sall graith thé to thi graiff 1513 Doug. vi xv 6.
I trast, forsuyth, heirefter mony ane Sal hew quyk facis furth of marbil stane 1533 Bell. Livy I 132/16.
That thai beleve all empire of kingis sall fynys … als sone as the Tarquynis ar put away 1560 Rolland Seven S. 1159.
Nor I wait not quhat frute thairof sall spring 1568 Anderson Collect. Mary IV i 123.
And quhat we sall lippin to in this matter, desyris maist humlie ȝouire heynes answir 1577 Fam. Innes 132.
Gif my brudir levis, as I traist in God he sall a1578 Pitsc. II 74/14.
I knaw that the saull of that man sall never sleip bot ewer sall leif ane imortall lyffe 15.. Crawford Mun. Invent. II 60.
My lord lippynnis in yow that na thing sall gange wrange in all behalffis; thairfoir schawe your craft 1615 Lett. & St. P. Jas. VI 258.
No man lippinis he sall leif a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 1021.
Knaw before quhat sall come efter(b) 1558-66 Knox I 119.
It is no doubt but thei ar Englismen, and we fear that thei shall land Ib. II 273.
Ane finall ordour … quhilk hir majestie hopes shalbe to the contentment of the haill c1580 Q. Mary in 12th Rep. Hist. MSS. App. viii 9.
I am sur yow schal hir mor 1584 Sempill Sat. P. xlv Pref. 20.
Thinking that Christians shall na entres have 1649 Blairs P. 21.
It is lickely that ere it be long he shall haue againe the same, yea grytter power 1680 Soc. Ant. XLV 245.
I hope that our blood shall be a good lift to the Church of God
b. In noun clauses dependent on verbs or equivalent expressions of hope or expectation, where there is some uncertainty about the outcome: May, may well. 1375 Barb. i 585.
Wys mennys etling Cummys nocht ay to that ending That thai think it sall cum to Ib. iii 294.
Weill mai fall That he sall eschew it all a1500 Seven S. 815.
For it is lyke … That mair mischeif sall fall ȝe [sic] Than fell ane knycht [etc.] 1554 Misc. Bann. C. III 66.
For quhilk thing we bair sure howp … that ȝour kinglie maieste sell beninglie resaue … oure wordis 1560 Rolland Seven S. 3594.
That is the thing thay wald: Prolong the time, lipning the court sall change a1568 Scott i 10.
This guid new ȝeir, we hoip … Salbe of peax, tranquillitie, and rest a1585 Maitl. Q. 214/7.
Ȝit not doubting bot patience in end salbe victorious c1590 Fowler II 10/19.
My houpe mekill incressis that thir my laubours salbe mair freindly acceptit be ȝour lordschip 1598 James VI Basil. Doron 96/2.
& because I hoape ȝe sall be king of ma cuntreis then this 1627 Bk. Carlaverock II 89.
c. In relative clauses in these senses. 1513 Doug. vi xiii h. of ch.
Anchises schawis Eneas to the end Alhail the lynage sal fra hym discend c1552 Lynd. Mon. 6242.
Thay wys to se that day, Quhen the childryng of God, predestinat, Sall do appeir 1560 Rolland Seven S. 148.
For weill I knaw, displesours ar to cum That he sall do, or ellis he salbe dum 1594 Misc. Spald. C. I 8.
Quhairanent we luk for your certane ansser quhilk salbe lippinnit for be the bearar
8. In interrogative sentences, implying a reply in one of the preceding senses. a. In rhetorical and exclamatory questions.(1) 1375 Barb. x 790.
Quhat sall I mar say off his mycht? a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii 178.
Quhat sal I say? & now thu mon gange fud to be To ȝone dragone c1450-2 Howlat 69, 72 (A).
Quhom sall I blame … a bysyn that I be? Is nane bot dame Nature … Till acus of this caise; … Bot quha sall mak me ane mendis of hir? … I will appele to the pape a1500 Henr. Fab. 707.
How sall I leif, allace, Haifand nane vther craft me to defend? Ib. 502. Id. Orph. 401.
Quhat art thou lufe? How sall I thé dyffyne? a1500 Quare Jel. 248.
Quhat sall I say? quhom sall I awite? 1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 92.
How lang sall I thus foruay? c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 141/29.
Quhairto … sall I uprys at morrow? Ib. 214/15. 1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 171.
Quhen sall oure inimeis meit ws? Quhen sall thai ieopard thair lyvis aganis ws? a1568 Scott xix 13.
How lang sall I this lyfe inleid? a1578 Accusation of Wishart in Pitsc. II 73/11.
He is deipar than hell, than how salt thow knaw Him? a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 556 (W).
Bot how sall [v.r. sald] it be said? Id. Sonn. liv 1, 2, 6.
Vhat subject, sacred sisters, sall I sing? Vhase praise, Apollo, sal my pen proclame? … Hou sall I sound the fanphar of hir fame? c1590 Fowler I 240/20.(b) a1500 Quare Jel. 245.
Quho schall me help allace for to endite … This vice … ? Quhat sall I say? 1558-66 Knox II 297.
For to what purpoise shall laubouris be tane to putt the Kirk in ordour and to what end shall men subscrive and then never mean to keap wourd of that quhilk thei promeisse(2) 1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 168.
Allace, allace, sall I thus sone be deid In this desert? Id. Æn. iv x 23.
Sall I thus mokkit … My fyrst luffaris agane assay belyve? 1560 Rolland Seven S. 1365.
Quod scho, my lord, sall he ȝit leif sa lang? c1590 Fowler I 109/145.
Sall I now lewe me behind or Ninus sall forgett? c1616 Hume Orthog. 34.
Sal we, quha are dead to synn, leve to it?
b. In ordinary questions which seek instruction or information. c1420 Wynt. vii 1547.
Sall thow cum agayne? … Yha [etc.] 1490 Irland Mir. I 31/21.
And thai speire at me ȝour name … , quhat sall I say ore call ȝou? 1513 Doug. i vi 38.
Bot, O thou virgyne, quham sal I cal thé? 1540 Lynd. Sat. 788.
Dissait: … quhat salbe my godbairne gift?
9. In dependent clauses of future contingency. a. In conditional clauses. b. In relative, usu. appar. restrictive, clauses. c. In temporal clauses.Sometimes with sall in senses A 3–6 above in the principal clause.a. 1379 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 2.
And in case gif I … in the contrare of this lettre … sall attempt or moue I wil & grante that [etc.] c1420 Wynt. vi 2049.
Trowe thowe welle … Gyve evyr thow sall hym se agayne He sall thé set in tyll gret payne 14.. Acts I 28/2.
Than sall the man ioys all the gudis of that lande in his lyfe sua at that man sall have wytnes of tua leil men ?1536–7 Rec. Earld. Orkney 223.
In kais it sall happin [etc.] 1568 Edinb. Skinners in Bk. Old Edinb. C. VI 59.
Geif ony sarwand sell happen to left wp hes hand to stryk hes master … he sall [etc.] 1577 Laing MSS I 27.
Gif onye contraversye salhappin to aryse 1599 Reg. Great S. 304/1.
We … sall refound … 1000 pundis money … sa oft … we sall contravene the premisis and thairwith sall … pay to the saidis personis quha salhappin to be querrellit, incaice this tak sall happin to be reducit … the sowme of [etc.] 1611 Marischal Coll. Rec. I 115.
Gif the persone quho sall enjoy this benefite sall happin … to … debosche in lyiff and conversatioun 1615 Crim. Trials III 24.
If ȝour lo. sall kythe cairles … in this great chairge, ȝe will [etc.] 1643 Fam. Rose 335.
I … desyris ye will continew the waluatione of my landis if yow and my chalmerlandis salbe but alreadie agreit on it till my own cuming 1663 Edinb. B. Rec. IX 336.(b) 1677 Dunkeld Presb. II 31.
And if any brother shalbe five times absent … the Presbyterie shall suspend him till the Synod 1678 Rothesay B. Rec. 360.
That the said Petter shall provyde and secure Jonett Gally … to her lyferent … after the deceiss of the said Jonet Muir when it shall happen the said Jonet Gally to survive herb. (1) 1451 Acts II 40/2.
That the master of the mone sal ansuer for al gold and siluer that salbe strikyn vnder hym 1498–9 Acta Conc. II 322.
[To] ger thame … deliver as law gude faith and conscience will efter the effect as salbe previt before thame 1526–7 Acta Conc. Publ. Aff. 257.
To schaw yow sic resonable causis as sall muf us tharto 1567 G. Ball. 7.
And quhat sa euer thow sall louse vpon the eird, salbe lousit also in heuin 1569 Reg. Privy C. II 26.
To bring sa mony horssis as thai sall gif in roll to sic places … as thai … sall appoint c1575 Balfour Pract. 638.
Under the pane to tyne the haill richt that thay sall have to the said prize 1576 Aberd. B. Rec. II 26.
To consent to sic uther thingis as selbe thocht expedient 1588 Kirkcaldy B. Rec. 120.
To teiche … the haill … bairnis … , samony as sall be send to the scoill c1590 Fowler II 108/32.
That prence which sal want this knauledge inlaketh that part quhairwith a chiftene suld be indewed 1656 Stirling Merch. Guild 69.
Also to the gildrie to exact quhat farder they sall think fitt 1683 Dunblane Synod 202.(b) a1500 Lanc. 2240.
Whill that the … evydens I have that shal be toknis of credens 1619 Dundee B. Laws 553.
The liberties … of … brether gild … in … litting in sic true cullouris as thay shall please 1650 Kingarth Par. Rec. 24.
And whosoever shalbe the collector … to be comptable to the heritours … for quhat more they shall receave then shalbe wared vpon the building of the said chamber 1661 Laing MSS I 325.
As far as they are able for what debts he schal make appeir restand by the toune to him 1693 Acts IX 259/1.
The justice of peace … befor whom the value of the said quartering or damage shall be instructed and liquidate(2) 1550 Lochwinnoch Par. 18.
We … sall content and pay to … ony … that sall happin to succeid [etc.] 1551 Edinb. B. Rec. II 160.
Vnder the pane of birnyng of the skemmillis … quhairon the burd salhappin to stand 1557 Ayr Chart. 44.
To hald … ane court … upone sic … complantis as salhappin to be committit in the saidis faris 1593–4 Moncreiffs 608.
To the prince or princess that salhappin to be borne 1602 Stirling B. Rec. I 101.
Ordinis the haill nychtbouris … to gif the saidis doctouris daylie burding as it salhappin ordourlie to cum athorte 1625 Peebles Gleanings 123.
That the … persones quha salhappin to contravene this act sall pay [etc.] … , exceptand alwayes … sick claith as salbe littit and walkit in claith in Edinburgh(b) 1581 Aberd. B. Rec. II 41.
That all wther craftismen … that hes or schall happin to be decernit … to haif tynt thair fredome … incure the lyk pane(3) 1407 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 65.
Tyll all men that this lettre sall see … we … makis knawen [etc.] 1447 Edinb. Chart. 68.
James be the grace of God King of Scottis: Til al and sindry to quhais knawlege thir oure lettres salcum, greting 1492 Dunferm. B. Rec. I 301.
Quhom it efferis quhais knavlegis thir present lettres sall tocum Dauid Listar … greting 1573–4 Stirling B. Rec. II 376.(4) 1577 Reg. Morton I 91.
And as ȝe sall finde the liklyheid of all thingis, lett ws be aduertist therof 1582 Perth B. Ct. 19 Dec.
And as the said inqueist sell findc. ?1438 Alex. ii 6671.
Quhen thay sall fle, throw quhome sall ȝe Lippin in the lele men … That seruit ȝow [etc.]? 1406 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 63.
Als lang as we sal be kepare to the forsaide priorie 1450 Antiq. Aberd. & B. II 343.
That frae tyme that I sal be … joysand frely the benfice of Turray … that I sal [etc.] 1509 Reg. Privy S. I 303/1.
For all the dais … that thai [sc. lands] sall happin to be in the kingis handis a1568 Bann. MS 77b/94.
For thow rycht nocht sall haif away with thé … Bot ane thin scheitt that day that thow salt de 1567 G. Ball. 6.
For als oft as ȝe sall eit of this breid [etc.] … ȝe sall schaw the Lordis deith vntill his cuming a1578 Pitsc. I 21/5.
He promeissit … to mak the said erle mutuall support and sould stand his freind … quhan it sall chance him to haue ado with his enemyeis 1599 Reg. Great S. 304/1.
We … sall … refound … 1000 pundis money as for damnage … sa oft and how oft we sall contravene the premisis 1610 Laing MSS I 115.
Ye ar … to decyde in causses matrimoniall … except only … decisiones of bastardeis and adherences quhen the samen salbe connexit with the question of [etc.]
d. In the protasis of a conditional sentence which expresses an outcome dependent upon a condition stated in the apodosis. 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
Forthi giffe the trewis sall stande it lyes to yhour heenes to se for chastyninge of trespassouris
10. Used instead of the present tense in talking in the present about a condition, state of affairs, etc., which continues into the future.(a) a1400 Leg. S. iii 189.
The self ded sal mar lik me Than myn modir defamyt be Ib. xliii 120.
Thar is a God [etc.] … ; Thai sal al leilemen saf fra pyne c1420 Wynt. iv 1825 (C).
And thai al sal noucht excede Thre hundyr ȝhere a1500 Henr. Fab. 1995.
Lowrence, I heir thé le, … Bot all thy sonȝeis sall not auaill thé Id. Deth & Man 2.
Mors: O mortall man, … tak tent to me Quhilk sall thi myrrour be baith day and nycht c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 308.
I salbe laith to lat him le quhill I may luke furth 1521 Doug. in Doug. (Sm.) I p. xcviii.
I … salbe verre glad to awayt apon your command 1549 Compl. 18/5.
The nyxt verkis that I intend to set furtht the quhilk I beleif in God sal be verray necessair tyl al them that desiris to lyue verteouslye c1552 Lynd. Mon. 3774.
The Scripture sall thé tell Quhow [etc.] 1567 G. Ball. 130.
Sa sall God him euer blis That dreidis him ay 1587-99 Hume 100/34.
For I esteme it salbe very easie … to vnderstand quhat may be properly spoken of the saull 1597 James VI Dæmonol. (STS) 50/21.
As Christ him selfe teacheth vs of the power that false prophets sall haue to caste out deuils 1611-57 Mure Early Misc. P. iii 7.
Stil sall I determine, till breath and lyfe go, To loue hir c1616 Hume Orthog. 8.
If I am heer deceaved, reason sall deceave me(b) a1500 Lanc. 1312.
Why Ar ȝe agrewit? or quhat tresspas have I Commytit so that I shal yow disples?
11. In general statements of what ordinarily occurs, or of what occurs under specified conditions.Cf. A 6 d above. 1375 Barb. ii 330.
He that will trew His fa it sall him sum-tyme rew Ib. 344. a1400 Leg. S. ii 498.
That na mane for grewous syne Sal disparit be pardone to wyne Ib. xxxii 351.
Quha precis maste … to be chaste, Sal Godis byding brak c1420 Ratis R. 996.
Ȝarn nocht vynyng atoure mesour For dout it sal nocht weil indwre 1456 Hay II 126/15.
And he excede his houre … he sall indispone his stomak Ib. 149/11.
And be that sall thou knawe quha best lufis thé c1460 Vert. Mes (STS) 43.
The tyme that a persone heris mes, thai sall fal in na dedly syne c1460 Regim. Princ. 142 (Marchm.).
Luf larges, or thou sal lordschip leys c1460 Thewis Wysmen 240.
Quhai euir be large in almous deid Sal euir habound and neuir haf neid a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 289.
The wy that wendis for to were quhen he wenys best All his will … Yit sall be licht as [etc.] c1520-c1535 Nisbet John vi 52.
Sal 1531 Bell. Boece I xxiv, xxv.
Howbeit thow wer accumpanit with thaim all thair tender age, thow sall find thaim … sa fowsumlie growin in thair mid … age, that [etc.] … ; quhairthrow thay sal appeir erar misfassonit monstouris than [etc.] 1570 Sat. P. xiii 3.
Pans quhil we pleis, we sal not find thame out a1578 Pitsc. I 21/27.
It is veray iust judgment of God that deceitfull tyrantis … salbe punisched 1581 Hamilton Cath. Tr. in 1573-1600 Cath. Tr. (STS) 99/10.
Sa sall thaj perishe … quha ar … out of the Catholik kirk a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 506 (W).
Quha vsis perrellis perrisch sall c1616 Hume Orthog. 22.
If a man change the accent, he sall spill the sound of the word
12. Expressing ability, capacity, possibility: Is, are, etc., able to, can, may. 1375 Barb. i 129.
For in this warld … Is nane determynat that sall Knaw thingis that ar to fall Bot God Ib. x 581.
Giff a man on the wall may get He sall defend & it be ned Quhill [etc.] a1400 Leg. S. ix 48.
Ȝe sal hyme kene Be his hare that is crispe & blak c1500-c1512 Dunb. Flyt. 111.
I tak on me ane pair of Lowthiane hippis Sall fairar Inglis mak … Than thow can blabbar with thy Carrik lippis Ib. (OUP) 177/29.
No castell sall thé keip 1531 Bell. Boece II 515.
Heir sall youre grace understand how [etc.] … Heir sal the braid difference be knawin betwix kingis and tyrannis 1560 Rolland Seven S. 3385.
Na meit nor drink sall do me gude Quhill that I se [etc.] c1590 Fowler II 146/16.
Be reasoun that thow salt occasion thairby the overthraw of the ane by the help of the other 1596 Dalr. I 5/29.
Sa plentifull is the ground, that mekle esier ȝe sall expone quhat it nocht beiris, than quhat it beiris 1609 Skene Reg. Maj. i 94.
In any … court, ane man may … giue over his libertie, bot … he sall never recover the samine
13. In preceding senses, with ellipsis a. of the main verb understood from the context, b. of a verb of going.a. ?14.. Ship Laws c. 10 (B).
The maystyr aw to say tyl his falows, Lordys frauchtys in yhour portage … thai aw to say, Swa thai sal [v.r. sa sall we; Ib. c. 17 (H2)] 1513 Doug. ii x 43.
Sal scho wend hame [etc.] … ? Na, na, nocht swa, I wys, that sal scho nocht Ib. iv x 28.
Quhat sal I than, I wys, Follow the Troiane navy? Ib. x Prol. 25.
It at Thou was and evir sal, but varians a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 775.
Hey how Hadintoun aill made me never full nor never sallb. 1460 Hay Alex. 1308.
Magre thame bakwart thai sall on force a1500 Rauf C. 198.
Thay say, I sall to Paris 1513 Doug. xii xi 49.
Quhat sall I do, lat se, quhar sall I now?
B. p.t. Should.
I. The past tense with temporal function, corresponding to various senses of sall above.
1. a. In statements referring to past time, in indirect speech following predicates of command, instruction, agreement, decision, permission, etc.: Was, were (commanded, agreed, permitted, etc.) to.Corresponding to sall in sense A 3.Passing into B 10.(a) 1375 Barb. xiv 167.
Thai tuk to consaile that … on the morne … Thai suld isch furth Ib. xiii 690, 692. a1400 Leg. S. xlvii 89.
A takine … That ves, as he suld knok withine [the wheel], To draw fast suld thai begyne [etc.] Ib. vi 54. c1420 Wynt. i 201.
A chyld bade hym he sulde draw nere Ib. v 522.
He thoucht to ordane … Be statute quhen men suld lat ga … ryfftys off wynd Ib. viii 158, 160, 161.
Thai all accordyt That all thare spek suld be recordyt Till Schyr Edward off Ingland kyng And [he] suld swere that but feyhnnyng He suld that arbytry declare 1425 Acts II 10/2. 1473–4 Treas. Acc. I 4.
Lettres gevin him that his fader suld nocht analy his landis 1496–7 Acta Conc. II 60.
Ane command of the kingis hienes that he suld tak the mater before him 1500 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 85.
That quhair it wes limit the time of xv dayes to all persouns … that thai suld haif clengeit the samyn … within the said terme 1513 Doug. i ix 96.
Sche … tharwith eik commandis halyday Throwe owt the cyte all suldbe game and play 1533 Boece 262b.
Congall … aduertist the king of Pichtis he suld be of conforte and with … skarmusch suld defend his landis quhil his cuming 1567 G. Ball. 44. 1568 Anderson Collect. Mary IV ii 165.
It wes dewysit … that the king suld haif lyne first at Craigmyllare bot … the purpois wes alterit 1570 Leslie 37.
Ordour [was] tane that no Inglishman suld haif benefite within the realme of Scotland 1596 Dalr. I 282/6.
Quha did vthirwise, thair lipis with ane hett yrne sulde be burnte 1618 Wedderb. Compt Bk. 135.
Johne Barry agreit with me that for my 8 merk he is awin me he suld at his first hamecuming from Ingland he suld gif me a hatt [etc.] 1622-6 Bisset II 415/1.
Gregorie … forbad thame [sc. preistis] to marie bot that they suld leif cheist(b) 1532 Wigtown B. Ct. fol. 270.
& the connotione fand that euerie nechbovre sovuld flag & gutter [etc.] 15.. Clar. i 1560.
The king [etc.] … beine advysit … That Palexis … Sould wad anon the kingis dochter 1562-3 Winȝet I 26/20.
Solon the law maker … commandit this … that gif ony … hid him self as ane cowart … he sould be … banissit the citie 1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 37.
The cuntrie … maid bandis amangis thame selffis that ilk ane sould help vtheris Ib. 186.
Quha declarit his will that thaj sould find cautioun [etc.] a1578 Pitsc. II 173/6.
It was concludit … that all bischopis [etc.] … sould haue bot ane small part of thair lewing and the rest salbe gewin to the ministaris [etc.] 1596 Dalr. I 222/21.
This king commandet that na orphiling … soulde be summound afore lawful age 1646 Elgin Rec. II 254.
The Session ordained intimatione … that who soever had any ditayes against Janet Kowie … that they sould declar the same 1649 Acts VI ii 717/2.
The clause insert in the act that the lordis of erection sould be frie of the blensch dewties c1650 Spalding I 170.
I cam heir … vpone assureans that I sould cum and go at my owne plesour a1651 Calderwood V 298.
Conditiouns … viz.: That he sould depart the realme … at what tyme he sould have pardoun for byganes 1659 Glasgow B. Rec. II 417.
It being grantit that he sould com in his alone and speak quhat he pleased(c) 1606 Lett. & St. P. Jas. VI 84.
Quhairof we thoicht meitest … to command the bailȝeis to mak proclamatiounis … that thai [sc. the townspeople] swild keip the kingis pace … and that naine of thame swild weir wapinis invaseiff within the brwch(d) 1561 St. A. Kirk S. 128.
That the condicion wes betuix hym and Elizabeth Autherlony … that sche sudd caws hyr son to marie his dochter 1649 Cramond Ch. Cullen 126.
The Sessione … thought fitt that the minister soud … exhort the people to keep it [sc. the weekly lecture] better(e) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 59, 60.
The Troyiens to purpos gane ta That it shold not thar erdyt be But shold be send in hyr cuntre 1569-73 Bann. Memor. 4.
The Regent was … wairned that his distructioune was concluded, … to wit, that he shuld be shot 1575 Orkney Oppress. 4.
Ane other law that the sisters should not be lowsed of their heid bull c1690 Melville Chart. 217.
The Convention were pleased to order that he should have a comission … and that William Cuningham … should be his levtennent collonel 1703 Rothesay Par. Rec. 176.
Of which persones leeted one should be chosen
b. In relative clauses, in statements of what was intended or appointed to take place: Was to, were to.(a) 1375 Barb. vii 555.
Then send thai furth … The woman that suld be thar spy a1400 Leg. S. v 341.
Twa that suld hedit be Fore thar trespace, bocht he c1420 Wynt. iii 935.
Syne a gret fyre made abowt Sulde ger the pynyde wytht-in rare 1497 Treas. Acc. I 357.
To Dauid Kervour, in erlis of the gallory quhilk he suld mak for x markis 1501 Ib. II 102.
Payit to Dande Doule in contentatioun for the kingis doublatis that he suld have at Ȝule and Pasch 1508 Ib. IV 116.
To the man of Bothuile … that suld cum to Strivelin to wirk 1509 Prot. Bk. J. Young 415.
The day that he suld flit 1513 Doug. ii i 35. Ib. v vii heading. 1533 Bell. Livy II 227/35.
Becaus na man had remembrance as than in quhat vse the said gold suld haue bene convertit a1568 Scott ii 88.
The fyre wes pischt out lang or none Thair dennaris suld haif drest 1568 Q. Mary in Campbell Love-Lett. Mary App. 30.
Be the quhilk lippining the said [earls] … sould meit and fortefie ilk ane uther in the successioun 1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 37.
The lieutennent past to Haddingtoun, quhair thair suld haue met him the lardis of Lowthiane, quha come nocht Ib. 103.
The said erle brocht ane font fra the quenis grace of Ingland … to be presentit to our soueranis in the quhilk thair sone … sould be baptisit in 1590 Crim. Trials I ii 203.
Vnto the tyme that scho … sould first speik with hir maister, the Dewill 1596 Dalr. I 87/24.
Quhen thay had … crouned a king quha sulde be ouer baith thair impire and lawes 1638 Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. VII 55.
He was ordained [etc.] … with a paper on his forehead … whilk paper sould conteane thir … words [etc.] 1645 Chron. Perth 42.
Ane regiment … quherof Pitscottie sould hawe bene crownar … ; the maist part disasentit that Pitscottie should have bene thair crownear(b) 1385 Rot. Sc. II 73/2 (see A 3 b (1) (c) above).
c. In an adv. clause of reason. c1400 Troy-bk. ii 1462 (D).
Becaus that for his deid so hie Frome Troy for ay suld [C. shold] bannist be
2. In indirect speech with past reference, expressing the protagonist's intention or determination, at the time referred to, a. To perform the action stated, b. That what is stated should take place: Should, would.Chiefly in noun clauses dependent on past tense verbs or equivalent expressions of affirming, undertaking, intending, etc.Corresponding to sall in sense A 4.a. 1375 Barb. i 571.
He … swour that he suld wengeance ta a1400 Leg. S. iii 712.
Thane all the pupile passit … till Egeas in, Sayand … thai suld it bryne, Bot he Andro … Lousit Ib. xl 1424.
Quod he, Ȝa, … He suld fulfill it ilke deile c1460 Wisd. Sol. (STS) 62.
I said in my mynd and thocht that I suld absten me fra vice & at I suld set al my hart to wysdome 1460 Hay Alex. 2328.
Alexander him consalit to do nocht sua And for his saik he sulde the veyage ta 1461 Newburgh B. Ct. fol. 6b.
Thomas of Rossy protestyt that he swld enter in na pley anens [etc.] c1475 Wall. iii 336.
Thar leyff thai tuk … Sanct Jhone to borch thai suld meyt haille agayne 1485–6 Prot. Bk. J. Young 9.
John Carkatill and Nicoll Hanna tuk instrument that thai, as twa juges wes redy and suld be redy to gif thar deliverance in this mater 1533 Bell. Livy II 258 (BM).
Quhen the Romanis and Sabynis war makand thare prouisioun … quhilk of thame suld invaid vthir sonest … , Tullus rasit … his army [etc.] 1570 Lanark B. Rec. 50.
The said James ansueret and said … hie suld harl tham throu the fyir 1570 Leslie 62.
He thairfoir … cheiset ane counsall … quhais counsell he suld use and that he suld do na thing without thair advyseellipt. c1475 Wall. xi 304.
Thus his haill mynd … Was playnly set to wyn out off bondage Scotland agayn … He woude he suld, or ellis de tharfor(b) 1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 186.
Quha declarit his will that thaj sould find cautioun and souertie that thaj in no tyme thairefter sould wreat to the kingis moder a1578 Pitsc. I 21/3.
Quhilk gif he wald do he promeissit … to mak the said erle mutuall support and sould stand his freind leillellie a1597-1617 Hist. Jas. VI (1825) 146.
The Queyne of Ingland directit Sir Johnne Foster, … desyring him to mak sum incursions aganis them of Scotland syde and she sould hald hand upoun hir syde that thay sould not escape 1603 Dundonald Par. Rec. 30.
And that he ansuerit he repentit it and sowld mend for it a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 1690.
Sche start to a sting and said she sould hang him 1652 Lamont Diary 50. 1672 Aberd. B. Rec. IV 278.
And that if they sould be pleasit to accept of his service … he sould oblige himselfe to macke … ane knock … which sould [etc.](c) c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 507.
And said thai sald exampill tak of her soverane teching(d) 1518 Elphinstone Mun. 191/1.
That nethere I nor ony othere in my name … woolde or schulde … intromytte or medle witht [etc.] 1545 Douglas Corr. 160.
They declarit boiht to me that they schwld do na lese nor is in ther poweris therto 1607 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 59.
Lyk as she opinlie awowit he shuld never be a husband to hir, and a blankatt should never cover thameb. a1400 Leg. S. Prol. 127.
As he had hecht before thame to, That has he did sa sulde thai do c1420 Wynt. i 612.
That God walde noucht at thai sulde pas Out off that closure 1456–70 Liber Aberbr. II 106.
He promittit … that we suld onuexit be a1500 Seven S. 57.
The ferd … said the child lord sall be lerd Within foure ȝeris our sciens all … The sevynt … Said in a ȝere … The child suld all the cunnyng haf That him self had 1513 Doug. i v 18.
Thou hecht vmquhill … Of thame suld [1553 schuld] cum … The worthy Romanys c1552 Lynd. Mon. 1332.
God gaue his maledictioun On to the erth … That it suld barren be 1560 Rolland Seven S. 372.
Thay thankit him … Sayand to him, that his grace suld be sure Of thair laubours a1568 Scott ii 36. 1570 Leslie 240.
And he assured hir that … quhosoever mareit hir suld not haif hir with his kindnes 1571–2 Inverness Rec. I 212.
The wrangus calling of Christan Nykqueyn … missaell carlingis geit … and that scho suld brak hir bak 1558-66 Knox II 437.
When he [sc. Saul] had sworne be the leving God that Jonathan sould die 1593 Cochran-Patrick Coinage I 264.
The reductioun … was appoyntit be the Estaitis wpoun ane … intentioun thatt na money sewld be … wnder the fynes [etc.]
c. In direct speech, expressing a past intention. c1475 Wall. iv 309, 311.
At the Blakfurd as at thai suld pas our A squier come … Till Doun suld ryde 1531 Bell. Boece II 261.
Quhen thir thevis war enterit in barras, quhare thay suld have fouchtin aganis thair nichtbouris, thay wer all takin be armit men
3. In statements of past prediction, where the events predicted are seen as independent of the volition of the protagonist: Was, were about to; was, were going to.Corresponding to sall in sense A 6.(a) 1375 Barb. iv 277.
Scho … bad him till the batell sped For he suld wictory haiff but dred 1513 Doug. vi xiii heading (Sm.).
Anchyses schawis Eneas … the lynage that suld [C. sal, Ruddim. sall] fra hym discend 1533 Boece 262b.
Congall … aduertist the king of Pichtis he suld be of conforte … quhil his cuming quhilk suld be haistelie c1520-c1535 Nisbet I 2.
Christ likewis, befoire he suld die, … chargit that(b) 1586 Rait & Cameron King James's Secret 49.
Albeit … sche wold … absteyne from fordar dealing in practisis yit therby this quene shuld remane in greitar dangeir than before
In noun clauses complementing verbs or equivalent expressions of b. Telling, learning, understanding, c. Knowing, thinking, believing.b. a1400 Leg. S. ii 156.
Nero of wit ner cuth ga Quhene he harde this warld be fyre Suld losit be c1420 Wynt. vii 2360.
And sayd that owre a yhere he [sc. King John] Kyng off Ingland suld noucht be 1533 Boece 250.
He began his regne at iustice and equite quhilk signifijt to the pepill of quhat goverment he suld be thareeftir a1568 Scott i 194.
Quhat berne sould bruke all Bretane be the see The prophecie expreslie dois conclude [etc.] a1568 Bann. MS 265a/58.
Thus I ouirdraif fra day to day To spy quhen court sowld gone away 1584 Laing MSS I 50.
Assuring me weill that your mony sowld becum schort befoir this secund provisioun sowld be at your lordship 1585 Gray Lett. & P. 46.
I said to him vithin ten dayis I swold heire [etc.] c1590 Fowler II 31/1.
God did foirknaw & hath fortald that his seruants sulde be persecut 1596 Dalr. II 22/14.
Quhen Machabie … vndirstude … how schort sulde be thair tyme quha descendet of him [etc.](b) c1590 Fowler I 29/70.
We … did sie The verye sings … that lowe shuld captiwe théc. 1375 Barb. i 127.
Bot ȝe … wyst nocht quhat suld efter tyd Ib. iv 211.
In burch I wyst weill I suld de a1400 Leg. S. x 180.
The sammyne ȝe wend thai [sc. dragons] suld nov Haf done to me, that ilk suld thai Haf done til ȝow 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
I gert cry … the trewis to be kepit traystand that it suld be sua done on the tother part c1420 Wynt. ii 1008.
Thynkand thai sulde be parcynere Off mede and payne that he sulde bere 1461 Liber Plusc. 386.
He grat oure hym, for He kneu weil the payn He suld haue 1513 Doug. iv v 100.
Sa to hym thus … His derrest moder promist ws not that he … sa faynt a man suldbe Ib. vi vii 84.
Nor in my mynde ymagyn mycht I nevir For my departing … Thou suldist [Sm., Ruddim. suldest, 1553 suldelst] kaucht sa gret dyseys 1535 Stewart 20992.
Soud 1545 Douglas Corr. 160.
And he belewit fermly that he swld be of good mynd in fwrdering of the peax c1568 Lauder Minor P. ii 35.
Now mony vsis sosserie, … Seikand to knaw how all sulde be 1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 26.
The Hamiltonis thinking that he had bene als wickit as thai and sould to his awin avancement put doun the king … thay held thame quiet for ane seasoun weaning that vther menis actioun sould be thair promotioun 1570 Sat. P. xiii 180.
We trowit … thay … suld haif tyrit of all thair tyrannie, Bot now allace the contrare we may se 1596 Crim. Trials I ii 379.
Lipning that nane sould haif interruptit hir educatioune [etc.]
d. In a statement of the result expected from fulfilment or non-fulfilment of a condition expressed by an accompanying sentence or clause.Corresponding to sall in sense A 6 d. a1400 Leg. S. v 594.
Sanct Edmwnde … in custum had … That quha-se-euire vald almus crafe For luf of Sancte Johne suld hafe a1500 Henr. Fab. 1453.
I put the cace I had bene deid … And syne [etc.] … Thocht thow had found my figure lyand swa … Thow suld for feir on kneis haue fallin doun 1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 33.
Thinking gif thai honourit not the doar thai sould not be knawin as counsallouris of the deid and wald tyne the gloir a1578 Pitsc. I 22/35.
The gouernour … haid guide hoip of better to follow heirvpone thinkand weill of this present discorde put to rest … he sould mair eassielie repres all iniureis within the realme 1629 Black Orkn. & Shetl. Folklore 77.
Ane beey … quhilk ye tuk and desyrit the guidwyff to put under hir kirin and she sould get her proffeit againe
4. In noun clauses complementing expressions in past time of a. Wishing, requesting, disdaining, etc., b. Doubting, fearing (that something) should, would, might (come about).i.e. in which the wished-for or feared outcome was uncertain.a. a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii 178.
I wend sum tyme … Gud sonnis haf had of thé … To … confort me, & that thai eftre my day Suld bruk my kinryk Ib. xl 482.
Al that ware honeste men Ȝarnit he suld thare barnis ken 1513 Doug. viii xii 136.
The ondantit Danys thar dyd pas The flude … Havand disdene a bryg our it suld go 1533 Boece 85.
The king … prayit thai suld be of gude mynde towart him 1588 Burntisland B. Ct. 8 Oct.
That he wissit thay sowld newir cum within … this hewine agane 1596 Dalr. I 1/13.
I hoped be this moyan sulde follow that [etc.] 1629 Justiciary Cases I 135.
That scho hoipit in God that nothing sould grow in that ȝaird 1649 Dingwall Presb. 138.
That upon the desyre of few elderes … he sould marie divers people in a bairneb. 1375 Barb. vi 52.
& for the nycht he thocht at thai Suld nocht haiff sycht to hald the way a1400 Leg. S. vii 475.
He hyme bethocht That in na maner tha mocht Lange hald the towne na it suld be Tane be force ?1438 Alex. i 3261.
The king … sair can dreid That he sould die thair c1420 Wynt. ii 1340.
He bade his sone [sc. Icarus] … Hald … Noucht tyll hey for dowt the ayre Sulde melt away his fethrys fayre 1533 Boece 85. 1570 Leslie 74.
Becaus he fearit the Duches of Burgondye … suld invaid his cuntrey, as sho did eftiruart c1590 Fowler II 68/1.
Soulde 1623 Dunferm. B. Rec. II 141.
He had ane kniff and … they wer feart he suld have strikin thame thairwith
5. a. In clauses of purpose dependent on past tense verbs or equivalent constructions, as future in the past: Should, would.(a) 1375 Barb. xvii 514, 519 (E).
To pas In Ingland for to bryn and sla … That thai that lay segeand the toun … Suld be sua dredand … For thar childer [etc.] … Thai suld leve thar sege Ib. xviii 240 (C).
He thoucht … For till distroy so cleyn Scotland That nane suld be thar in liffand a1400 Leg. S. xiv 58.
Quhare he techit men to lef syne & quhow to God thai suld syn wyn; & for to serwe God mare sud pay, Warld[l]y t[h]ink he lefyt ay Ib. xviii 912.
For thare to God let me thé se That thu suld hele na thinge fra me 1388 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 295.
And at all this covenand beforspokyn suld lelely be kepit bath Alexander and John beforsaid bodely made athes c1420 Wynt. v 5056. 1460 Hay Alex. 3536.
He thame thocht til haue closit about In sic maner that nane sould chape away c1475 Wall. iv 19.
His der neuo that tyme with hym he tuk … For he na tyme suld be fra hys sicht He luffyt him with hart and all hys mycht Ib. v 143. c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 198/15 (M).
Mawessie scho bad nane vther That lentrune suld nocht mak hir lene 1513 Doug. xi viii 100.
Quhilk … At thai ne suldyn [Ruddim. sulden, Ruthv. schulden] sik myscheif behald Fell ded to grond Ib. xii Prol. 281.
Thocht I wald na langar ly in May Les Phebus suld me losanger attaynt 1533 Boece 281b.
To provide that atanis he suld nocht haue mony aduersaris be ambassiatouris he requirit thare … amyte 1535 Stewart 35779.
Ȝit tha keipit all this thing, Ȝit unreveillit to Duffus the king, Or it sould lat him for to convales a1578 Pitsc. I 153/6.
Sould 1581 Sat. P. xliv 101. 1581-1623 James VI Poems I 54/236.
O Phœnix, why was thow so moued … For to forget thy heauenly hewes … ? And syne in hewe of ashe that they sould bee Conuerted all: and that thy goodly shape In Chaos sould, and noght the fyre escape?(b) 1513 Doug. xi viii 100 (Ruthv.) (see (a) above).
Schulden 1570 Leslie 203.
To hald in the Inglismen … that thay should not ishe in the cuntrey quhill [etc.] 1569-73 Bann. Memor. 224.
Pherniherst … sent Balcleuch to take some midis, that no bloud shuld be shed
b. In clauses of purpose, where the purpose holds generally without limitation to a particular past time: May, might.(1) 1456 Hay II 43/22.
Sa that thai may knaw him for a knycht … halder of lawe and justice … that quhasa has ado thai suld draw till him for help Ib. 49/10. a1500 Rauf C. 972.
Syne foundit ane fair place … That all that wantis harbery Suld haue gestning c1520-c1535 Nisbet I 4.
Yit [do]is it [sc. the Gospel] not require our workis for ony sic intent that we suld be … sauit be thame c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 8.
Sic men bene put in memorie That deith suld not confound thair glorie 1567 G. Ball. 159.
[He] left Him behind His word … Quhen Antichrist wald thé blind, That thow suld geue him na eir Ib. 5. c1590 Fowler II 34/13.
That thou sould haue na cause … to accuse me … I haue set downe [etc.] 1635 Peebles Gleanings 201.
To the clark that the shireff suld not prejudge the toun and the fischaris, 2 s.(2) 1513 Doug. i ii 14.
Kyng Eolus … Temperis thar ire les thai suld at thar will Beir with thar byr the skyis … quhen euer thame lest blaw out 1586–7 Rait & Cameron King James's Secret 167.
I have nocht as yit delyverit your lordshipis letter … awayting upoun the event of our negotiation lest utherwayse my dealing with him sould be sinisterly interpreted c1590 Fowler II 41/13.
Les nor I sould seeme to be tedious
6. In dependent adverbial (conditional, temporal, etc.) and relative (usu. appar. restrictive) clauses, denoting a future contingency in the past.Corresponding to sall in sense A 9.(a) 1375 Barb. xvii 94.
Thai … held thaim in a nuk preue Quhill that the nycht suld passit be a1400 Leg. S. Prol. 131.
And sad thame alswa quhen at he Suld sit in sege of maieste Thai twelf suld set with hym self Ib. i 24.
Quhat he was suld Criste betraise Vith his tetht he wald haf refyn sone Ib. xxvii 1466, etc. c1420 Wynt. viii 596.
Quha suld off Burgoyne he sayd be duk He suld noucht to that custwme luk a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 902. 1562-3 Winȝet II 63/6.
That he had leuir the dethe of the deand sinnar than that he suld returne and leue 1570 Leslie 62. 1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 103.
To be deliuerit to the said woman quha sould occupy the place of the quenis grace of Ingland Ib. 240.
That nyne horsis sould come … ladyenit with meill … and quhen the saidis portis sould haue opynit to lat in the said meill [etc.] a1578 Pitsc. I 47/4.
Sic men … as suld haue suppressed all oppressioun 1616 Rogers Social Life III 301.
Haveing tedderit hir kow … quhill she sould have spoken with James Spence 1616 Cramond Ch. Aberdour 16.
Wherewith the laird … was content upon conditions that Maister George sald suffer all pursuit of law to sleipe until that day … upon condition that letters of advocation suld nocht be raisit against him befoir that day 1630 Aberd. Council Lett. I 335.
We aucht to have bene speciallie … cited befoir ony such thing suld have bene agreit 1632 Ib. 352.
At which rate thai sould pas ay and quhill it sould pleis the lords … to tak forder order for thair passing or not passing as thai suld find expedient … whiche is as thai sould find the countrey to abound of his maiesties awin proper coyne 1658 Aberd. B. Rec. IV 174.
Permissioun … to … erect tuo or mor chops as he suld think expedient 1660 S. Ronaldshay 34.
Inhibiting James Windweek … to slay more fisches till his boat sould tak als many [etc.](b) a1598 Ferg. Prov. MS No. 1680.
To be ane chanon becaus quhen others shood weeip he wold sing c1650 P. Gordon Brit. Dist. 113.
Som … attrebute to the penknyves the lenth of tym befor this should com to pass 1661 Sc. N. & Q. 2 Ser. IV 2.
For accomadatione of such gentlemen … as schould be present at the … lauriatione of ther schollars
7. In a statement relating to the past where sall in senses A 10, 11 or 12 would be used in present time. 1375 Barb. xx 292.
I hop that nane that is on lyve The lamentacioun suld [1571 can] discryve That that folk … maid a1400 Leg. S. xxiv 250.
Til hyme grath takine gaf scho thane, Quhare-by he suld that mane ken Ib. xxxvii 370.
For tho it mocht nocht etyne be One dry land with ony beste It suld in the se … Be eteyne 1456 Hay II 43/24.
And that he [sc. a knight] suld have mare raddour and drede to do mys or oucht that suld be agayne the lawe ever mare in tyme to cum c1475 Wall. xi 912.
The lyoun in wax that suld his condet be a1500 Seven S. 2444.
Thar is na clerk … That suld the tane knawe be the tothire a1500 K. Hart 48.
Thir folk … For favour nor for feid wald found him fro … No greif nor grame suld grayth thame so agast c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 81.
And quhen I gottin had ane grome … Fra I had preveit his pitht the first plesand moneth Than suld I cast me to keik [etc.] 1533 Bell. Livy I 91/11.
Quhen scho had ischit the chalmer of al persouns that na man suld iuge quhiddir he wald leif or de [etc.] a1578 Pitsc. II 60/3.
The fourt pairt of this sermon was how herasie sould be knawin c1590 Fowler II 101/2.
All things fel out so far furth that in a armye of 20000 thousand combattars ye suld not have marked a 2000 fuitmen 1596 Dalr. I 106/29.
Bot quhen God saw … that preistes eftir certane ȝeiris … sould gyue thame selfes ouer to vice … , … sum he inflamet quha sulde gyue ouer the warlde
II. As a modal verb, the p.t. suld is used in expressing a modal qualification of a notion otherwise expressed by the present tense of the main verb.
8. In statements of presumed fact, where the speaker accepts the presumption as true: Is understood or known to be, appears to be, evidently is.Only in early verse, and only with be.(a) ?1438 Alex. ii 2888.
I am borne of Massony That ȝouris suld be of antecessory [F. Neis sui de Mazonie et nouris de vostre aire] c1420 Wynt. i 1084.
Tyatyra … That is off Lydys a cyte, And chymys off that lande sulde be Ib. 1319.
Fra thine thai [say] swlde lyand be … The kynryk off Frawns Ib. 1335.
Blessyde Bretayne beelde sulde be Off all the ilys in the se Ib. 1391, 1395; ii 863. 1513 Doug. ii vii 116.
Rypheus down fell ane the maist iust man was Amang Troianys … Bot other ways the goddis thocht suldbe(b) c1420 Wynt. ii 1250 h. of ch.
Yhe sall be this chapitere se Qwhat the Mynowtaure schuld be a1500 Lanc. 2750.
Madem, is trew … of Sir Gawan, wich that shuld be lost?
9. In statements of presumed fact, indicating uncertainty or that the speaker does not commit himself as to the truth of the alleged fact.Chiefly in reported speech, with the verb of the reporting clause in either the present or the past tense.
a. Along with the infin. of the main verb, standing for its past tense. b. Along with the perfect infin. of the main verb, standing for its pluperfect tense.a. (1) 1375 Barb. xiv 204.
The stalwart stour lestyt wele lang That men mycht nocht persave na se Quha maist [at] thar abowe suld [C. mycht] be ?1438 Alex. ii 4925.
I heir thé tell ane great farly, How that ane man allanerly Agane sa fele suld hald battale [F. Conment se puet j homme a tant de gent meller] c1475 Wall. ii 252.
Quhen thai presumyt he suld be werray ded Thai gart [etc.] 1482–3 Acta Conc. II cxxvi.
To have producit … certane charteris and evidentis … quhilk suld declare that the said landis war fee and heritage and na wedsett a1538 Abell 84b.
Sone eftir Erll Gilcrist tuke a suspition of his wife … at sche suld commit adultrie 1548 Misc. Bann. C. III 410.
It is schawin to me that my Lord of Lenox suldbe miscontentit with Mr. Steward 1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 53.
Vantyng that his pen sould be worth ten thowsand men a1578 Pitsc. II 174/28.
It was alledgit that my lord of Arrane in his mirienes sould oppin this consperacie Ib. 192/14.
Thair was ane wreitting set vpone the kirk dore that my lord Bothwell witht his houshald sould murdres the kingis grace 1591 Crim. Trials I ii 245.
[He] declairit … that scho, Effie McCalȝan and Donald Robesoune sould be thre of the doaris of itt 1670 Kingarth Par. Rec. 57.
In saying that he sould frequent the company of a lemman among the furies [= fairies] Ib. 58.
He denys that he ever said such a thing but that it was aledgd that he sould say that James was the cause [etc.](b) 1699 Cramond Ch. Aberdour 37.
Complaints given in against Agnes Heburn … that she should resett one James Hetherwick … who is a common stealer … of sheep(2) 1535 Stewart 26753.
Anna his sister, … Schir Lothus wyfe quhilk to him sould succeid, Gif all be suith in storie as we reidb. c1475 Wall. xi 362.
In my sleping a fell visioun me tauld, Till Inglismen that thow suld me haiff sauld c1515 Asl. MS I 191/29.
It semys nocht to be suth that he suld conques in his tyme xxx kinrikis Ib. 197/9.
Ȝour … fenȝeit writ … in the quhilk ȝhe mak ȝow to schaw … that certane of our kingis suld haf maid homage vnto ȝour kingis of Yngland 1522–3 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 67.
Jhone Person … deponit he hard James Cant and Jok Curll saye that Wolle Turnbyll suld have bostit the balye 15.. James V in Misc. Spald. C. II 193.
It is murmuryt hyr that ye sould a spolkyn with Gorge and Archebald Douglas in Ingland a1578 Pitsc. II 310/7.
Sould Ib. 242/23. 1611 Reg. Panmure I xxviii.
The common opinion wos that he … sould heawe past furthe of the countray 1670 Kingarth Par. Rec. 58.
It being referd to the probatioun of the wittnesses they could not clearly affirm that he sould have said such a thing 1680 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. MS 17 Jan.
Ane fyne … for his laying on of ane ces wrongouselie vpon the said burgh when he sould have beine ane collector(b) 1615 Fraserburgh Kirk S. fol. 62a (25 Oct.).
Complaining vpon Isobell Smythe for that she should haw sklanderit thame
c. With the verb of the reporting clause in the present tense, standing along with the infin., for the present tense of the main verb. c1420 Wynt. i 1502.
Bachus, Neptwne [etc.] … Thai feyhne that thir sulde goddys be 1456 Hay I 3/26, 27.
Mony notable clerkis … sais that it sulde be ane of the hie lignie of France the quhilk suld sett remede in all this thingis 1545 Corr. M. Lorraine 146.
And the vord of the erll of Lenox is that he suld be at Cragfergus schipand men and vitallis a1568 Scott i 196.
The prophecie expreslie dois conclude The Frensch wyfe of the Brucis blude suld be 1580 Cath. Tr. 45/19.
That quhilk ye profes with your maister Caluin, … nocht that He [sc. Christ] sould be on the earthe quhair ye ar bot that ye sould be lifted wp to the heavin quhair he is
d. With the verb of the reporting clause in the past tense, forming, with the infin. of the main verb, a future past. a1400 Leg. S. xxi 222.
Wyst I … fore certanete That sawlis ay suld lyfand be, Ful fayne I wald myn self sla 1460 Hay Alex. 2751.
That euirie man traistit that he suld de 1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 243.
Madem, word was at Brochty thre dayis passit that this arttalȝery suld away
Appar., in direct speech, standing, e. With the infin. of the main verb, for its past tense, f. With the perf. infin. of the main verb, for its perfect tense, with the added notion of surprise or wonder.e. a1400 Leg. S. xxi 895.
The se it-self suld it with-draw & that relyk til al men schawf. c1590 Fowler II 30/13.
But allace the death was ouer honorabil that suld preuentit the gallous
g. In indirect speech following predicates of instruction, injunction, agreement or consent, forming, along with the infin. of the main verb, the equivalent of the present subjunctive of the main verb. 14.. Acts I 340/2.
Item that na man sall bruke the libertie [etc.] … Item na burges dwelland a landwart sould have lot nor cavill with burgesses dwelland within burgh; Item na templair sall intromet [etc.] [L. Item quod nullus gaudeat libertate burgi [etc.] … Item quod nullus burgensis rure manens habeat lot neque cavil [etc.] … Item quod nullus templarius debet se intromittere [etc.]] 1460 Hay Alex. 3456.
Me think that sould nocht be Withoutin straik that I sould schape to fle 1568–9 Q. Mary in Facs. Nat. MSS III lviii.
It hes bein proponit to me to consent that my sone sould be deliuerit in A handis 1569 Misc. Bann. C. I 50*.
This precept I wald your grace suld nocht forȝeit 1581 Burne Disput. in Cath. Tr. 148/14.
Quhat vald ye nou that ane pure man … sould do in this caice? 1596 Glasgow B. Rec. I 179.
It is condiscendit … that the provest [etc.] … sall convein togidder … and suld pas, accompaneit with sum spaidis, to pas to the mercheing of the loynes 1670 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. MS 13 April.
The magistrattis and counsell condicendis that the lytle hous builded be Bessie Lowrie … sould be casten doune
h. Appar., in expressions of conditional undertaking or intention, in the third person, lacking the certainty of A 4 or A 5 b.With future, and future (perfect) in the past, reference. a1538 Abell 125b.
And in ane dissimilit westment he com to the … fathir of the lady at he suld haif mareit 1597 Misc. Spald. C. I 104.
I … hes bene vrgit ernistlie be the berar Elspet Leyis and the man that suld marrie hir to gif my testimoniall of hir behaviour 1649 Wemyss Chart. 232.
The 10 els of nou skarlitt satin … sould bei an ueiskoitt, and the noue quheitt saitin sould bei an ueiskot
10. In expressions, in present time, of duty, obligation, propriety, entitlement or expediency: Ought to, should rightly, properly or advisedly. a. In expressing what is right, due, just or proper for a person to do or be.This and d below pass into one another.(1) a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii 329.
To the kyng … Of foure thingis he sermone made: … first that he suld nocht irke Til honoure God ?1438 Alex. ii 4144.
Of worship men suld lelely Speke and deme 1456 Hay I 114/3.
For trewly the knychtis ar nouthir ordanyt to labour cornis [etc.] … na ȝit he suld nocht dresse nane insicht in housis Ib. 155/14.
And suppos he raid on a better hors na I did me think I suld nocht leve him his hors 1456 Acts II 45/2.
And quhen ony gret ourset is lik to cum on the bordouraris thai think the inland men sulde be redy in thair supple c1490 Irland Asl. MS 11/5.
He that offendis his prince … suld outher be summond or of his awne will compeire befor his … prince be iustice c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 13/2.
Thir ar the fourty dayis That every man sulde wilfull pennence dre 1533 Gau 22/18.
We suld dant the body onder the spreit that it sal noth lewe as it desiris bot efter the wil of God 1533 Boece 380b.
Ȝoung men … fra all drink inebriative thay suld aluterlie abstene c1552 Lynd. Mon. 5386.
I thynk thay sulde thynk mekle schame Off Christ for to tak thare surname, Syne leif nocht lyke to Christianis 1562-3 Winȝet I 6/13.
That he fal on sleip quhen he suld erast walk 1572 Sat. P. xxxiii 199, 214.
It suld be ȝe, Mother, suld me instruct … It suld be ȝe … That to all vertewis suld ȝow indeuoir c1590 Fowler II 111/17.
For the difference is sa great betuix how we liue and how we suld liue 1596 Dalr. II 186/23.
Ȝe ken, or at leist suld ken, that I euir … put my body in auenture for Scotland 1622-6 Bisset II 243/5, 6.
The maister nochttheles suld nocht leif, bot suld cast over samekill as he sall see neid(b) 1416 Douglas Corr. 234.
The delay of our hamecome stands al anely in thaim that sowlde persue for vs for we haue commondit with … the … Kyng of Ingilland … and we haue foundyn [etc.] 1540 Lynd. Sat. 2871.
Sic is thair weird, thairfoir quha sould thame wyte To serue thair beistlie … appatite; Dunb. (STS) lxxxiv 20. My lords, … Ȝe sould annull all this pluralitie c1616 Hume Orthog. 28.
An ald man sould be wyse 1631 Justiciary Cases I 156.
Ane man sould nocht marie tua wyfes(c) c1590 Fowler II 117/11.
Yet, notheles, he sud not be haistye in beleving(d) a1500 Bk. Chess 605.
A quene sald manerit be c1520-c1535 Nisbet Matth. v 47.
And gif ye salus your brethir anlie, quhat sald [P. schulen, shul] ye do maire?(e) 1501 Moncreiffs 58.
And I scal kep lawte … to my scaid lord … as a trow serwand scwld do(f) a1561 Norvell Meroure 7b.
A man that is accused of an crime And wold defend his cause, shulde he take syne For aduocat … His accusars companion? c1590 Fowler I 124/169.
None shuld the treuth with stand a1598 Ferg. Prov. No. 311.
He that speakes the thing he should not, hears the things hee would not 1633 Aberd. Council Lett. I 377.
He shuld not be dischargit since he and his airis must be lyable to manage the rentis of the lands 1661–5 W. Guthrie in Sel. Biog. II 74.
Sympathie requires that I should look sad(2) 1456 Hay II 30/3.
For all knychtis ar and suld be as a cors 1494 Loutfut MS 5b.
Thai [sc. heralds] knaw & suld knaw all the ordinans & office of armes(3) 1561 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 502.
Sche aucht and suld beir the armes … as fallowis, azur thre beirheidis [etc.]
b. In expressing that it is right, just or proper for something to be, to be done or to operate or come about in a certain way.Not always easily distinguishable from B 11 below.(1) a1400 Leg. S. xxxv 147.
Na ȝet thi lyppis suld nocht be Opnyt to pray the trinite 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
Learys sulde be lytille alowit wyth ony sic worschipfull kynge as ȝhe ar c1420 Ratis R. 312.
Archnes … Als weill leuis that suld be done As it that is nocht for to do 14.. Acts I 210/2.
Qwhar it is deliueryt that the mysgouuernance of the reaulme … sulde be imput to the kynge 1461 Newburgh B. Ct. 6b.
The quhylk day Schir Jon of Stanron fand a borch that the pendakyll swld nocht be declarit quhyl the pryncipail war excludit a1500 Henr. Test. Cress. 2.
Ane doolie sessoun to ane cairfull dyte Suld correspond and be equiualent a1500 Colk. Sow i 125.
All beistis … Quhom the law levis ete Or quho suld be no manis meit 1494 Loutfut MS 110b.
For the law sais that quhar a mater is begunnyne it suld be endit ther c1500-c1512 Dunb. (STS) xiv 38.
Quhen curage lakkis the cors that sowld mak kene Ib. (OUP) 201/23.
At ȝour hie croce quhar gold and silk Sould be, thair is bot crudis and milk 1535 Stewart 42469.
For lane, tha sa, suld ay cum lauchand hame a1585 Maitl. Q. 81/34.
Gif we will mak murning Sould be for our offence 1576 Crim. Trials I ii 56.
[She] ansuerit … that this new law was nocht gude, and that the auld fayth suld cum hame agane c1590 Fowler I 191/11.
Whyte hands which suld weire sceptars of estate Ib. II 43/9.
His antiquitie of possessioun sould not turne the verytie in abuse 1596 Dalr. II 22/13.
Certane witche wyfes, quha rather sulde be callet deuilis in the lyknes of wyfes 1602 Prot. Bk. J. Foular I i 170.
That the dure … opinand to the said wind … suld be closit and na passage had thereto be the said Welche … becaus … he has na rycht therto 1609 Skene Reg. Maj. ii 81b.
Hospitalitie sould be keiped be all men for cause of charitie(2) 1540 Edinb. Chart. 212.
That the arreist maid vpoun the said Thomas … schip and gudis … aucht nocht nor suld nocht be lowsit vnder cautioun 1551 Prot. Bk. R. Lumsdane 18b.
Twa merk land … that he aucht and suld be kennit thairto as vse is 1554 Prestwick B. Rec. 62.
The inquest gif Johne Brovne … aucht and suld haue fouyr dawirk of petis c1575 Balfour Pract. 217.
Sould 1607 Melrose Reg. Rec. I 35.
[The rigs] beand baith on ane cavell aucht and suld be equall(3) 1456 Hay I 149/33.
To dispute … quhilk … of thir twa thingis suld have the maistry
c. In expressions of what a person is entitled to or deserves.(1) 1375 Barb. i 21.
Certis thai suld weill hawe prys That in thar tyme war wycht and wys ?1438 Alex. ii 1793.
All sik as he Suld haue worshep and cherising Ib. 6971. c1420 Wynt. i Prol. 62.
He mon of nede be partenere Off qwhat kyne blame that I sulde bere Ib. viii 2043.
Thow suld noucht bere sa fare a knyff Ib. v 2216. 1428 Liber Melros 520.
Thai [sc. an assise] … determynyt that the abbot & the hous of Melros suld hafe in Hassyngton … thre plew of landis 1471 Lindores A. 165.
The sam day Alexander Mitchyson fand a bourtht that John of Ky[n]hard sowlld be nay ballȝhe on fawt the crafft that he owssis c1475 Wall. viii 1379.
He suld haiff payn, that saikles sic ane sleuch a1500 Rois Garlandis 97.
The panis that I suld tholl for my synnis a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 412.
Homage to Edward Langschankis maid thy kyn … Thay suld be exilde Scotland c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 44.
Quhairfoir I think … He suld haue place amangis the laif 1551 Hamilton Cat. 68.
Thai that ar all the wouke in labouris … suld haif rest … to … gadder with the laif to thank and loif God a1568 Scott xvi 7.
To se ane vthir haif the cure That suld be myne 1583 Reg. Privy C. III 597.
Sould 1640 Black Bk. Taymouth 94.
Hir half of the moveables and insight she suld have off the house(2) 1509 Rec. Earld. Orkney 83.
Bot that he and his eris awth and sowd browk fre the lawest of the se and up to the hiest … of the said grownd … of Saba(3) c1420 Wynt. ii 202.
Bot gyff he saulde hym halely All hys awantage … That for as eldest hys sulde be
d. In expressions of what is advisable, prudent or desirable to do or be or be done. 1456 Hay II 114/9.
How princis sud atour all thing tak kepe to thair hele Id. Alex. 3501.
Caulus was grathand vp his gere As wourthie man sould do in tyme of were 1490 Irland Mir. I 13/30.
Thi counsalouris suld be men of wisdome, luffand and dredand God a1500 Seven S. 1104.
Contrare suld be helit with contrare 1547 Corr. M. Lorraine 194.
I think … your grace and counsale suld nocht lichly thir sayingis bot heir tham 1559–60 Soc. Ant. XI 523.
The said reuerand fader aucht nocht to haif hir compellit … but suld persew be way of actioun [etc.] 1566-70 Buch. Comm. on Virgil Georgics i 3, 4.
Qui cultus habendo Sit pecori, … quhat travell suld be taken to store cattell a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 112.
A gevin horse sould not be luked in the teith Ib. No. 183.
A strong theif sould have a stark tow Ib. No. 1529. 1632 Aberd. Council Lett. I 351.
At which rate thai sould pas ay and quhill [etc.] 1665–7 Lauder Jrnl. 146.
A man sould not bourd with his masters 1692 Pitcairne Assembly (1752) ii iii 26.
We suid make an act of transportability
e. In indirect questions after verbs or their equivalents of asking, telling, knowing and the like.(a) c1390 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 21.
Fore giff he [sc. the Prior of Coldingham] suld oni thynk do tyll byschop we can nocht wytt qwat he suld do lesse than mak hym obedienc 1456 Hay I 98/19.
Gif the lord may nocht knaw the first day quha has the lyklyar, gif thai suld [4269/155 quhethir gif thai aw to] cum again on the morne [etc.] Ib. 267/5.
As gif he may sett ane [sc. a champion] for him gif that man suld be quhat kyn a man that him list c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 194/12.
So weill thay ken Quhat tyme and quhen Thair menes thay sowld mak than 1522 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 64.
Sex men … to fynd and decid quhat ilk man suld supple and help 1533 Boece 274b.
Gif Vortigerne … suld be restorit … or gif the sonnys of king Constantine juste heretouris suld be brocht fra Armorik 1556 Lauder Off. Kings 359, 360.
I haue schawin ȝow cleir The way … Hov ȝe ȝour spiritual hirdis suld chuse And how thai hirdis thar lyffs suld vse 1569 Misc. Bann. C. I 50*.
I wait nocht quhy ye suld cast away yourself [etc.] c1590 Fowler II 41/39.
I answer … whether heirfoir suld we haue recourse to an vniuersall or particular kirk? 1611-57 Mure Early Misc. P. i 144.
Let then thy hert discern quho best doth merit, If subtile fraud, or faith, sould thé inherit 1675 Inverness Rec. II 263.
And it being putt to the woice this day quhither or not the said act suld holden inteir at this tyme(b) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 827 (D).
But whethir thai Shold flee thai wist nocht
f. In statements set in past time. 1375 Barb. vii 534.
He tuk awisement with his men On quhat maner thai suld do then c1420 Wynt. vii 227.
A takyn … to mak thame kend Quhat lord thai suld ches to be kyng Ib. ix 1466.
The Kyng off Frawns thai sayd forthi Suld late off Scotland rycht lychtly 1456 Hay I 178/31.
And he say that he understude nocht that he suld pas be see till sa fer a haly graf c1475 Wall. i 52.
In Ingland thai send Of this gret striff how thai suld haif ane end 15.. Dunb. App. iii 5.
Quhairof I hovit now in dowt, Gif I sowld luve, or lat it be 1596 Dalr. I 88/10.
g. ellipt. c1420 Wynt. vii 2280.
Than the kyng inclynyd nowcht To that, as he than suld and mowcht 14.. Acts I 333/2.
Of broustaris … [It is charged] at thai put nocht furth thar ail wande to certify the cunnaris [pr. tunnaris] of the ayl as thai solde a1585 Maitl. Q. 209/33.
That God wald him inspyire Me to intreit as sould ane trew husband 1638 Rothes Affairs Kirk 170.
The customers … suspected the muskets … to have past for a lesse custome then they sould — ?1549–50 Corr. M. Lorraine 321.
Quhowbeyt I rassafit never a charge that mycht be obbeyt nor sould do, as I schew your grace 1554 Holyrood Chart. 293.
The tailȝouris … to pay thair dewities … siklyk as thai swld do 1581 Glasgow B. Rec. I 84.
h. Also with the perfect infin. in reference to perfect time. c1420 Wynt. vi 182.
Quha that luwe wald per drwry, He suld have chosyn this lady Ib. vii 2277.
Till restore … that thai before Had and suld hawe had off dett c1409-1436 Kingis Q. §15.
For lak of it that suld bene hir supplye 1489 Treas. Acc. I 118.
To the master houshalde for the Dwke off Ross exspencis, quhilk the comptrollere sulde hafe payt him 1533 Gau 3/10.
Bot be richt thay suld hayf callit thayme the errour and begeline 1550 Grey Friars II 11.
To haif herd letters direct … upon thame or ellis to haif allegit ane ressonable cause quhy the samin suld nocht haif bene gevin c1590 Fowler II 46/5, 7.
Tha places quhilk sould bene befoir, this apostat hes placit behind; and tha quhilk sould haue bene placit behind [etc.] Ib. 177/30.
The workmen wer employed in vther busines quha suld have falloued furth that inventioun geven thame 1596 Dalr. II 163 marg.
To quhome the kirk lyuengs aucht and suld haue bene destributed 1604 Inverness Rec. II 26.
Sex bollis meill quhilk com in be sey quhilk suld bein first lovit to the toune 1608 Inverurie B. Ct. 1 Nov.
Becaus the same suld haif bein sufficientlie biggt be the said Walter Scott befoir Michalday last 1619 Perth Kirk S. MS 5 Jan.
That he hed spendit hir geir that suld helpit to interteinye thair famulie … and thairfor waild nocht marye him 1627 Bk. Carlaverock II 92.
Thomas Meinȝes, quha sould haue furnished … 40 soldieris, hes not givin fyftein 1665–7 Lauder Jrnl. 127.
And instead that he sould have baptized James, he called it John
11. a. In general statements, not limited to a particular occasion, of what is appointed or ordained or what is the normal practice. With a main verb infin., taking the place of the present tense of the main verb, with the added notion of what is expected or normal: = is to, are to, is or are expected or supposed to, normally does or do. With be: = normally is.There is some overlap or ambiguity with prec. sense.(1) 1456 Hay II 42/23.
Than sall cum furth the prince … that suld mak him knycht Ib. 43/2, 5.
And than suld the squier hald up his handis to the hevyn … and thare suld the prince have the suerd redy of honour a1500 Bk. Chess 1563, 1568.
This popular suld stand befor the king … And at his belt suld hyngand be a purs c1515 Asl. MS I 314/12.
Jowis … laking the sennonis that suld force the body 1544 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 21.
Altar landis in Fowern. Wilyame Dwthe for ane altar land suld pay xx s. 1576 Orkney Oppress. 40.
For quhair as twelff gild keling and aucht gild ling suld mak the gudling and was evir in use [etc.] 1609 Skene Reg. Maj. ii 56b.
The gallon sould conteine twelue pound of water Ib. (Latin) ii 116.
Res mobiles furis convicti ad vice-comitem pertinent … wherof he sould make compt in the Eschequer 1617 Acts IV 545/2.
Whether a lyifrent tak suld fall vnder the gift of a simple escheate or not(b) a1633 Hope Major Pract. II 21.
The lords should have twell pennies of the pund of all decreits anent liquid soumes(2) a1400 Leg. S. xxxiv 24.
Wantande nathing of bewte, That in a woman suld fundyn be c1420 Wynt. i 750.
A gret bane thai say has he In that stede quhar hys teth sulde be 1490 Irland Mir. II 11/11.
And this diffinicioun of Sanct Paule suld be wnderstand that the faith is a gud qualite a1500 Bk. Chess 690.
The forme of Dephyne … Suld be a juge intill a chiar sittand 1511 Crim. Trials I i 74.
Vnder the pane of punising of him with siclike punitioun as thai sald be pvnist a1595 Descr. Isles 439.
Quhairof the 3d pairt extending to 2000 men aucht and sould be cled with attounes and haberchounis [etc.] … as thair lawis beir 1609 Skene Reg. Maj. i 42b.
Homage suld be made in this maner, that is, the maker therof sall [etc.] Ib. 150, 150b.
The taisters of aill sall be challenged first that [etc.] … Apprysers of flesh sould be challenged and accused that [etc.] … Baksters sould be challenged [etc.] c1616 Hume Orthog. 11.
For these be diphthong soundes, and the sound of a voual sould be simple Ib. 17.
Behynd the voual thei make noe consonant sound, nor sould be written 1625 Justiciary Cases I 29.
That quhair … be diuers actis of parliament … it is expreslie … statute … that the measour … quairuith all clayth … is or sould be met in all tyme thairefter … sall contene [etc.]
b. specif. In use in legal formulations of what is ordained or permitted by law.Some examples in a may rather belong here.Cf. sall in sense A 3 b (1).(a) c1575 Balfour Pract. 78.
Ane alien merchand sould not have lot or cavill with a gild-brother Ib.
Albeit the hydis be cuttit in pieces the sellar thairof sould pay toll thairfoir Ib., etc.
Na barker sould bark ony hydis bot thame that [etc.] Ib. 115.
Siclike the … tutor of law sould be preferrit to the tutor dative that gif thair be ony tutor of law lauchfullie servit and admittit the tutor dative sould na wayis be admittit 1597 Skene in Acts (1597) i 5b.
How meikle gudes ane merchand sayling suld haue. Item it is statute … that na merchand … passe ouer the sea in merchandice bot he haue [etc.] Id. in Acts (1597) Table.
Ilke craft suld haue ane deakon. Item it is ordaned that … of ilk sindrie craft … be chosen a wise man … the quhilk salbe halden deakon(b) a1633 Hope Major Pract. II 29.
Actions of mute or pley once brought in befoir the chamerlane … should not descend to ane inferior court therefter
c. In a particular instruction, of something that is appointed to be done. ?14.. Ship Laws c. 21 (Harl. 2).
A ȝongmane … maid ladismane of a schip and bringis hir to the place quhar sche suld be deliuirit 1596 Dalr. I 260/14.
The 4 stemm … suld heir be imprented
12. Where the statement is a logical consequence of the circumstances or other considerations stated or implied in the context: In consequence ought to, should logically, must. With reference to present and future time.Often with admixture of B 10.(a) 1375 Barb. i 3.
Storys to rede ar delitabill Suppos that thai be nocht bot fabill, Than suld storys that suthfast wer … Hawe doubill plesance a1400 Leg. S. vii 497.
Be cause he wes the worthyeste … Thare-fore suld God mare plesandis hafe In til his blud 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
Me think o resoune yhe sulde erar put blame … to the doarys of the saide trespas … than me 1456 Hay II 39/33.
Chevalry may nocht be up haldyn but grete costis … and tharfore, thare suld na man … desyre to tak the ordre bot he war a lorde [etc.] a1500 Henr. Praise of Age 25.
Suld no man traist this wrechit warld for quhy Of erdly ioy ay sorow is the end c1475 Wall. xi 269.
Hwmblely he said, ‘Ye suld disples you nocht; This ye desyryt’ 1482–3 Acta Aud. in Acta Conc. II cxix.
Allegit be the said Andro that the said landis pertenit to him be reson of tak … and that the gift of liferent made to the sade Johne the Broise suld be of nane avale because [etc.] 1531 Bell. Boece II 388.
Quhen ony preis of hors-men come abone the said fowseis, the lofting suld brek, and … the hors-men suld … be revin on staikis 1533 Gau 51/4. 1533 Boece 262b.
Hereapoun suld follow gif Saxons be force war nocht resistit thai suld [etc.] c1552 Lynd. Mon. 2334. a1561 Q. Kennedy Breif Tract. (ed.) 116/13, 14.
Thair is na ressone … quhairfor it suld be thocht that the vordis of our saluiour … [sul]d be spokin be ane … similitude 1596 Dalr. I 117/11.
Nathir sulde ony mervel heirof, quhen [etc.] 1602 Colville Paraenese 42.
Yea the authors of this chimer by the self same gyges ring suld be inuisible to thair inuisible flok(b) 1520 Fife Sheriff Ct. 171.
Protestit that sene the abbot … herd … the disputacioun … & allegeit na thing aganis the grond richt tharof that tharfor he sould neuir be herd in that cause in jugement eftirwert 1581 Hamilton Cath. Tr. 62.
Sa he searchis out all golenȝeis … to caus thame beleue thay vordis of the testament sould be vtheruyse vnderstand nor thay var simpillie proponit a1605 Montg. Misc. P. lii 21.
Sowld c1616 Hume Orthog. 13.
Ther sould be for everie sound that can occur one symbol … This reason and nature craveth 1617 Crim. Trials III 422.
Na declinatour aucht to be proponit aganis him; at the leist, na kinreid sould be ony caus to declyne him(c) 1633 Aberd. Council Lett. I 376.
Becaus as he hes alredie mellit with the moneyes … so shuld he be decernit to continew thairwith
b. Where an authority or argument is cited in an accompanying prep. phrase. c1420 Wynt. iv Prol. 10.
Be this clerkis autoryte A garland as a crowne sulde be Wndyrstandyn … , A takyn off wyrschype 1561 Crim. Trials I i 411.
The said James Schoriswod … protestit that the said parsone suld tyne his benefice, conforme to the lawis c1575 Balfour Pract. 218.
For be the law of this realme … ilk manis last will and desire sould be frank and fre
c. In the apodosis of a hypothetical sentence.(a) 1375 Barb. xvi 605.
Certis giff he gert serff ȝow weill The gilt spuris … He suld in hy ger hew ȝow fra a1568 Bann. MS 134b/5.
He suld weir yrn schone Suld byd a manis deid a1578 Pitsc. II 24/29.
Ane callit Allexander Hair. … ‘Gif thow be ane hair thow sould be speidie’ 1582 Laing Chart. 259.
Quhair he suld haif ane kyll … he suld haif ane horse to help in wytht his thyrle(b) a1500 Quare Jel. 100.
Hir to behold thare was no gentill hert Than he schuld haue compassioun of hir smert
d. Also with perfect infin. in reference to perfect time. 1490 Irland Mir. I 114/20.
And sene thire strangearis savit the toune … thai suld nocht be werray equite and ressoune bene punyst bot richly rewardit 15.. Christis Kirk 143 (B).
He suld bene [M. suld be] swift that gat him Throw speid 1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 29.
For the nobilitie of his birth … he suld hawe bene nixt efter the quene maist honourabilly ressauit c1590 Fowler I 83/171.
For thow suld first o death me kild, my debt by age wes dew c1616 Hume Orthog. 12.
Quhilk if then it had sounded as now we sound it he sould rather have written it with [etc.] 1638 Rothes Affairs Kirk 113.
Considering the same to be a fort for defence … of the kingdome and therfor sould not bein employed against the collective body of the kingdome
e. With reference to past time. c1420 Wynt. viii 560.
And be swilk custwme as was than … The rycht off that successyown Suld hawe determynatyown 1456 Hay I 56/3.
That sen thai had nane armyng na irne … thay had gold and silver yneuche, thai suld mak thame armouris of gold and silver c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 1461.
And than hir freindis did conclude, Becaus scho micht do him na gude, That scho suld take hir leif and go Till hir cuntrie
f. As future in the past: Would have cause to. 1375 Barb. viii 121.
& all his menȝe confortyt war For thaim thocht weille … That thai suld less thar fayis dreid Sen thar purpos sa with thaim ȝeid
g. In a dependent clause introduced by that or na, which states an inevitable consequence of the state of affairs described in the preceding main or superordinate clause: Must inevitably or perforce, cannot or could not but.With reference to present or past time.(1) 1375 Barb. i 103.
Landis … That he put to swylk thrillage That thai that war off hey parage Suld ryn on fute as rebaldaill Ib. 382.
Bot he wes nocht sa fayr that we Suld spek gretly off his beaute Ib. xi 141.
Sa mony a cumbly knycht That it semyt that … Thai suld wencus the warld a1400 Leg. S. xxxiv 26.
Sa costly aray Scho had, that I suld irk to say 1460 Hay Alex. 2997.
Alexander … dulit to-gidder fast aikis grette … And with thai chenȝeis linkit thame so fast That quhare ane ȝeid all suld toggidder ga a1500 Bk. Chess 495.
So secret was the thing That thai on sat that vnder bannysing … thair suld no man revele 1562-3 Winȝet II 5/11.
And ȝit gif the trew citienaris … war recouncelit [etc.] … thai war na dout bot … sik terrouris and draidour suld be amangis our aduersaris that our wallis suld be biggit incontinent c1590 Fowler II 20/37.
Shameles foole, whair doth foly force thee that thou sould be so immoderat?(2) ?1438 Alex. i 3015.
And he war tane suld na ransoun Saif him na he suld hangit be
13. a. Is or are, was or were, compelled or constrained to.In clauses of explanation. 1375 Barb. iv 341.
James off Douglas wes angry That thai langar suld ydill ly 1513 Doug. v xi 100.
My self left Beroes … Lyand seyk at hame and ful ennoyit wight That scho alane suld want this ryal syght
b. In a clause introduced by the collocation (the, a) caus quhy or quhareby, in prec. senses. 1550 Grey Friars II 11.
Thai wer chargit to haif comperit … to haif allegit ane ressonable cause quhy the samin suld nocht haif bene gevin 1558-66 Knox II 85.
Neither in us … was thair any caus quhy Thou souldest have gevin unto us sa joyfull … a delyverance 1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 14.
Sen nouther of his parentis wer ignorant of the causis quhairby the mariage suld be voyde 1600 Aberd. Council Lett. I 87.
14. In prec. senses in rhetorical questions.(1) 1375 Barb. xi 142.
Quhy suld I mak to lang my taile? c1420 Wynt. i 622.
Bot fra Hys wyll quhen that we wryth Quhy sulde He Hys gracys kyth Till ws? Ib. v 2773.
‘Quhy suld we slay,’ he said, ‘our awyne?’ c1475 Wall. xi 311.
Quhar to suld I her off lang process mak? c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 127/46.
Now lufferis cummis with larges lowd, Quhy sould not palfrayis thane be prowd? 1567 G. Ball. 60.
He is the rute of my remembrance rycht … Quhy suld I not do seruice for his saik? a1570-86 Maitl. F. 361/50.
Quhy sould he me forsaik? a1585, a1568 Montg. P. iv 1.
Quhy sowld I luve bot gif I war luvit? c1590 Fowler II 51/2.
Quhairfoir suld they be reput as theauis?(2) a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii 406.
Hou suld thai than be godis … That ar mad & ma mak na thing? 1456 Hay I 110/26.
And gif the pape has na lordschip here, how suld he mak were than apon the Emperour, or juge him? a1487 Gud Wyf & D. 299.
Thai haue no craft; how suld thai liff? a1500 Prestis of Peblis 415.
How sould he kyth mirakil and he sa euil? a1500 Bk. Chess 972.
How suld he leif and his trew fallow deid? c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 40/34.
How sould ony gentill hart indure To se this sycht on ony creature? 1513 Doug. iv Prol. 186.
Of brokkaris and syk bawdry quhou suld I write? Ib. xii xiii 204. 1567 G. Ball. 59.
How suld I lufe and fra his treuth remufe?(3) a1500 Henr. Fab. 108.
Quhar suld thow [sc. the jasp] sit bot on ane kingis croun?(4) 1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 184.
Ha, quha suld haue firme esperance in this Quhilk is allace sa freuch and variant? 1567 G. Ball. 60.
Quhome suld I serue bot him that did me saue? 1584 Sempill Sat. P. xlv 1008.
What suld I lyble of this lowne? Not all the paper of this towne … May had the half that he hes done(5) a1568 Scott vi 33.
Suld I presome this sedull schaw, Or lat me langouris be lamentit? Ib. xxxiv 133.
Suld ladeis than be lakkit Thocht few of thame be gud? 1584 Sempill Sat. P. xlv 636.
Suld our embassadour gea borrow And want or ever he wyn ower Tweid? c1590 Fowler I 152/1.
Suld I not heate these harmefull hands … Which shott the shafts of love [etc.]?
b. ellipt. What suld (one say) moir? c1650 Spalding I 171.
What suld moir? efter brakfast the marquess [etc.] … makis thame reddie to go
15. In a statement of past necessity: Were obliged to, had to. a1578 Pitsc. I 226/17.
They could gett no man nor maisteris … quhill at last they sould send for Androw Wode … and to that effect he sould be weill furnischit with men [etc.]
16. In the apodosis of a hypothetical proposition (expressed or implied), where the hypothesis (and therefore its consequence) is marked as unreal or uncertain, whereas sall in senses A 4, 5, 6 or 12 would be used if the hypothesis were accepted.Cf. also B 12 c.(1) 1375 Barb. xi 205.
Suld I tell all thar affer … Thoucht I couth I suld combryt be Ib. xii 289.
Mar myscheff may fall ws nane Than in thar handys to be tane For thai suld sla ws I wate weill ?c1400 Reg. Episc. Aberd. I 248.
The whilk name war nocht likly it suld haf war it nocht the bischapis c1420 Wynt. ii 882.
Swa suld I dulle hale yhoure delyte And yhe sulde call it bot arane … Gyff I sulde tell thaim halyly c1450 Cr. Deyng (STS) 169.
For and he de as he suld de, he suld think that he suld pas to mare joy na [etc.] c1466–80 Letter from Lord Hamilton MS.
Walde ȝour ladischip gar the twa ȝoung men … cum agan … thai sulde be rycht weill cheryst a1500 Henr. Orph. 554.
This auarice be grace quha vnder-stud I trow suld leve thair grete solicitude … To gader gold 1513 Doug. iii Prol. 35.
Few knawis all thir costis … , To pike thame vp perchance ȝour eyn suld [Sm. suld, Ruddim. wil] reill 1570 Misc. Bann. C. I 50.
I … wald wische all the nobilitie knew that I know … I traist thay suld nocht be so arche to put remedie to their inconvenientis a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 1532 (E).
Gif we gae doun about … The streim is thair sae stark, … It suld be ydle wark Id. Sonn. lxvi 8.
If ȝe bot sau me in this winter win … I trou thair suld be tears or we tua shed 1609 Acts IV 421/1.
And I wald wische that ȝour lo. wald … come … and thaireftir I suld meit ȝour lo. in Leith 1630 Aberd. Council Lett. I 335.
If we suld be restranit from … fischeing on the sabboth day these fischeis suld escaip thame far up the watteris(b) ?1438 Alex. (c1580) i 947.
Sen thow war into this stour … Thow sould vs venge richt weill, perfay Ib. 2810.
War I chargit with nane bot thé, Thy wordis sould thow sone lat be! 1460 Hay Alex. 3531.
[He] for oure dede sould mak sic doloring That he sal nevir into the erde haue ioye c1500-c1512 Dunb. Flyt. 8.
Howbeit with bost thair breistis wer als bendit As Lucifer … Hell sould nocht hyd thair harnis fra harmis hynting Ib. 9.
The erd sould trymbill, the firmament sould schaik … To heir quhat I suld wryt Ib. 13, 14. 1540 Lynd. Sat. 206, 207 (B).
Wer I ane king it sowld be kend I sowld not spair on hir to spend Ib. 3256.
Sowld ?1549–50 Corr. M. Lorraine 321.
For gyf my lord governour wald byd me cum … I sould be rady … alls soyn as sould ony uder 1567 G. Ball. 212.
Gif kingis wald mes to Rome hens dryue, … Suld be the meane to haue belyue Ane end of mes a1578 Pitsc. I 36/9.
Quhill we be baitht rootted out … throw the quhilk all lawis and justice sould be contempnit and everie man that pleissis sall put hand in the kingis awin persone 1611-57 Mure Sonn. v 14.
Had I mo lyfes, tham sould I hazart too(c) c1420 Ratis R. 1713.
Set thai war wisare fere than he Suchuld his part ȝhit commendit be a1500 Lanc. 1427.
For if it leful were Confessioune to me, I shuld it here 1568 Skeyne Descr. Pest 16.
Gif I wald treate this argument at sic laser as [etc.] … I shulde enter in ane patent campe c1590 Fowler I 278/117.
Being dead … My memorie shuld thé forgett, my toung suld speik no more Off thé(d) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 1042 (C).
Agamenone … Put ageyne Anthenore in stryve Wher sche shold be and sche one lyve c1450-2 Howlat 415 (A).
A lyoun … Of siluer ȝe se shold [B. schold] Ib. 676.(e) 1586 James VI in Rait & Cameron King James's Secret 61.
Would God she mought see the inward partes of my harte where she should see [etc.](f) 1699 Cramond Ch. Aberdour 37.
It was judged reasonable that the said Agnes shud come here … to cleer herself, in case of giving the Lord's supper it shud be a stumbling to the Lord's people to see her at the table under such an ill fame(2) c1590 Fowler I 152/13.
How far suld then my ioyes and glaidnes growe, Gif pittie anes culd from your fairnes flowe? Ib. II 109/11.
Gif the enmeye were incamped vpon yonder hill … Quhow suld we with saftye … assayllȝe thame?
b. With reference to past time. 1375 Barb. vii 539.
Horsmen mycht nocht him assaile, And giff futemen gaiff him battaile He suld be hard to wyn 1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 156.
Proclamatioun was maid that quhasaever culd bewray the murthereris of the king suld haue twa thousand pund 1586 Rait & Cameron King James's Secret 30.
That if sche wald not … follow thair adwise, that thai suld remayne without all blayme whatsoewir suld fall owt c1590 Fowler II 24/14, 15.
Thai laid befoir his eies how grittumly al Catholikkis suld be obleist vnto him & how far his auin name thairby sould be aduancit a1597-1617 Hist. Jas. VI (1825) 228.
Assuring him that geve he sould travell any further to deturne the king from sik decreis … he sould feill thair universall indignatioun 1600-1610 Melvill 313.
He sould nocht refuse to go to the gibbet for it, provyding they … sould ga the sam gett c1610 Lanark B. Rec. 121.
The said Johne Connighame said I sould no gang and I wer hangit a1651 Calderwood VII 620.
Johne Dickson acknowledged he sould prove verie unthankfull if ever [etc.] 1661 Elgin Rec. II 295.
She tells him that ther neuer wes that discorded with her that ever sould thryve
c. With the perfect infin. in reference to perfect time.(1) c1400 Troy-bk. i 79.
Hade he bene … Rytht lyk as syk a kyng suld be He suld haue gert ws honorabilly Haue bene demanyt 1513 Doug. viii ix 62.
Gyf so war now … as than hes bene Ne suld I nevir [etc.] … Nor … Mezentyus … Suld na wys … haue killyt so feill corps 1533 Douglas Corr. 141.
Thar is no owder newes … or els I sowld haff wryten sik is I hawd knawen 1567 Sat. P. iii 25.
He soulde haue bene lyke Deiphoebus Had feinȝeit fortoun fauourit him to ring 1574 Reg. Morton I 79.
For I will assuir ȝow … houbeit … my husband haid nocht bene debtfull to ȝow gif it had bene in my possibilitie ȝe suld haue haid it 1581 Ib. 127.
Giff we had bene present … we sould have insistit [etc.] 1591 Ib. 172.
Thare sold haue na wardlie tourne stayit me … bot it hes plesit God to visit me with ane extreme fyfher 1599 St. A. Kirk S. 893.
Yit had he and his cumpany bene als mony and als habill, they suld have gottin a meitting a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 783.
Had I wittin that I wat ye sould have not gottin that ye gat(b) c1515 Adam Williamson in Doug. (Sm.) I xxvi.
I haffe lossyt my gooddis that I shuld haff leyff apon in my age 1558-66 Knox I 460.
For kepping of the victuallis whiche should have cumed to us 1661–5 W. Guthrie in Sel. Biog. II 74.
It were a sin to look sad … for in so doing I should make his heart glad which God would have made sad(2) c1475 Wall. xi 1377.
So wttraly it suld beyn at his will, Quhat plessyt him, to sauff thi king or spill 1560 Rolland Seven S. 5725.
Than Galiene perchance micht found remeid And at that time he [sc. Ypocras] suld not sufferit deid 1584 Gowrie P. 42.
The longer that I live I seuld ben involvidd in the great[er] care c1590 Fowler II 30/25.
For if … honesty might mouit thé … thou suld not causit vther mens honours to cum in hazard 1623 Perth Kirk S. MS 8 Sept.
Alexr Lokart … ansuerit that … gif he hed knawin it hed beine offensiue … he suld nocht done it 1661 Elgin Rec. II 297.
Iff ye had given me ane pynt aill nothing then sould ailled you(b) 1685 Kirkintilloch B. Ct. 137.
That had hir hen in thair pot that shoe should peyit the rent with
d. Where the hypothesis is a negative (expressed or implied).i.e. Something would happen, would have happened, also, would not have happened, if some event had not intervened.(1) 1554 Duncan Laideus Test. 153.
Syne schaw it to my complices eftirwart. I wat thai will say, ‘He that suld hawd ws Is gane for euir, gude Duncane Lawdus’ 1573–4 Cal. Sc. P. IV 683.
Ane pirate Inglish ship … hes spuilȝeit … my haill guidis and geir … and haill vittuallis quhairupone I and my kuppagne suld have leiffit c1590 Fowler I 198/6.
Fred of the cage whair shee suld bene enclosd Ib. II 179/2.
And be the dyvers schapes of the beastes that suld haue borne … thame in, the sight had bene … wonderfull … bot … some arrysing letts empesched this conceate 1636 Moray Synod 39.
That his … father … sould have been execut … had he not [etc.](2) a1599 Rollock Wks. I 335.
And gif he had not sein the judgement sait … he suld never haif gottin ane sicht of that mercy sait
17. a. In the protasis of a hypothetical proposition indicating that the supposition, though conceivable, is uncertain, also expressing hesitancy or modesty on the part of the author, also, rarely, that it is inconceivable: Were to, might.For further examples see B 16.(1) 1375 Barb. xi 203 (see B 16 (1)). c1420 Wynt. ii 883; etc. (see B 16 (1)). a1500 Rauf C. 497.
It micht be preifit preiudice bot gif thow suld compeir 1530 Aberd. B. Rec. I 131.
Gif it suld hapyn the Lord Forbes … to cum to the said tovn … that … all the nychtbouris conveine and stope thame to haue entres [etc.] Arundel MS 253/440.
Never the les I … wald not deny Thé and I sulde de 15.. Clar. i 1547.
[She said,] Of thir knichtis my chose if I sould have, Clariodus I chuse 1560 Rolland Seven S. 350.
Suld 1588 King Cat. h vii.
Bot becaus xi being addit … giff ȝe sowld abstract thairfra 30 for the moneth excressent of that ȝere, nather sowld the new-moones returne to the same dayes as before nather [etc.] c1590 Fowler II 131/18.
At which tyme thy verteous … resolutions wer pernicious enmeyes to thy attempts … gif thow suld fallow theme 1602 Colville Paraenese 42.
Evin as if vee ver valking amidds a gret court of ducs [etc.] … and suld imagin vee did not see any of thame 1613 Conv. Burghs II 429.
Giff they call any ane vther ane knaif or lowne … or els sould gif ane vther ane cuf on the halfit, thay sall pay [etc.] 1631 Red Bk. Menteith II 129.
But geving suche misfortun did require that theis sould come in lite, ȝit do but this for me [etc.](b) c1590 Fowler I 80/94.
The number was so hudge … as none culd hawe tham pend Suppose he shuld in prose and verse thame prease to comprehend 1638 Adamson Muses Thr. 31.
If to be victorious should betide him, They should some yearly pension provide him 1639 Sc. Ant. III 133.
Although a man should crie never so lowde to his fellow [etc.](2) c1616 Hume Orthog. 11.
If I sould judge, the Frensh sound is neerest the voual sound as we pronunce it in mule(3) 1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 160.
For surely I thocht … that althocht knawledge suld bene gottin, na man durst haue said it was evill done, seing the hand-writtis
b. In a relative clause with hypothetical meaning. a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 48.
Ask leif at the lord yone landis suld leid, That we myght entir in his toune c1500-c1512 Dunb. Flyt. 9 (see B 16 (1) (b)). c1590 Fowler II 37/5.
I meruel not a lytill quhat spreit sould haue mouit thee that [etc.] a1598 Ferg. Prov. MS No. 134.
Airlie crookis the tree the good kammock sould be 1614 Fife Synod 78.
Ane intollerable corruptioun that laik persons … sowld brook the places of … ecclesiastick dignities
c. In a concessive clause with hypothetical meaning: Were to, might. c1420 Wynt. vii 2371.
Set thai suld hang hym be the hals, All swth he sayd 1494 Loutfut MS 15b.
He will … rewenge him all suld he de 1535 Stewart 51445.
And insufficient also for to dyte Thocht I suld leve ane hundreth ȝeir onlyve His nobilnes … till discryve 1540 Lynd. Sat. Proclam. 30.
And drink ane quart in Cowpar toun … Thocht all the nolt sowld rair 15.. Christis Kirk 27 (M).
Thocht all hir kin suld haue bein deid Sche wald haue bot sweit Willie c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 923.
Howbeit I suld be slane, He sall haue lufe for lufe agane a1568 Sempill Sat. P. xlvi 34.
Na pedderis pak scho will ressaif, Althocht hir travell scho sowld tyne Id. Ib. xlvii 92.
Captane Adamsone will nocht lat thame want Bedding, howbeit thay sowld lig all togidder
d. In statements of preference in a hypothetical situation. ?1438 Alex. i 350.
Me leuer war … Wery and woundit with thé be, Than ony … man sould se Me … eschew the ficht 1460 Hay Alex. 3476.
I had lever consent that I Sould tyne all richtis … Na leif my feris 1513 Doug. v iv 131.
Or thai thar lawd suld loys … Thai had far levir lay thar lyfe in wage
e. In hypothetical comparisons and contrasts, introduced by lyk (as), as gif, etc.: Were to, might. c1400 Troy-bk. i 415.
It war lyk all thing suld brast … wndre that blast ?1438 Alex. i 2854.
Oft he turned appartly, Richt as it war ane baittit bair, Quhan the houndis byte sould him sair 1557 Aberd. Council Lett. I 3.
Stent ȝour burgh as the support of the quenis lands suld releif the burrowis for ane feyrd part of the taxt. I beleif simplie that [etc.] … nochtheles stent ye … as it sald come to ane feyrd part a1568 Bann. MS 157b/20. a1570-86 Merser Maitl. F. 411/14.
Lyke as eird vnto eird never go sold [: mold, gold, wold] a1585 Maitland Maitl. Q. 76/56.
Lyike as this warld and thay sould euer left 1584 Acts III 360/1.
That he sall neuir be tryit howbeit his offensis wer neuir sa manifest quhilk is alsmekil in effect as gif he sould do quhat him lykit c1590 Fowler I 292/52.
For whils my wrechted plight suld move the very haggard stones And sensles bloks with me to waill … They which … had cald them selfs my nerest friends … Thay stand stone still
18. In the apodosis of a conditional sentence with a. present, b. past, reference, which states a condition upon which an outcome expressed in the protasis depends: Must, was or is obliged to.a. c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 13/28.
Of syn gif thou wald have deliverance Thow sulde it tell with all the circumstance c1590 J. Stewart 228 §114.
Veill sould ȝe luif this glittous ladie deir, Gif ȝe in court be myndfull to remaineb. 1535 Stewart 30305.
Than hes he send thame till Sayand tha sould … All kynd of armour … cast by … sa tha wald saue thair lyfe
19. In noun clauses (normally introduced by that) and indirect questions. With present and past reference. a. Dependent upon expressions of emotion or attitude, also of perception.In some, but not all, examples appar. adding the notion of uncertainty or hypothesis absent from the alternative expression by the indicative mood of the main verb.(1) 1375 Barb. v 173.
Bot off gud Cristole off Setoun … That he suld dey war gret pite ?1438 Alex. ii 10446.
Pryde … Said in his eir that shame was great That he sould outher for lufe or threat Forȝet his fatheris deid sa sone a1500 Rauf C. 785.
Sall neuer lord lauch on loft … That I for liddernes suld leif c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 180/91.
Gud Maister Walter Kennedy In poynt of dede lyis veraly, Gret reuth it wer that so suld be [M. he suld de] 1529 Rec. Earld. Orkney 59.
And has banisht divers of thame … quhilk is gret schame that sick thingis sald be hard within this realme unpunisht 1535 Stewart 26084.
Displesit wes the nobillis … That sic ane man … Sould thame prevaill 15.. Lichtoun Dreme 21 (B).
I brak my heid vpoun ane know of reme; That I suld hurt my self I had dispyte 1565 St. A. Kirk S. 234.
I beand bot ane yong woman … fearing my said brother that thar sudd ane gret inconvenience follow heirefter … wes compellit [etc.] 1573 Davidson Sat. P. xlii 67.
I meruell … That sic ane leirnit man as ȝe Sa lychtlie suld disdaine [etc.] a1578 Pitsc. I 36/2.
I ame suith the more offendit that we … sould be haldin as moking stokis Ib. 282/20.
The Erle of Arrane was weill contentit that my lord of Angus sould haue passit his bussienes in the toune at his plesour and to depairt quhene he list but molestatioun c1590 Fowler II 59/14.
Be it far from vs that so ignorant of this benefeit we suld be 1619 Garden Elphinstoun 1026, 1027.
Whairfor be loathe that once It sould be sayd or sene That thow sould breck that band 1674 Edinb. B. Rec. X 207.
It seimes hard to us that there sould be such jealousies and suspitiones thus interteined of us(b) 1570-3 Bann. Trans. 57.
Wald ye, my lord, that I shuld mak a manifest leising for your pleasour c1660 Honours Scotl. 109.
I am struck with amasement to think that my lord Marischal should in the least countenanced him(2) 1567 Sat. P. iii 5.
Oche and wallaway! That euer I sould byde to se that day! a1570-86 Maitl. F. 364/143.
Allace that euer the toung sould hecht That [etc.](3) a1500 Rauf C. 403.
Schir Rolland had greit ferly, and in hart kest Quhat that suld betakin that the king tald c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 163/63.
All fowill ferleit quhat he sowld be(b) a1500 Lanc. 522.
God wot What this shude men(4) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 352.
Me hath levere thole peyne of ded … Thane such trespas ageynes me … put shold be(5) 1494 Loutfut MS 31b.
& the maryneris persaiffis be thaim quhen the tempest suld cum(6) a1500 Henr. Fab. 82.
It wer pietie thow suld in this mydding Be buryit thus Ib. 85.
It is pietie I suld thé find, for quhy [etc.] 1513 Doug. v vi 99.
The … terys Sched for dysdeyn he suld swa leys hys pryce Ib. vi v 121.
Dreding scho [sc. the ship] suld haue perist 1574 Reg. Morton I 79.
I am veray sorie ȝe suld conceave sic ane opinioun of me(b) c1590 Fowler I 56/230.
How he jelous walkis … Suspecting ay his riwall foe … shuld thrust him owt
b. Dependent on expressions of rightness, justice, appropriateness, legal ordinance, etc. 1460 Hay Alex. 3457.
Me think that sould nocht be Withoutin straik that I sould schape to fle 1568 Q. Mary in Facs. Nat. MSS III lviii.
And that it was not necessair that W. Lord Hereis [etc.] … sould mel thairwith a1578 Pitsc. II 133/2.
That it is aganes the lawis of haly kirk that thow souldest be ane preist and marie ane wyff c1590 Fowler II 13/5.
An letter … quhilk quhan thay had perused thay thocht it expedient that I suld answer thairto Ib. 31/3.
It was not contrar vnto his wil that thou suld sua haue done Ib. 189/35.
It was thoght gud the More suld supple that rovme 1593 Misc. Spald. C. I 5.
He hes merit bettir … nor that your maiestie suld put him ut of his forbears rank 1632 Aberd. Council Lett. I 351.
Therfor it wald seim fitest that the samyn [sc. devaluing of coins] sould be done be litill and litill to the end [etc.] 1649 Acts VI ii 717/2.
It is most necessar that some particular persone sould be appoynted [etc.](b) 1699 Cramond Ch. Aberdour 37 (see 16 (1) (f) above). 1703 Rothesay Par. Rec. 176.
The Session … thought fitt that now there should be a leet made
20. a. = A 6 b above. a1500 Quare Jel. 217.
All lusty womanhede … quhom this warldis gladnese from his hicht Schold sone avale
b. In the apodosis of an (implied) hypothetical proposition, with a verb of liking or enjoyment in the first person: Should, would. 1700 Laing MSS II 1.
I am desird by these honorable subscribers to tell you I shud be glad of your company here
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