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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 2002 (DOST Vol. XII).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Without(in, prep., adv. (conj.). Also: withoute, -owt(e, -owtt, -oot, (-oult), vithout, wythout(e, -owt(e, vythout, witheout, withtout(e, vithtout, wythtout(e, -owt(e, vythtout, withoutyn, -en, -ine, -yne, -ing, -outtyn, -in, -en, -owtyn, -owt(t)in, vithouten, wythoutin, -yn, -owtyn, witheouttyne, withtoutine, wythtowtyn, wydouttyt, wid outyn, vittouth. [ME and e.m.E. wiþþutenn (Orm), wið-vten, wið outen (both Layamon), wyþvte (13th c.), withoute (c1290), wit-oute (Cursor M.), with-out (1340), wyþoute (Ayenbite), with-owtten (a1400), wid-vten, withoutyn (both c1400), with owte (1477), late OE wiþútan.]See note at With prep. (conj.) about MS abbreviations.

A. prep.1. Freq. in parenthetic use: In the absence of, lacking a. An impediment, drawback, or intervention of some sort.See Abade n. 2, Bade n. 1, Circumstance n. 1, Debate n. 1 c, Demand n. 1 b, Dout n. 4 a, Drede n. 3 b, End n.1 8 e, Faill n.1 2, Fere n.3 b, Fraud(e n. 1 b, 2, Ho n., Hone n., Impediment n. 3, Lachin(g vbl. n., Lesing n. 1 b, Let n. 2, Lettin(g vbl. n. 2, Nay n., Wer(e n.2 2 b for further examples.(a) 1375 Barb. v 581.
Withoutyn [C. vithouten]
1375 Barb. xvi 324 (C).
a1400 Leg. S. xxviii 559.
1388 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 12.
Wyth ovtyn
1389 Liber Melros 449.
The forsaid wollys … yhe suffre to be shippit & frely to pas withoutyn ony askyng or takyng of custume
14… Edinb. Univ. MS La.ii.318.
Quhat sa ȝe of my fader craif With outin dout ȝe sal it haif
c1420 Wynt. v 472.
To Rowme that tribwte pay Wytht-owtyn drychyng or delay
1439 Charter (Reg. H.) C.O. No. 49.
The forsaide Jone … sal hafe … the forsaide landis … withoutin let perturbacion harme or distroubelance of me
a1500 Lanc. 397.
Furth he [sc. the king] chargit mesingeris to go Throgh al his realm, withouten more demande
c1475 Wall. ii 262.
Scho tuk him wp with outyn wordis mo, And on a caar wnlikly thai him cast
a1500 Seven S. 42.
Sall teche him in astronomy All hale the science liberale Within sex ȝeris withoutin fale
1560 St. A. Kirk S. 44.
I haif led ane continent lyfe, withowtin ony suspicioun imputed to me
1562–3 St. A. Kirk S. 181.
Promys of mariage … wythowtyn ony condicione adjecked tharto
(b) ?1438 Alex. ii 166.
All I forgiue withouttin let
a1500 Henr. Fab. 1371 (Bann.).
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 28/102.
Matremony withowttin weir The band of freindschip hes indost Betuix Bewty and the presoneir
1662 Forbes Cantus xxi.
Lord, we have from thee … Of thy free grace withoutten doubt
1681 Description of the Rebels in Fugitive Poetry I.
They march'd withoutten tarry, Intending for the west
(c) 1375 Barb. v 216 (C).
Persy Lap on, and went … in hy … his castell till, Vithout distrowbilling or ill
1391 Lennox Mun. 44.
The quhilk thingis abufin writin leleli to kepe … withoute fraude or gile
1460 Hay Alex. 19345.
Thair is na man without sum falt may wreit
1498 Acta Conc. II 292.
To be marit with ane competent persone and parti without disparage
1567 G. Ball. 31.
Do gude for euill, and leid ȝour lyfe Without reprufe
1605 Stewart Mem. 114.
He dar nocht … repair in the cuntrey … with owtt perrell of his lyff
a1699 Sel. Biog. II 165.
They, without a hinck, leave all and come flying to him
(d) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 180 (D).
1482 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 34.
The said Georg … sal … pay … yere be yere … twa hvndretht markis … wythtoute ony interuption … quhil the saide sovme … of sextene hvndretht markis be fully … payit
1549 Compl. 5/22.
Quhen he purchessis pace ande concord, vytht out diminutione of his rycht, ande vitht out domage slauchtir or hayrschip to be amang the pepil

b. Something positive or beneficial.See Promis n. 1 c, Redem(p)tio(u)n(e n. 2.(a) c1475 Wall. vi 352.
Witht out
1560 Rolland Seven S. 1901.
Ȝour grewhound withouttin helpis ma Our onlie childe all quite hes tane vs fra
(b) c1420 Wynt. vi 762.
All thare dedis to record Wald lenth the tyme wythowt conforde
c1475 Wall. i 226.
With out reskew he stekyt him to dede
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 206/14.
Sum schames to ask (as braidis of me) And all withowt reward he stervis
1513 Doug. x ix 10.
He … Without reskew dovn mawis with his brand
a1570-86 Maitland in Maitl. F. 428/44.
Ȝe that hes the lawe to leid without fauour, frenschipe, or feid
(c) 1389 Wemyss Chart. 24.
Twa hundyr mark of sterlyngys, to be raysyt and tane to the werk of the kyrk … wydouttyt ony forgyveyng or remyssione

c. Withouttin (ony) mare, without (any) more delay, at once.See also Mar(e n.3 B 5. 1375 Barb. iv 565.
Than the king with-outyn mar Callyt ane that wes [till] him prewe … And chargyt him [etc.]
?1438 Alex. ii 414.
He entred in withouttin mare
a1500 Rauf C. 149.
He leit gyrd to the King, withoutin ony mair, And hit him vnder the eir
a1570-86 Dunb. in Maitl. F. 64/89.
The dewill sayis thane withouttin mair Renunce ȝour God & cum to me
a1540 Freiris Berw. 108 (B).
Hir thay followit baith withowttin moir Thay war full blyth, and did as scho thame kend
1574 Three Reformers 105.
But forward to my purpose fare That is to speake withoutin mare

2. With no use of or resort to a process, action, means, etc. Also const. neg. Also proverb.(1) 1389 Reg. Cambuskenneth 261.
We fynd that thai [sc. cattle] aucht nocht for to be had out of that lordschip withouttin mare proces
1413 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 364.
Be it madde knawyn … me William Frasare … for til haff saulde … for euirmare til … William de Hay … all my landis … til hald … all the landes … wid outyn ony clayme of me or of myne ayris … in ony tyme to cum
1493 Charter (Reg. H.) No. 582.
Wyth owtyn ony reuocacioun in tyme to cum
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 2548.
Christis floke … Conuertit fragyll faltouris … Be Goddis worde, withouttin sweird or fyre
c1568 Lauder Minor P. i 451.
Him self wes hangit, withouttin moir remead
1604-31 Craig v 5.
A bush … Which Nature her selfe wrought, Withoutten airts lare
(b) c1420 Wynt. iv 54.
The Romanys … Lywyd in pes wytht-out batayle A welle lang tyme
c1476 Lennox Mun. 107.
The bref of inquest suld be proclamyt tyl a certane withoult continuacion of dais
1549 Lamb Resonyng 71/10.
This Polidor exceptis speciale Scotland fra the Inglis impire without distructioun of proprietie or superioritie
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 1438.
The greitest leichis of the land Come, all, to him, without command … Becaus he was sa weill belouit
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 1285.
All maner of beistis at thare plesour Did multyplie without laubour
1570 Sat. P. x 401.
James Regent was murdreist without offence Be ane false tratour, sa knawin and notifeit
1631 Misc. Bann. C. I 243.
The people hath beene so long acquented with the old meeter, that some can sing … many of the psalmes without buik
a1633 Hope Major Pract. I 275.
The forfaulter led against Jon Earle of Lenox is rescinded as inorderly led without any furder proces
proverb. a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 821.
He that plents without cause let him meiss without mends
(2) 1596 Dalr. I 42/3.
Sa sure a havin for schipis, that nocht without cause the historiographours named it, the porte of saifgaird and saiftie

3. In the absence of, lacking, not having or producing a, chiefly legal, requirement, as, authority, permission, advice, etc.1389 Liber Melros 449 (see 1 a above). 1400 Maxwell Mem. I 141.
Al our gud … to be tane, pundit, and away led and sauld wythoutyn the lefe of ony mynystyr kyrk or seculer
14.. Acts I 5/2.
It is lefful to na man to herbery na strangear langar than a nycht … wythoutin borch
14.. Acts I 113/2.
That na kirkman … na ȝit ony lawyt man the quhilkis hes rentis … sal presome to … send gudis or rentis utouth the kynrik wythoutin special lef of the kyng
1450 Coll. Aberd. & B. 234.
This poyntment the said parteys promittys … thaim lely and trwly to … kepe wythowtyn ony new summondis
(b) 1488 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 427.
The said Margrat sal nocht be mariit … withowt leyf of ws
?c1500 Rathen Manual 27/1.
We cursis … all clypparis of the kyngis monee vythovt the kyngis consent
1525 Aberd. B. Rec. I 113.
Na maner of person within this toun dwelland ressat or lugis ony maner of personis without the prowest lischence
1558-66 Knox II 424.
To conclude no thing without the knawledge and advyse of the assemblie
1583 Bk. Univ. Kirk 277.
A pastor … serving ane flock, laufully may not remove from his flock … without speciall licence obtaynit be him of his presbytrie, provinciall, or generall assemblie
c1600 Montg. Suppl. xxviii 4.
Without ȝour mercie, my lyfe can haif no ho
1610 Misc. Hist. Soc. II 163.
The books libels & pamphlets writtin be him … witheout avou or his name
1676 Kirkcudbr. Test. (Reg. H.) 4 Feb.
Ane ox … intrometted with be Thomas … pertaining to the said defunct without his libertie

4. Lacking the presence, existence or companionship of (a person or persons). Also with God as the referent. b. Withoutin peire, without equal. c. Withouttin ma, with no others, only. See Ma n. 1 c.(1) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2547.
Pirrus And his brodere withoutin mo
1447 (1449–50) Reg. Great S. 68/2.
Gif it sal happyn the said lorde Erle to decesse wythoutin ayre of his body
c1450-2 Howlat 11 (A).
Throw thir cliftis so cleire Withoutin fallowe or feire, I raikit till ane reveire
1491 Cart. S. Nich. Aberd. I 256.
Nay mes salbe songit withoutin xij personis and the prest that singis the mes
1535 Stewart 22301.
Britane also withouting inhabitour
(b) c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 148/77.
Ȝe sall not all gar him speid without me
a1586 Maitland Geneal. Setoun 4.
Efter quhais deceis wythout successioun … the pley began betuix the Bruce and the Baliole for the croun of Scotland
1596 Dalr. I 81 marg.
The Scotti mony ȝeirs leiuet vndir gouernours or heides ouer euerie hous and familie without a king
1635 Wodrow in Hay Geneal. 87.
As for your advocat you have many moe without him
1662 Crim. Trials III 610.
[We] doe no great mater without owr Maiden
(2) 1637 Sc. Bk. Com. Prayer Collect 9th Sund. Trin.
That we which cannot bee without Thee, may by Thee be able to live according to Thy will
b. 1375 Barb. xviii 96.
Gib Harper That men held als with-owtyn per Off his estate
a1500 Seven S. 1395.
My tre That I sa lufit withoutin peire

5. With various attributes or emotions as the object of the preposition. a. Not having, lacking (an attribute, etc.). b. Despite lacking (blame or guilt). c. Without acquiring (shame).a. c1420 Wynt. i 1407.
Wytht-in that yle is ythand nycht, Wytht-owtyn [C. withouttyn] ony dayis lycht
c1420 Wynt. v 2142 (W).
Thai ar bot lumpis withoutin live, Baith dwm and deiff, and dull and daft
1494 Loutfut MS 25a.
Without invy and without hattering amang thaim
a1500 Bk. Chess 1059.
Ligurius … Seand his towne withoutin law or richt He maid xij lawes
1533 Gau 39/10.
Schw buir hir sone with ioi and blythnes withoutine paine
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 482.
We throw laik of faith Off His Godheid incur the wraith. … Quhat faith is that … ? Faith … without hope and charitie Aualit nocht, my sonne (said he)
a1568 Bann. MS 266b/19.
Quhen tyme is recknit withowttin ony houris … Scho … sall … be … trew
c1568 Lauder Minor P. i 387.
As the day can nocht be without lycht Nor the cleir sone withouttin beames bricht
(b) c1420 Wynt. v 1335.
A lorde borne wyth-owte meryte Is noucht worth, … a myte
c1568 Lauder Minor P. i 387 (see (a) above). 1670 Dunkeld Presb. II 52 n.
Ane highland woman without any Inglish
b. c1400 Troy-bk. ii 1095 (C).
Prynces … Tholys a wirgyne innocent Ageynes all rithtwise jugement To be peryst withouten blame And but cause makyng of defame
c1450-2 Howlat 108 (A).
I am netherit ane owll thus be nature … Bysyn of all birdis that euer body bure Withoutin caus or cryme kend in this case
c. 1560 Rolland Seven S. 1419.
For giue thow haistelie pronounce Sentence … The same na way thow may renounce … Withouttin lak and shame

6. With a thing as object of the preposition. a. Lacking, not having. b. Not supplying.a. c1420 Wynt. i 720.
Wytht-in Ynde … Thare lywys a folk wytht-owtyn hede
?14.. Ship Laws c. 16 (B).
Gyf thai lay ankyr wyth owtyn buy & it do skath thai sal amend it
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 32.
With outin beilding of blis, of bern or of byre
c1500-c1512 Dunb. G. Targe 60.
Ane hundreth ladyes … In kirtillis grene, withoutyn kell or bandis
a1568 Jok & Jynny 47.
Withouttin oxin I haif a pluche
(b) 1494 Loutfut MS 138a.
Gold & siluer withoute ane of the quhilkis thair may nane armes be maid leile
a1500 Coll. St. Salvator 159.
A cors of siluer and of buriall without a fute
1536 Fraser P. 222.
Ane brasin gun of found contenand x fut of lencht vythout ony graith
c1564 Glasgow Test. II 22.
Ane langseddill kist without bandis or lok xl s.
1596 Dalr. II 1/12.
To hyd him selfe, without meit, without drink
1600 Crim. Trials II 215.
His maiesty … standing naked, wythout any kinde of armour but his hunting horne
1623 Falkirk Par. Rec. I 40.
For everie persone's burriall withoot ane kist [4 s.]
1697 Justiciary for Securing the Peace of the Highlands.
No persons … of the Highlands … are to bring any bestiall to any mercats, without a testificat of a landed-man in write
b. 1581 Aberd. B. Rec. II 44.
That … na personis salbe bureit … without payment of xxx s. of ilk person for his lair siluir

7. Outside the boundaries or limits of a place or (area of) jurisdiction or authority, outside a building or structure, outwith. Also ellipt. Also, without doors, outdoors. b. Outwith a social group. c. On the outside of (a building).(1) c1420 Wynt. iv 1613.
Hanybyll, … thre myle wyth-out [C. withe out] the towne abade
c1420 Wynt. v 2147.
The Pape … Gert thame … Thare pennance do wyth-owt the qwere, Quhare the comownys standand were
c1420 Wynt. v 2187.
1456 Hay I 9/30.
And efter him, ane othir that was hedit without the citee of Rome
a1500 Colk. Sow i 111.
I hald the folk best fure That stud fer without the dure
1513 Doug. vi xiii 87.
The landis lyis without the starnys blenk, Outwith the ȝeris cours & sonnys renk
1513 Doug. ix xi 59.
Ischand without the portis on the land, Thai durst recontyr thar fays hand for hand
1530 M. Works Acc. (ed.) I 33.
Ane irne bar to the treyne dur wythtout the irne ȝet
1534 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 140.
We ratify our auld actis deuly deliverit be the inquisitouris to stand in effec and forme and specially thai that soumentis utheris nychtboris vithout our fredome
1558-66 Knox I 205.
Thare fell a schour of rane … so vehement, that no man mycht abyd without a house
1573 Bk. Univ. Kirk I 269.
That the haill nobilitie and counsell … sall sitt within the barre of the said over tolbuithe; and all vthers without the same
1605 Glasgow Prot. II 116.
Tua chapillandries … lyand without the Eist Port
1623 Aberd. Council Lett. I 215.
For exacting of thame thair nichtbors not onlie within the burgh bot far without the same certane customes quhairof [etc.]
1654 Lamont Diary 78.
A passage boate … perished a litell without the beacon
a1680 Blair Autob. 84.
We perceived that there would be large as many without the church as within it
1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 124 (10 Feb.).
Ther could be no lawfull citation given … be vertew of ane precept ishewed out be the said stewart nor his deputts they reseiding without his jurisdiction
1683 Martine Reliq. Divi Andreae 24.
Regulus … had a cell dedicate to the Blessed Virgine … a little without the end of the peer
(b) 1581 Elgin Rec. I 161.
ellipt. a1400 Leg. S. i 298.
Mad he biscopis twa; The tane of thame in the cite, And the tother withowt to be
1400 Facs. Nat. MSS II liii.
Fore a hundreth knichtis … gudes, hors and hernais als wele within wallit town as with owt
c1420 Wynt. v 3786.
Wyth-in the kyrk he durst noucht ga, Bot wyth-oute hys bad to ma He set hym
1427 Charter (Reg. H.) C.O. No. 40.
Within the partis of Scotland or without
(2) 1698 Penninghame Par. Rec. I 17.
She heard not what was among them at that tyme being within the house and they without doors
b. 1558 Knox IV 410.
It was forbidden unto them to marie without their owne tribe
c. 1692 Lanark B. Rec. 241.
The … counsell have condescended to build two stairs without the laigh kirk to answear the lofts

8. Except, apart from. c1420 Wynt. viii 6918 (C).
Withe hym … broucht he nane Withe outtyne a chawmir boy allayne

9. Not including, besides. a1500 Rauf C. 340.
Schir Oliuer … and bischoppis thre Withoutin commounis that come, and mony vther knicht … to Paris thay pas, all that cheualrie

B. adv.1. (To the) outside (of) ((a part of) a building, area, place, etc.), out of doors. b. From outside. 1375 Barb. xvii 355.
Quhen thai withowt [C. without] war all redy Thai trumpyt till a salt in hy
1375 Barb. xvii 389.
The mekill folk that wes with-out Haid enweronyt the toun about Swa that na part of it wes fre
c1420 Wynt. i 537.
In to the [est of] Asy lyis That propyr plas of paradys The quhilk is cerklyd wytht-out Wytht wallys of fyre beltyde abowt
c1420 Wynt. i 1251.
c1420 Wynt. iii 52.
His famyle thare … That was the chambure than wytht out
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 813 (Asl.).
The warld without birnand with feirfull fray
1654 Johnston Diary II 300.
Yesterday morning they wer al sett in the feilds, but M.J.L. absolutly refused to preach without, and so they wer forced to goe to the kirk
1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 144 (9 June).
Twa potts and ane pan lying without besyd John McKeawnes hous
b. 1460 Hay Alex. 3315.
Becaus the toun traistit reskew without Thay wald nocht ȝeld bot held thame stiff and stout

2. a. On the outer side or surface of (an object). b. Outside or on the outside of the body, with reference to sensory experience, and in contradistinction to the soul within.a. c1420 Wynt. iii 933.
A bull off bras … Wytht a dure … That wytht-in suld pynyde be And to be stekyd fast wytht-owt
1595–6 Misc. Spald. C. V 63.
Ane new coill mett … banditt within and without witht yrne
b. 1629 Boyd Last B. 288.
Nothing … shall bee inlaking that may rejoyce all the senses of our bodie without, and all the faculties of our soules within
1629 Boyd Last B. 288.
All the glories wee see without are but sparkles of these infinitlie bright blazing perfections, which are within

C. conj.1. Unless, except.(a) 1520 Fife Sheriff Ct. 193.
He sould noucht ansuere in the said mater withtoutine his expensis to be pait
(b) 1500 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 87.
That na personis … haunt merchandice without he mak continuall residence within the burgh and pay his dewiteis that accordis him to do thairfore
1533 Boece 51a.
Thai … suld suffir nane regne abone Scottis … without of the blude of Fergus he war descendit
1540 Lynd. Sat. 390.
With siching sair I am bot schent. Without scho cum, incontinent
1543 Corr. M. Lorraine 35.
We will nocht send oure writingis without youre grace [etc.] … se and consider the said writing … and to have your help and avis heirinto
1550 Grey Friars 10.
[They] will mak thame na payment of the samin without thai be compellit
1552 Conv. Burghs I 3.
That thair be na maner of personis … chosin … without he haif bene ane ȝeir or twa vpoun the counsale
1556 Lauder Off. Kings 396.
Wourdis ar bot wynd, I say in-deid, Withoute gude werks of thame proceid
1594 Douglas Corr. 375.
Without thir gentilmen with thair haill aquippage be put to libertie … we will [etc.]
1617 Ellon Presb. 99.
Numberis of thir vagabund theiffs and lymars sall follow our royall court and importune the nobill men … without remeid be provydit
1670 Corshill Baron Ct. 91.
He made the bargane with Marrie Smythe … and soe could not well answer the clame without shee were present
1678 Mackenzie Laws & C. ii xx 4 (1699) 231.
Nor can it be known who is pursuer, without the advocat declare
1697 Peebles B. Rec. II 158.
[Not] to receive any of the touns money from any of thair debtors without ane of the magistrats be present

2. Without that. a. = 1 above. b. In addition to the fact that.a. 1478 Decr. Ld. Abernethy MS.
I … ordanis the said James of Barklay … to decist of the inquietatione … of the forsaid landes … without that he [ob]tene the fauors of Henry Sceves and Master John of Abernethy
1501 Red Bk. Menteith II 304.
Gyff thai be fugitiue and passis vthow thair bonddis, sall hald thaim furtht sai that tha sall mak na rasidens within thaim withtoute that thai bring thaim to the kingis law
1549 Black Bk. Taymouth 186.
That I sall nocht mary nor in lamenry tak na man without that I get the said John Campbellis consent thairto
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 1082.
Madame, I ȝow assure, That worthie Lancelot … Did neuer mair, for his ladies saik, Nor I sall do, or ellis de, Without that ȝe reuengit be
1557 Melrose Reg. Rec. III 152.
[He] drew ane quhynȝer … and schorit to steyk him without that he payt the male of the feemaisteris land to him
b. 1489–90 Treas. Acc. I 145.
Laide downe in redy siluer for rybbanis to the king, at dyuers tymis … withowte at the Master of the Wardrop hes boycht v dussane of rybbanis

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