A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)
Quhat, pron., adj., adv. and conj. Also: quhate, quhatt, qwhat, qvhat, qhat; quat, qwat; what(t, uhat, wuhat; quhait(t, qwhait, quhet; quhot; also (Quhit). [North., also east midl. ME quat (Gen. & Exodus, Cursor M.), also qwat, qhat, midl. and south. ME what, wat, hwat, also whet etc., OE hwæt, neut. sing. of interrog. pron. hwá Quha.] Some of the following examples no doubt represent editorial expansion of the abbreviation qr.
I. The interrogative pron.: What. 1. Of a thing. (Chiefly with sing. reference.) a. In direct questions.
(1) ‘Quhat sayis thow?’ ‘Schyr,’ he said, ‘perfay As my falow has said I say’; Barb. xviii 39 (E).
Quhat sal I haf, gywe … Thi sone liffand I gyf to thé Leg. S. iii 264.
Quhar has thu ben? quhat is done? Ib. xxv 632.
Quhat than the lyowne is starkare And quhat than huny is suettare? Wynt. iii 215, 216.
Quhat dyd thé mast dysplesans here? Ib. vii
Bot quhat was of that that the visioun sais that the thrid part of the treis was brynt [etc.]? Hay I 9/7.
Bot quhat understandis thou, redare, be a lorde? Ib. II 14/16.
Henr. Fab. 2300.
‘Quhat war ȝour will?’ ‘I will cum in, but dout’; K. Hart 445.
‘Quhat will ȝe, fader,’ said he, ‘I do?’ Seven S. 903.
Ib. 394, 1505, 1965, etc.
‘Madame,’ I said, ‘quhat is that mannis name?’; Stewart 72.
Jenny, my Joe, quhat dois thy daddy? Lynd. Sat. 1302.
Quhat salbe my Godbairne gift? Ib. 788.
Id. Meldrum 963.
Winȝet I 7/24.
My friend, quhat makis thé sa way? 1567 Sat. P. iii 10.
This round ball quhat, that is in thi rycht hande? c 1569 R. Wedderburn in Misc. S.T.S. 184.
1570 Sat. P. x 407.
Fowler I 313/25.
Bot it is demanded, quhat is to be said to the clerk or person of that kirk, quha [etc.]; Skene Reg. Maj. i 63.
(2) Quhat devill is it makis that dyn thair owt? Seven S. 1128.
Lynd. Sat. 1958.
‘Quhat sikane morneing, think ȝe, haid I ȝesterday?’ Quha ansuerit ȝow ‘Quhy, quhat glangoir war ȝe doing in that ill weather?’ 1643 Orkney Witches in
Misc. Abbotsf. C. I 175.
b. In indirect questions.
In dependent finite clauses, objective to verbs, also to nouns of answer, statement etc., to preps., and in infinitive clauses.
Also, in early texts, quhat that or at.
Also Quhat-to, -till.
Also with ellipsis of the verb.
Passing into 12.
(1) For God wate weill quhat is to do; Barb. i 586.
Rycht more I sall thé tell Quhair [B. Quhat] by thir beistis may be figurate; Henr. Fab. 2935.
Attende Quhat falowis eftyr or quhat sal be the ende; Bernardus 214.
And to my selfe I thocht … Quhat may this mene? Quhat may this signifye? I can nocht wit quhat is the cause or quhy This lady suffrit [etc.]; Quare Jel. 121, 122.
And gif thai demand quhat is a cheiff; Loutfut MS 12a.
Doug. Pal. Hon. 238.
Luiking to vnderstand be your anser quhat salbe certanlie lippynnit for at your hand; 1582 Waus Corr. 241.
What kynde of sin the practizers of these vnlawfull artes committes. … And quhat are the meanes that allures any to practize them; James VI Dæmonol. (S.T.S.) 4 heading.
Seek much of the mind of the Lord annent quhat is called for at your hands; 1680 Soc. Ant. XLV 245.
(2) And othir fele folk … Bot I can nocht tell quhat thai hycht; Barb. ii 246.
We can nocht wytt qwat he suld do [etc.]; c 1390 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 21.
Requirande me to do yhou to wyte … qwhat my full will be to do o that mater; 1405 Facs. Nat. MSS II liv.
Wynt. ii 1283.
Hay I 257/3.
Wall. iii 260.
Seven S. 156, etc.
God wot What this shude men, for mor ther of we not; Lanc. 522.
To a man to pas to Leith to se the kingis artailȝery, and quhat misterit; 1496 Treas. Acc. I 285.
Doug. iii ix 39, etc.
At I may have perfyct knawlaige thaire in quhat I ma lyppine to do; 1525 Douglas Corr. 99.
To preiff quhat he is vor quhen he resaiffit hyme; 1530 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 107.
Bell. Boece I 245.
Your ansuer agane with the berar quhat we sall lippyn to haif; 1544 Blackfriars Perth 202.
I kend nocht [ed. now] quhat the soume was, nor ȝit be quhome the rauersioune was maid; 1556 Prot. Bk. G. Grote (S.R.S.) 11.
Guid tent he tuik To heir quhat scho suld say; Dum Wyf 56.
The father said, ‘Sone … , Quhat the bird singis mak interpretatioun'; Rolland Seven S. 8399.
Think quhat it is to maling contrare Christ, [etc.]; Winȝet I 33/28.
Rinnand and ruscheand without knaulege quhat thai othir do or say; Ib. II 13/5.
Quhen thay heir it sung in Latine, the quhilks thay wait not quhat it is; G. Ball. 1.
And send me your vtter anser quhait your l. will gif for the same; 1585 Waus Corr. 339.
Pape Alexander the 6 … did shaw quhat a pape might achtehefe; Fowler II 93/12.
Sa plentifull is the ground, that mekle esier ȝe sall expone quhat it nocht beiris, than quhat it beiris; Dalr. I 6/1.
That triall might be tane what I intend; Craig ii 102.
[I] began to fear quhat might betyed my sillie boat in the same seas; Hume Orthog. 2.
Quhat; 1653 Inverness Presb. 254.
— And in his wit socht besely Quhat that his dreme betakin micht; Troy-bk. ii 2859.
Quhat at thai wrocht I can nocht graithly say; Wall. iv 735.
Ib. ii 299.
(3) He demandit myn answere, quhat I sayd? Doug. Pal. Hon. 682.
I vnderstuid thair sentence quhat thay wald; 1567 Sat. P. vii 5.
This is my will quhaitt sall bei doun uithe my iouls and bodei klothes; 1649 Wemyss Chart. 232.
[To] giue him a rentall of ther seuerall rowmes, what they payed yearlie; 1654 Lamont Diary 66.
(4) Quhen he herd his fadir was Put in presoune … He wyst nocht quhat to do na say; Barb. i 318.
I watt nocht quhat to wryt; Lynd. Test. Pap. 56.
All dririe droukit doutsum in deuyis Quhat for to do in that disert alon; J. Stewart 34/142.
c. What amount, how much (of extent, quantity, value or worth)?
Quhen Rukbe saw quhat at thair power was, He tuk sewyn scor off gud archaris was thar [etc.]; Wall. vii 696.
I knaw quhat thou of rethorike may spent; Dunb. G. Targe 274 (Ch. & M.).
To inquire of euery inhabitare quhat thai will bestow frelie upoun the saidis puris ouklie; 1574 Misc. Maitl. C. I 109.
Sett doun quhat the regentis sould haue yeirlie; 1626 Glasgow B. Rec. I 357.
To meit … certaine of the sessione and cognoss upon the land and qt can be most had for it; 1634 S. Leith Rec. 23.
d. ellipt. in to know not what (to think etc.). e. The phrase I (ȝe) wat not quhat, used as a noun, = something unknown or extraordinary.
d. This brought him to jealous, though he knew not what; 1698 Fam. Innes 36.
e. Thay luve no man effeminat, And haldis thame bot I wat not quhat, That can noch[t] be without thame; Scott xxx 39.
Ȝe worke maist lyke ȝe wat not quhat With your politick heidis; 1570 Sat. P. xv 115.
2. Of a person or persons, in reference to name or identity, and thus = Who? a. In direct questions.
Gud dame, quhat is he That garris ȝow haue sic specialte Till men that traualis? Barb. vii 245.
‘Quhat be he?’ than said the king; Alex. ii 1753.
‘Lord,’ he ansuered, ‘quhat ar yhe … [that] callys on me?’ Wynt. v 2575.
Seven S. 1942.
And quhen the legiouns of deuillis saw his gret clernes … thai cryit hyduusly quhat is he this? Irland Mir. II 37/26.
Bot quhat be ȝhe, finaly wald I wyt, Or of quhat cuntre cummyn? Doug. i vi 112.
b. In indirect questions, passing into a definite compound relative pron. (cf. 12 c below), and also, in some instances, perh. in reference to rank, character or the like, rather than identity.
Also quhat (th)at.
(1) [He] tauld him haly all his state, And quhat he was; Barb. ii 156.
Iames off Dowglas off thar cummyng, And quhat thai war, had witting; Ib. v 342 (E).
Ib. vi 47 (C).
Had he wittin … Quhat he was suld Criste betraise; Leg. S. i 24.
Ib. xli 77.
Troy-bk. i 310, 314, etc.
Alex. ii 4527.
Now tellis the next chapitere Qwhat the Amazones were; Wynt. ii xvi h. of ch.
Yhe suld wyth yhoure-selff record Quhat yhe have bene and is to be; Ib. v 3933.
Fast thrang [in] the Inglys men … Or thai wyst welle quhat thai ware; Ib. viii 1814.
Gol. & Gaw. 163.
Wall. iii 313.
And quhat his father wes I traist the wallis of every guid toun will tell quhar abbayis stuid; Lamb Resonyng 35/5.
For fra greit men get knawledge quhat he be Thay will couet daylie his companie; Rolland Seven S. 392.
The admirall and his deputtis therefoir suld tak guid tryell … quhat they war that aucht the schip; Bisset II 222/13.
Being challengit be thame [sc. the watch, they] wald not only kyth thameselffis be telling thair names and quhat they wer bot also be misusing the watch in evill language; 1624 Dunferm. B. Rec. II 145.
(2) Wpone no maner mytht be thar Perseyved wele what at thai war; Troy-bk. ii 162 (C).
Before the rychtwys dwmmys man Quhat that thow art to say than; Wynt. viii 962.
[He] told him all the maner and the meine; What that thay war and how thay war arayit; Clar. iv 581.
3. Quhat … for (a), Quhat for (a), of what quality, kind or character, what sort of. Of a person or persons and of a thing.
(1) I willinglie than first would know quhat art thow for a man; Fowler I 37/24.
He lacked the courage … to have once tryed what for souldiers we were; Monro Exped. i 47.
I know not what for a man he'el prove; 1665–7 Lauder Jrnl. 14.
(2) But what for a possession this liberty is, the charter, by which it is confirmed, may tell us; J. Brown Hist. Indulgence (1783) 211.
4. In rhetorical questions, expecting the response ‘nothing at all, nothing else or further.’ a. Non-personal.
With (3) cf. Quhat reckis.
(1) Quhat sal I say, quhat sal I do, That sic a man is couplit to? Leg. S. xxxviii 215.
Gyve I swa be, Foule wreche, quhat is that for thé? Wynt. v 5262.
Quhat wes thare mare? Ib. vii 2311, viii 2591, 7031, etc.
Gyff me thi knyff. Quhat dois thi ger so mete? Wall. i 220.
‘Quhat suld a Scot do with sa fair a knyff?’ Ib. vi 149.
He bad hir tell the maner haile, Scho said, ‘Quhat makis it avale?’ Seven S. 2108.
Quhat sall I say? quhom sall I awite … ? Quare Jel. 248.
Doug. Pal. Hon. 173.
Dunb. (O.U.P.) v 23, xii 9.
Quhat will ȝe? It hapnit heir [etc.]; Abell 103b.
Unto the angellis what prevallit the prevaricatioun of man; 1554 Knox III 96.
Sen ȝour godly leving garnisit with chastitie [etc.] … (quhat nedȝ mair), is patent to al man! Winȝet I 5/1.
Qvhat sall heirfor a Christiane catholik do, gif ony portioun of the kirk sall cut the self fra the commonioun of the catholik fayth? Quhat treulie bot that he præfer the helthe of the haill body to ane … corruptit membre? Ib. II 19/24, 26.
Gude sirs, quhat is thair mair ado? Ilk ȝouth his lufe hes gotten lo; Philotus 1265.
(2) Quhat is bot turment all hys [sc. Love's] langsum fayr … ? Doug. iv Prol. 234.
Quhat has brocht sik miserye amang ws bot ciuill weris? Bell. Boece (M) I 78.
Quhat may I do bot to that heynd behald? Bann. MS 224a/34.
Quhat restis moir bot to preserve thair lyif the best way thai can? 1584 Colville Lett. 50.
Quhat more can I performe or thow exspect Then consecrat to thé my lyfe … ? Fowler I 202/1.
Ib. II 21/2.
(3) Quhat devil raks thé of our preiching vndocht? Lynd. Sat. 2940 (Ch.).
b. In reference to persons, with respect to their character, nature, rank or the like.
Qwhat is he off ony wyte That wald drawe sic in this wryte? Wynt. ix 1183.
Bell. Boece (M) I 91.
Qvhat is thir kings more than the pure Except thair office … ? Lauder Off. Kings 61.
Then quhat ar we to trust into our strenth Our wisdome [etc.]? Maitl. Q. lxv 89.
c. In exclamatory questions which express an aroused, concerned or astonished state of mind rather than seek information by way of reply.
(1) Quhat sall we say quhen we cum hame Quhen a man fechtis agains vs all? Barb. vi 154.
Cosing, what etlis thow to do? … Thow sla nocht heir Thyne eld-fadere; Troy-bk. ii 2590.
Quhat is that, lord, that yhe now spek? Wynt. viii 890.
Quhat alis lufe at me? Henr. Robene & M. 72.
Quhat is this luff? It is bot gret myschance; Wall. vi 33.
Quhat haue I done that thus hes crabbit ȝow? K. Hart 597.
Fowler I 275/11.
Quhat is the mater … Quhat garris ȝow braid? Philotus 1037.
(2) Quhat dele alis thé? Howlat 799 (A).
5. In elliptical sentences with advs., conjs. or preps.
a. Quhat of, quhat now, quhat than. b. Quhat gif (geve), = let us suppose, supposing.
Quhat of bewte, quhar honeste lyis ded? Doug. iv Prol. 199.
Quhat now, huirsun? begins thow for til ban? Lynd. Sat. 1354.
That wemen bene … richt subtell for to tyist ony man, As thay think gude, bot not the les quhat than; Rolland Seven S. 5753.
I grant that may be trew bot quhat of that? Hume 78/323.
Maistris quhat now? me think ȝe dreme, Or than to be in sowne ȝe seime; Philotus 889.
b. Quhat geue thay boith to heuin ascend, … Sall this gret king be sett more hie … Than the pure sely naikit wycht? Lauder Off. Kings 75.
Quhat gif sum cankir makis to defyle nocht onlie a portioun bot the haill kirk at anis? Winȝet II 19/28.
Ib. 20/1, 6.
‘Quhat gif,’ quod he, ‘it cost thee nocht Bot rander it againe?’ Montg. Ch. & Slae 135 (W).
6. As an exclamation of surprise, also of indignation, followed by a question.
Quhat, think ȝe, schir, thusgat to fair To ficht? Barb. ix 228.
Ib. xii 449.
Qwhat, sal I eyk to Goddis wengeance? Wynt. viii 3550 (C).
Quhat, are noucht Inglis dowchtyast men; Wynt. viii 6655.
Quhat, trowit thir v for to hald Wallace doun? Wall. xi 615.
Son of the goddes, quhou is this heir thou lyis? Quhat, may thou vndir sa gret danger sleip? Doug. iv x 75.
Favor (qwoth a chield … ) what, show favor to such a loun as he? 1682 Lauder Observes App. iv 307.
II. The interrogative adj. 7. Of a thing or things, in direct questions. a. Chiefly in reference to nature, quality, and the like: What kind of, what sort of? ?Also b. in reference to identity: Which?
Ȝon men will slay ws & thai may. Quhat wapyn has thow? Barb. v 596 (E).
Leg. S. xviii 889.
Than quhat pennans Has thow yhit done … ? Wynt. v 3815.
‘Quhat caus has thow to were the grene?’ ‘Na caus bot for to mak thé tene'; Ib. viii 2041.
Syne sayd he, ‘Lordis, on qwhat manere Will yhe ryn at this justyng here?’ Ib. 5189.
Quhat word of him? I pray you graithlye tell; Wall. v 493.
Quhat tydingis gossep, peax or weir? Dunb. (O.U.P.) lxxiv 3.
Nisbet Matth. xi 7.
Lynd. Mon. 5259.
Quhat obstinacie maks sinne agains the Haly Ghaist? King Cat. 146.
Quhat invy is this that your brother the minister hes at me? 1601 Elgin Rec. II 95.
8. Of a thing or things, in indirect questions. a. In reference to identity: Which. In some instances distinction between this, and b or c below is arbitrary. Some examples might also equally be assigned to sense 14.
Also qualifying nouns of manner, without preceding prep., forming adv. (interrog. or conj.) phrases: see Quhat-gate, -maner(e, -way, -wayes, -wys.
Also Quhatkynd as adj. (with ellipsis of of) and cf. Quhatkin.
Also quhat … sa ever. Also in ellipt. construction.
(1) He bad thai suld him say Quhat toune wes that; Barb. iv 202.
Troy-bk. ii 2495.
Of the said tre I tell nocht the teynd, … Quhat fele armes on loft … The said pursewant bure; Howlat 627 (A).
Quhat kynde of sapience effeiris to kingis; Hay II 72/1.
Quhat kyndis of metis are best for man; Ib. 73/15.
The king Philip … meruelit gretlie quhat thing this mycht be; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 170.
Quhil his henes se quhat fredomes … thai sal haf; 1466 Acts II 87/1.
Thair wist na knicht of the court quhat way the king raid; Rauf C. 30.
Till haif tane lauchful witnes … quhat tyme & quhat ȝere and be quhat personis or party & quhat day and quhair in his distrublance wes maid; Harl. MS 4700 fol. 282a.
And rekkyn … Quhat glor and honour beis of ws tocum And quhat successioun or posterite … sal discend of thé; Doug. vi xiii 4, 5.
Ȝhe Musys now … til endyte me leir Quhat kyngis dyd remufe furth to this weir, Quhat rowtis followit euery prynce in feild … , With quhat maner of valȝeand men … Ital flurist tha days, With quhatkyn armys it enflambit schane; Ib. vii xi 6, 7, 9, 11.
To tak inquisitioun quhat landis, croftis, annuellis and fyschingis the said William had umquhile in fe; 1515 Reg. Privy S. I 408/2.
Quhat craft hes thow, declair that to me plaine; Lynd. Sat. 3131.
To note quhat schippis departis laidynnit and empty and likewyis with quhat kynd of gudis or marchandice thay returne chargeit; 1574 Cochran-Patrick Coinage I 142.
[He] can not tell quhat syde Or yit quhat way to turne him to; Fowler I 41/124, 125.
Bisset II 131/1.
— Cair thou nocht quhat estait sa ever he be; Lynd. Sat. 3173.
(2) He tuk avisment vith his men, On quhat maner thai suld do then; Barb. vii 527.
To schaw how and for qwat caus … thai halde … the landys [etc.]; 1385 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 8 (i).
Seven S. 2270.
To schaw me in quhat place & quhat tyme I sall cum to your grace; 1521 Doug. in Facs. Nat. MSS III xv.
Gevand knawledge … be quhat honest meane craft or industre they have dedicat thame selffis to leif; 1573 Macritchie Gypsies 63.
With my opinioun for quhat subiectis ilk kynde of thir verse is meitest to be vsit; James VI Poems I 68/58.
Show to quhat soyle owr cowrse sall be addrest; Mure Dido & Æneas i 119.
Next the consonantes are to be marked … with quhat organes of the mouth they be broaken; Hume Orthog. 17.
Togither with the saidis magistratis [sc. of Haddington] dilligence [? to] thair treadsmen … wpon quhat ground they exact auchte penyes [etc.]; 1654 Conv. Burghs III 389.
That publick intimation be made … The day appointed for weekly sermon and at what a clocke it is to begin; 1690 Cramond Kirk S. III 7 Jan.
(3) ellipt. At his moder he gan inquer Quho was his fader … And quhar he duelt & in quhat land; Troy-bk. ii 2888.
Or than sal he thole sodayne deede Unwetand qwen or in qwat stede; c 1400 Edinb. Univ. MS 27 fol. 288.
And gif the caus movis of dett … or of ony othir singular caus, he suld … inquere how and quhare and in quhat place and for quhat caus and of quhat tyme and all the circumstancis; Hay I 285/33.
He folded a lap of it, for quhat caus I know not; 1596 Highland P. I 189.
Saw his majestie … gang furth … but to quhaitt place I knaw nocht; 1600 Crim. Trials II 186.
b. In reference to nature, quality, character, and the like: What kind of, what sort of.
Also with that, at following the noun.
(1) And fra he wyst quhat charge thai had; Barb. i 141.
Leg. S. xli 72.
I askyd … than qwhat remede This mycht helpe; Wynt. vii 539.
[That] Thay wald him tell quhat ded that he suld de; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 2634.
To se quhat lyfe scho led vnder the wand; Henr. Fab. 179.
His mastyr speryt quhat tithingis at he saw; Wall. ii 299.
Off thar talk … I can tell yow no mar … , quhat band that thai maid thar; Ib. v 712.
He sperit quhat medicyne he gaf; Seven S. 709.
For nocht declar can I Quhat diuers kyndis of torment ȝondir thoil thai … ; to rekkyn I tak na keip Quhat mysforton thame plungis in ȝon deip; Doug. vi ix 179, 182.
Ib. iv x 76.
To be exempill to all pepill quhat frute procedis of rebellioun aganis the Romane maieste; Bell. Boece (M) I 121.
Montg. Ch. & Slae 842 (W).
To see quhatt redresse ve might heve of hir majestie for our sustenit skaythe; 1584 Cal. Sc. P. VII 62.
To latt the world know Quhat furious rage hes sett my thoughts in fyre; Fowler I 241/44.
To se wuhat medecin the lard hes for this veikit grawell; 1601 Crawford Mun. Invent. II 215 (2 June).
Quhat; Row xvii.
Anna Wood … was interrogate what envye she had at Robert Nimmo; 1704 Salmon Borrowstounness 120.
(2) Quhat chaistytie thay keip in Rome, Is weill kend ouer all Christindome; Lynd. Mon. 4587.
(3) Quhat, quhyne, & of quhat state, & for quhat cause, thu me late, Thu has bene sa lange tym here; Leg. S. xviii 393.
On qwhat manere that wes dwne Yhe sall heyre here-efftyr swne; Wynt. viii 3671.
The justice innys thow spy … , And in quhat feir that thai thair lugyne mak; Wall. vii 293.
We se in quhat errour thai ar fallin in in our tyme; Irland Mir. II 22/26.
Nocht knawand be quhat ingyne he mycht distroye thame baith; Bell. Boece (M) I 41.
Qwhelkis mayd menschown in qwat stayt I was in at that taym; 1544 Corr. M. Lorraine 99.
I waet not be quhat corruption, we see, … one symbol to have sundrie soundes; Hume Orthog. 14.
The bearer quha wil mak yow particularlie acquaint … both efter quhat maner I wil have it to be done and for quhais subsidie and help [etc.]; 1633 Aberd. Council Lett. I 379.
(4) And … thairwith thair infantes to fortifie … I knawe nocht against quhat evil; Dalr. I 48/6.
To tak wp the names of all persones, … who keepes Scotis schooles … , by quhat warrand; 1660 Glasgow B. Rec. II 453.
c. In reference to amount, size, degree or number: = How much, how great, how many.
But the Barbour and the Wallace quots. may belong in b (or perh. 11).
With pl. nouns it may be uncertain whether to gloss ‘how great’ or ‘how many’.
(1) pl. Quhat strakys thai gaiff I can nocht tell; Barb. vi 647 (E).
Gif the said Schir Jamis and the saide schirray accordis or discordis, qwat sowmis may be recouerit for Jon of the Wemys mariage; 1444 Melville Chart. 28.
I haf resauit ane othir steik of tanne, … and the pris nocht maid, and of quhat elnis I knaw nocht, becaus the steik is hale ȝit; 1498 Treas. Acc. I 318.
To stent and sie what bolls of victuall everie heritor was; 1654 Balmerino 408.
(2) sing. And tauld him off thair cair, Quhat gud thai lost and quha in feild was slayne; Wall. iii 227.
Sperand quhat gold and quhat tressoure Thai wald gif to distroye that towre; Seven S. 1687.
Thai promittit to … stak the said corne and quhat boll it wald extend to sekarlie he misknawis; 1513–14 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 26.
1519 Ib. 52.
My lordis as for holie watter quhat strenth it is of I taucht nevir; Pitsc. II 68/1.
To consult vpoun … sum platt of the forme of the hows and quhat money micht do the sam; 1587 Edinb. B. Rec. IV 497.
9. Of a person or persons, in reference to identity or to character, nature or the like: Which; what sort of? a. In direct questions. b. In indirect questions; also with that or at following the noun.
a. Bot quhat chyld be that thé by, That salust me sa courtesly? Alex. ii 3077.
The capteyne speryt ‘Quhat bellamy may thow be That cummys so grym?’ Wall. v 1102.
Quhat bern be thou in bed … Lurkand lyke a longeour? Doug. viii Prol. 120.
Than said Banquho, ‘Quhat wemen be ȝe quhilkis bene sa vnmercifull to me [etc.]?’ Bell. Boece (M) II 150.
Giffe sawis be suth to schaw thy celsitude, Quhat berne sould bruke all Bretane be the see? Scott i 194.
Quhat [ed. Qahat] a ane is God? a 1630 Lindsay Cat. in
S. Leith Rec. II 280/1.
b. Quhat man he is, I sall ȝow say; Alex. ii 262.
I can nocht witt quhat qweyn at it suld be, Quhethir Fortoun or Our Lady so fre; Wall. vii 129.
Schawin sall be … Under quhat king this gentill sport began And quhat man that first this sporting fand; Bk. Chess 44.
Full fast at hir I franit Quhat folk thay war; Doug. Pal. Hon. 1962.
Bell. Boece I cv.
Thay sal rekkine al thair sinnis to thair schrift fader in quhat maner and vith quhat persone thay var dune; Gau 3/15.
Lynd. Mon. 3270.
10. In rhetorical questions, expecting the response (a) ‘not one, none’, or (b) ‘no-one, none’. Qualifying a. non-personal, b. personal, nouns.
a. (1) Quhat medycyne can thow lat se Till … ras thame agayne That … thow gert be slayne? Wynt. v 3818.
Gyve thow thynkys to sla me, Quhat tyme na nowe may bettyr be … ? Ib. vii 76.
For quhat loving war it till hym to governe wele othir men, and mak a fule of him self? Hay I 296/6.
Quhat plesans is in feistis delicate The quhilkis ar geuin with ane glowmand brow? Henr. Fab. 232.
Quhat blame serve I, thus way to be supprysit? K. Hart 608.
Pilat said, ‘Quhat ewill hes he done?’ Kennedy Pass. Christ 568.
Geue thir thingis maiste speciall throw ignorance … be brocht fra thair puritie, quhate maruell is it that materis of les pryce … to be at this tyme corruptit? Winȝet I 5/34.
And gif ȝe abolise all thing that is abusit, quhat thing sal ȝe leue nocht abolissit? Ib. 123/25.
To discovir the poyson that befoir lay hid in thair hartis … For quhat vther thing mycht move the principall rasaris of this tumult to put thame selffis in armes aganis ws [etc.]? 1565 Facs. Nat. MSS III xlix.
For quhat vther is this bot to dissolue the haill polecy … ? Ib.
(2) To quhat effect sall ony tribune of pepil ryn blyndlingis to ieoperde him self in dangere quhare na proffitt is following? Bell. Livy II 101/8.
Than to quhat effect suld ony Scottis men adhere til Inglis men to gar them selfis be cum sklauis? Compl. 104/17.
b. Quhat cristnit clerk suld hym haue consalit bettir, Althocht he nevir was catholik wight? Doug. vi Prol. 105 (Sm.).
Bell. Boece (M) II 224.
Quhat lordis hart culd luik on this and lest? 1567 Sat. P. vii 42.
What; Fowler I 275/1.
c. With plurals or collectives, appar. passing into: What number of, how many?
‘Quhat folk ar thai?’ ‘Schir, mony men’; Barb. xix 293.
How the pray suld sesit be At the ȝet, and with quhat menȝe; Alex. ii 2866.
It maid na mis quhat madinnis thai miscareit On fasting dayis; Scott i 75.
To tack notice what weomen hes seats sett in the Laigh Kirk who hes chyres in wther kirkes; 1659 Glasgow B. Rec. II 426.
11. In exclamatory use: How much, how great, ‘what a’.
(1) Quhat los quhat honour quhat renoun Was spokin of him; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 1974.
Lo! with quhat thocht, quhat byttyrnes and pane Lufe onsylly bredis in euery wight; Doug. iv Prol. 229.
Quhat miserye sustenit oure faderis … quhen thai wer constrenit [etc.]; Bell. Boece (M) I 78.
O Wallace, quhat presumptuus foly is in thé … to fecht … aganis the pyssance of [etc.]; Ib. II 257.
Quhat kind of daffing is this al day? Lynd. Sat. 2290 (Ch.).
Inemete is ane rycht wickit seid, Quhat deidlie feid it wirkis; Maitland Maitl. F. xcvi 27.
Quhat euill presage is this that I behold? Fowler I 247/1.
Quhat folie war it to infer thir inept conclusions? Hamilton Facile Tr. 133.
(2) O God! quhat skath! … Ha, walloway, quhat harm and wo eneuch! Doug. ii v 41, 44.
I can nocht tell the teind … Of misfortounis … be that luf … : Quhat heretage, quhat biggingis coft & sauld, Quhat deid, quhat slane throw lufis destenie; Rolland Ct. Venus i 549, 550.
b. In clauses objective to verbs of thinking, perceiving, making known: How great (a), how much; how many.
With mixed exclamatory and interrogative force and in some cases scarcely to be distinguished from 8 b or 8 c; for the uncertainty, in (2) between ‘how great’ and ‘how many’, cf. the note to 8 c.
(1) Haid ȝe wmbethocht ȝow enkrely, Quhat perell to ȝow mycht apper; Barb. i 93.
Thynkis quhat glaidschip ws abidis Gyff that we may … Haff wictour; Ib. viii 253 (E).
We se in quhat errour thai ar fallin in in our tyme; Irland Mir. II 22/26.
Sen syne in quhate chance I stand and danger And quhou fers batellis now persewys me, Full weill thou wait; Doug. xii i 80.
Wee beleif it is nocht vnknawing to thi hienes in quhat extreme dangere the catholik pepill has standin … be cruelte of Saracenis … , quhat novmer of pepill bene slane thairwith, quhat landis and townis brynt [etc.]; Bell. Boece (M) II 18.
Ib. I 57.
Desyring ȝour lordship to respect quhat inconvenient it is to me to pas to Glasgo; 1568 Reg. Morton I 35.
I pray thé schaw him … Quhat troubill quhat cummer and quhat dissentioun Fell in this cuntrie be lordis thrie; Pitsc. I 6/26.
I am not ignorant quhat a doe the learned make [etc.]; Hume Orthog. 15.
(2) Thu blissit croice, … leile folk wat quhat gyftis thou And ioy [L. quanta … gaudia, quanta munera] in thé has grathit now; Leg. S. iii 671.
Quhat troubillis be intollarabill arrogance and quhow money diuers oppressouris … we haif susteined … evirie ane of ȝow knawis perfytlie; Pitsc. I 17/33.
III. The compound relative pron. 12. In definite sense: That or those which.
Also quhat that (at).
In many examples, more or less indistinguishable from the interrog. use in indirect questions (1 b).
Some examples also are ambiguous with 13, q.v.
For some further examples see 16 b below.
(1) Se quhat he dois, that swa fowly Fleis thus for his cowardy! Barb. ix 91.
[He] gert the ȝonge man son apper, Quhat his modir wald say, to her; Leg. S. iii 194.
Quhen Jasone of this messinger Had herd the wordes quhat thai wer; Troy-bk. i 62.
Thir wordys all the empryowre … Herd and consayvyd welle Quhat fell to presthad ilke dele; Wynt. v 3722.
Ib. iv 882, 2590, v 3781, etc.
And tharfore suld a prince tak gude hede quhat he dois in his … ire; Hay I 301/10.
Als till hyr son [she told] quhat hapnyt was be cas; Wall. iv 521.
Quhill I oucht wantit of my will or quhat I wald desir; Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 336.
Id. Flyt. 12.
Id. (O.U.P.) iii 143.
The said Rechert to bring quhat he hes for him within xv dayis; 1515 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 32.
Giffin to Andro Scot of quhat wes awand him, … iiij s.; 1521 Perth Hammermen 16.
And quhet your masterschip wyll hyf doun in this roumes, writ to me; 1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 226.
Now, gude fallowis, harkin quhat I say to yow; Duncan Laideus Test. 156.
Quhair … thay sal declair publicly quhat thai haif profettit be thair industrie; Buch. Wr. 13.
In yow he hethe maid placed for to bee Quhat most was raire, quhat most is faire; Fowler I 217/8.
Farther because nathing is althrouch fortunat and happie, quhat ane way abundes with ws, another way inlakes with vs; Dalr. I 40/9.
The antiphrastiks, that is, thay quha quhat thay speik meines contrare; Ib. 46/27.
And sua quhat I have done heiranentis desyris the godlie … reidaris to tak in guid pairt; Bisset I 78/16.
Sending for quhot is necessary to their particular familyes; 1658 S. Ronaldshay 25.
Tak nothing but qhat is your dew; 1662 Red Bk. Menteith II 166.
Be uhat itt will; 1663 Ib. 168.
It's too reall a truth, uhat I have wreatten, uich I am most sorie for; 1667 Ib. 169.
(2) Quhat that folwyd efftyrwert … To that buke I tham remyt; Wynt. viii 970.
b. That extent, degree, amount or number which, so or as much as.
Also quhat that.
That ȝe deliuer … the lede that ȝe haue in keping of oure said Castel of Bute, indenting witht him quhat that ȝe deliuer; 1470 Lennox Mun. 81.
The Inglismen … doing quhat thay culd with schot of artailyerie … to ding thame back; Leslie 228.
Be the quhilk assurance Fintrie did qwhait he cwld to haif renewit the frindschipe twixt them; 1587 Gray Lett. & P. 147.
My lord prouest hes travellit quhat he can that the toun may be frie of this present raid; 1587 Edinb. B. Rec. IV 504.
Its as probable, the father will not have so many children as uhat I have supposed; Donaldson Postscript Husbandry 22.
If ye had a third more rent than uhat ye have; Ib.
c. Of persons: see 2 b above.
13. In indefinite or generalised sense: Anything that, whatever.
It is possible to interpret many examples as belonging to 12 rather than here.
Also, in early use, quhat that (at).
(1) Thow may say quhat thow will on fer; Barb. v 620 (E).
Aske me quhat thu wil, … Tho it be half of my kinryke; Leg. S. xxxvi 512.
And thoil [R. that] qwhat God wil on thé sende; Wynt. v 3702 (C).
To do quhat him lykit withe; Hay I 294/10.
Thar hors thai tuk and quhat thaim likit best; Wall. iv 319.
Quhat thaim thocht best, off fyn harnes thai waill; Ib. x 35.
Ib. v 308.
Dunb. (O.U.P.) lxxxii 49.
With power to tak up to his use the dowbill and singler avale of the said mariage quhat may be recoverit thairof, etc.; 1508 Reg. Privy S. I 264/2.
Doug. viii Prol. 27.
To wemen than, say quhat ȝe can, Sic giftis first wes lent; Arbuthnot Maitl. Q. xxxv 111.
1564 Misc. Wodrow Soc. 285.
It being grantit that he sould … speak quhat he pleased; 1659 Glasgow B. Rec. II 417.
(2) Thus thay leuch and made solas And said quhat that thare lyking was; Alex. ii 6086.
And quhat that he dois to be unrevokyt … throw me or my ayeris; 1419 Thanes of Cawdor 6.
And in al thing full suth to say Is nocht neidfull … , Bot quhat at [C. qwhat that] suld writyn be Suld be al suth of honeste; Wynt. ix 1923.
Quhat that a man dois in hete of brethe of ire suld excus him that dois it; Hay I 196/14.
That quhat that beis decretit … turne him … to na preiudice; 1466 Acta Aud. 5/2.
Any or whatever class or kind b. of a substance, c. of persons.
Sum othir … that knewe … the worthynes of the woman—or lady, or quhat scho war; Hay I 261/20.
Allowes the master to use six or eight pound of what of our wool he pleases itt being for his personall use; 1682 New Mills Manuf. 37.
d. Introducing a conditional-concessive clause: No matter what, whatever.
That nane reprowe ws, quhat may fall; Wynt. viii 6570.
To swoping of the hous thay tak na tent, Quhat be thairin, swa that the flure be clene; Henr. Fab. 74.
I sall, quhat be the kingis will, At my power rycht glaidly to fullfill; Wall. xi 227.
IV. The compound relative adj. 14. In definite sense: The or that or those … (that), such … as; also passing into expression of quantity: so much … as.
Some examples are ambiguous with the indefinite sense (15 a), and some might equally be treated as indirect interrogatives (sense 8).
That quhat thing the saidis personis did in that matter … thai dide it of gude zele [etc.]; 1439 Acts II 54/1.
I saw how be Vlixes with greit ioy Quhat wise Achill was found and brocht to Troy; Doug. Pal. Hon. 1620.
Behald … Quhat sweit savour … from hir spryngis, Quhatkyn vissage hes scho; Id. Æn. xi 95.
And ȝe sall haif quhatt … revarde that I may geif; Bell. Boece (M) I 388.
I … sall tak quhat pyne I may indure to keip the contreth at rest; 1543 Corr. M. Lorraine 41.
Knawing quhat paynis, travell and lawbour it will be unto him; 1612 Edinb. B. Rec. VI 92.
To … pay quhat prejudice the bounds of Knockandoche … hes sustained; 1649 Grant Chart. 243.
For lening of what money may be had amongst thame; 1651 Stirling B. Rec. I 198.
Whatt; 1673 Sc. Hist. Rev. XL 61.
To the value of quhat damnadge shall happen to the wooll they furnish; 1689 Acts XII 60/1.
15. In indefinite sense: Any … that, whichever, whatever. When introducing a clause also with conditional or temporal-conditional force, = if any, if and when any, whenever any.
a. Qualifying non-personal nouns. Also, quhat … so or at ever.
Sometimes ambiguous with prec., q.v.
Also, esp. in early use, with that (at) following the qualified noun.
(1) And for to dispone apon tha landes in quhat maner or forme it best lykis to the saide Gilbert; 1419 Thanes of Cawdor 6.
Haffand ferme and stabyle quhat thyng the forsayd schir Alexander doyis for tyll … recovyr the forsayde warde; 1420 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 384.
That na man of quhat estat degre or condicioun he be of … haif ma personis with him na may suffice him or till his estate; 1424 Acts II 3/2.
That na man of quhat degre or auctorite he be tak on hande til molest … the tenandis; 1442 Charter (Reg. H.) No. 307.
They sall haue thair laires quhen thai discesses free in quhat place of the kirk it plesis them to ly; 1458 Sc. N. & Q. 1 Ser. I 19.
Ane of the cunnaris sall fill a cop of quhat pechar he plessis; 1470 Prestwick B. Rec. 17.
Sa that the inhabitantis … be nocht compellit to lay thair gudis bot to quhat schippis thai pleisis best; 1518 Edinb. B. Rec. I 180.
To vaig in quhat lust or leicherie lyket thame best; Dalr. I 289/21.
— Ore in qwat other resonable manere that yhow likis; 1400 Facs. Nat. MSS II liii.
He man … be personeir Off quhat kynd [v.rr. qwhat kyne, quhat kin] blame that I suld beir; Wynt. i Prol. 62 (E).
His gret seyll he him gaiff Off quhat lordschip that he likit till haiff; Wall. ix 676.
Alexander sall mak quhat securite that the foresaid Henry and his frendis can … devise; 1489 Acta Conc. I 116/1.
— Ferme and stabil haffand … al and quhat thingis so euer the said schir Robert … in oure name … ledis to be done; 1439 Edinb. Chart. 64.
It is to wyt quhat temtacioune at euir the deuill putis to man sal nocht noy hyme bot gyf he wylfully consent thar-to; Cr. Deyng 61.
(2) Qwat emplesance, seruice, or kyndnes that we may … do to ȝour said kyngis maieste; 1424 Cambuskenneth Let. to Jas. I.
Quhat gold, joells [etc.] … that I have … forȝet; 1456 Misc. Bann. C. III 100.
King Eduuard hecht, quhat thing at Wallang band, He suld it kep; Wall. xi 789.
Throw his necligens and scleuth that quhat scaith that the said William … sustenis … that he sall … recompence the said William thar of; 1482–3 Perth Guildry p. 104 (21 Feb.).
Quhat kynd of taill … That thow of hir reqwyreis, Scho sall spek out; Dum Wyf 41.
Quhat commissioun that ye think salbe necessare with the counsalis adwyse … caus mak it in sic forme as maye be neidfull; 1568 Mary Facs. Nat. MSS III lviii.
— That thairfor quhat skayth or danger cum to the said kirk … throw the occasioun forrsaid [sic in pr.] that the samyn be nocht input to him; 1555 Edinb. B. Rec. II 220.
That quhat syd of thame ran best suld have [etc.]; Fowler II 177/20.
Bisset II 233/18.
b. Qualifying personal nouns.
(1) Wytht qwhat four of thir fornemmyt at hym likis; 1439 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 190.
To sell … his landis … to quhat persoun or persounis he ples; 1508 Reg. Privy S. I 268/2.
(2) And quhat barnys ware gottyn thare Quhen thaire modyrys delyver ware Off knaw barnys thai walde sla mony; Wynt. ii 1495.
Quhat burges beis nocht at thai mutis … he sal gif iiii d.; Burgh Laws c. 32a (A).
1434 Aberd. B. Rec. I 390.
Stevin sal mary at the wil of the said Johne quhat persone aggreable that he gevis & profferis to him; 1476 Acta Aud. 51/2.
Wallace resawit quhat man wald cum him till; Wall. iv 189.
Quhat ane he hyt grewyt the Scottis no mar; Ib. v 846.
Quhat gentill man had nocht with Ramsay beyne Off courtlynes thai cownt him nocht a preyne; Ib. vii 909.
That quhat chaplan of the college happinnis to deceis gif he hes nay gudis of his awin … the college sal bringe him furtht on thar expens [etc.]; 1491 Cart. S. Nich. Aberd. I 257.
Quhat woman, havand ten besandis (of gold) and gif scho has tynt a besand, quhethir gif scho … sekis diligentlie till that scho find it? Nisbet Luke xv 8.
1525 (1527) Reg. Great S. 97/1.
That what nighbour … desires inhibitione of ane baillie to be put to his nighbours wark … that he lay in pledg [etc.] … xx s.; 1567 (c 1650) Dundee B. Laws 33.
— Ande quhat stranger at bringis merchandice within the realme … ande takis mone thairfor he sal hafe witnessing … that [etc.]; 1425 Acts II 9/2.
Quhat liperous at keipis nocht this statute that he be banyst … of that burgh; 1427 Acts II 16/1.
Qwat; 1432 Ayr B. Ct. 15 Dec.
1434 Aberd. B. Rec. I 390.
Quhat knycht or capitane that takis wagis of a lord and levis him … suld be … distrussit of hors and gere; Hay I 117/8.
Quhat women at flytis [etc.] … , thai sal be led [etc.]; 1471 Peebles B. Rec. I 167.
Rays neuir agayne quhat ane at he hyt rycht; Wall. v 966.
Ib. iii 383.
(The ladeis sweit thai mak sic melodie) Quhat wicht that micht it heir suld iuge sone To angell song; K. Hart 311.
c. Quhat … that (sa) ever: Any or every, no matter what, whatsoever. Also quhat … so. Chiefly introducing or within a conditional-concessive clause.
(1) Bot quhat pite that euer he had Na contenance thar off he maid; Barb. i 481.
And in that se … The watterys that cummys rynnand owt Off the flwme Jordane tays entre Qwhat wyis sa ever thai rynnand be; Wynt. i 926.
Quhat evyre he wes that brak his pes, Off qwhat condytyown sa evyr he wes, He suld thole the payne off dede; Ib. vi 1182.
[He] maid Alexander are of all But reuocatioun quhat case that evir befall; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 2212.
Henr. Robene & M. 118.
Quhat gud that euir yhe spend; Wall. ix 288.
That na maner of person … tak apone hand to … ressett ony maner of personis within thar houssis quhat pairt that euer thai cum fra; 1529 Edinb. B. Rec. II 13.
Quhat sect or opinioun that evir thou be of; Q. Kennedy Tractive 98.
Out of quhat arte sa euir the wind blawe, schipis may sail baith in and out without al danger; Dalr. I 55/27.
(2) Hafand … ferm and stabyl quat thyng so euer the saydis Adam, Steuyn or Hu … ledis to be doun; 1423 Buccleuch MSS 33.
(3) Prynsace or queyn, in quhat stait so thai be, In till hir tym scho was als der to me; Wall. viii 1383.
V. 16. Rarely, and late, the simple relative pron.: That.
Cf. Quhilk 7, 8, 9.
Henrie Spence … , had ane servand, quhat at his masteris comand past to his masteris scheip cruiff [etc.]; 1576 Orkney Oppress. 67.
The bearer quhat went to know our proportione of men being not returned; 1672 Rothesay B. Rec. 227.
About 50 peice whyt quhat are in the loombs in yearne and dressing; 1701 New Mills Manuf. 255.
b. The following, which might be taken as early instances of this use, seem rather to be examples of 12 in particular collocations:
At [= in order that] thai herd that thing quhat at thai sal suer befor at thai sal suer [B. at thai may here that thai sal swere or thai swere]; Burgh Laws c. 22 (A).
Hys stwart Kerlye brocht thaim in fusioun Gude thing eneuch quhat was in to the toun; Wall. iv 384.
Ten Commandements … quhairin is contenit all quhat He villeth his peple to do and quhat to liff vndone; 1562 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 4.
VI. adv. and conj. 17. Interrog. adv. For what reason, wherefore, why; to what extent, how; ? whether.
Chiefly in rhetorical questions expecting a reply like ‘for no good reason, to no point, not at all’.
(1) Quhat suld I tell ony mair of thir materis? Howlat 144 (A).
Off cornikle quhat suld I tary lang? Wall. i 143.
Ib. 313, iv 47.
Doug. i Prol. 246.
Quhat ar ye heuy to hir? scho has wroucht a gude werk in me; Nisbet Mark xiv 6.
Ib. Matth. xix 7.
Quhat suld mekle? The Scotis vttirlie refuises, The Inglismen declairis weiris; Dalr. II 270/23.
Thow, in ane divileche furie … ansuerit and said, Quhat wirreys thow me? 1596 Misc. Spald. C. I 85.
Quhat sall I all the gifts recount? Hume 18/55.
(2) He said, ‘Sir, quhat may that me speid The child that I deliuer wald Gif he be deid or I haf tauld?’ Seven S. 394.
Quhat differs dearth frome creuell briganrye Quhen that ȝe mak the pure for hunger dye? No thing at all! Lauder Minor P. i 472.
As some say, What better is this feast nor the feast we haue at home? Cant Serm. 13 June 1638 (1741) 16.
(3) I wait [nocht] weill quhat it wes My awin gray meir that kest me; Peblis to Play 176.
b. Introducing exclamatory statements: How greatly, how much. Chiefly following other exclamatory interjections or phrases. Appar. only in early verse.
A! quhat thai dempt thaim felonly! Barb. i 215.
A! quhat vorschip is prisit thing! Ib. vi 325.
‘A! dere God,’ sais Pyrrus, ‘quhat I Am of this meting richt happy!’ Alex. i 1269.
‘Allace!’ said Alexander … , ‘Quhat me misfell in mekill thing, At Gaderis, quhair that he was dede!’ Ib. ii 1656.
Ib. 1483, 8801.
Lord God quhat he was wa! Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 3708.
18. conj. Introducing the first or both or all of two or more alternative or co-ordinate expressions, as quhat … (and) quhat, quhat … (or) quhat, quhat … and, quhat … or: Some … others, both … and, partly … partly, whether … or.
(1) For gud men, For pete had thare presowneis then, Quhat thare, qwhat in to the fycht, Sawfyd mony a worthy knycht; Wynt. viii 3937.
The Erl of Suthyrland tuk of my gold, … , jeoullys [etc.] … mair than a thusand pundis, quhat first quhat last; 1456 Misc. Bann. C. III 94.
Thare deid … fourty thousand … quhat of the partyes of Couloigne, quhat othir thair allyes; Hay I 57/25.
Quhill at the last quhat leddering, quhat with myne, Quhat schot of gun quhat bumbard quhat ingyne Thay wan the castell; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 2741.
Sic distructioun was of mannis blude Quhat in the feild quhat drownand in the flude; Ib. 3288.
Of the kingis ost alsua, Quhat hurt, quhat dede, a thousand knichtis … vas liand on the grene; Ib. 3969.
Heritrix of a considerable forton, what in land, what in money; 1671 Lauder Notices Affairs I 16.
(2) Thretty thousand And ma, quhat lord and quhat seruand, Ar cummand on vs sudandly; Alex. i 274.
With ten thousand And ma, quhat lord or quhat seruand; Ib. ii 8555.
(3) At the citie of Effezoun, Quhat out-with and within the toun, Thare was ane full great assemble; Alex. ii 10924.
Or my deputis quhat thay be greit or small; Rolland Ct. Venus i 797.
b. Freq., introducing adv. phrases formed with prepositions indicating agency, means, cause, occasion or the like, as be (by), for, of, throw.
(1) Quhat be awe, quhat be thret He gert thame thare decrete retret; Wynt. viii 931.
Hay I 215/17.
The … inhabitantes, quhat by povertie, quhat by debt, ar almost redactit to nothing; 1652 Aberd. Council Lett. III 196.
(2) Adame of Gordoun fra the ficht, Quhat throu slicht & quhat throu mycht Eschapit; Barb. ix 721.
Quhat for thame that with thame faucht … And quhat for arrowes that [etc.]; Ib. xiii 211, 214.
And qwhat for luwe and qwhat for awe Till Scottis pes can hym drawe; Wynt. viii 4393.
(3) Quhar-throw the towne was maid, Quhat of thaim & of vtheris seir Richt populus; Troy-bk. ii 1579.
So, quhat of this tale & the tothir That Oetes also gan tell, Sche tuke so cruell hart and fell Aganis [etc.]; Ib. 2150.
Quhat be falshad and flechyng The crowne he gat; Wynt. vi 1779.
Quhat for corruptyown and inwy, Thare charge thai dyd noucht detfully; Ib. vii 2257.
Quhat be Stwart and syn be wicht Wallace, For all his prys, King Eduuard rewyt that race; Wall. x 437.
Ȝe begouth to worth richt … waik, allace, sueit Lord, na marwall, quhat throu fasting of fourty dais … and syne [etc.]; Dewoit Exerc. 231.
Quhat throu the mery foulys armony And throu [etc.]; Dunb. G. Targe 46.
Id. Tua Mar. W. 7.
For quhat be the braverye and strange apparell of the persons theme selfs, and be the dyvers schapes of the beastes [etc.]; Fowler II 177/35.
c. Introducing a single adv. phrase without alternative; quhat for = in consequence of, as a result of.
Quhat for walyng of irus wordis fell Agane reskewit said by the damycell, Grekis flokkis togidder; Doug. ii vii 89.
19. As a conj. introducing a clause of proportion, possibly after L. quo (followed by eo): In proportion as, by the amount that, as.
Quhat the oys is seldynyare, It hapnys all the cruellare; Wynt. iv 1921.
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"Quhat pron., adj., adv., conj.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 26 Sep 2020 <https://www.dsl.ac.uk/entry/dost/quhat>
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