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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1986 (DOST Vol. VI).

Quhat, pron., adj., adv. and conj. Also: quhate, quhatt, qwhat, qvhat, qhat; quat, qwat; what(t, uhat, wuhat; quhait(t, qwhait, quhet; quhot; also (Quhit). [North., also east midl. ME quat (Gen. & Exodus, Cursor M.), also qwat, qhat, midl. and south. ME what, wat, hwat, also whet etc., OE hwæt, neut. sing. of interrog. pron. hwá Quha.]Some of the following examples no doubt represent editorial expansion of the abbreviation qr.

I. The interrogative pron.: What. 1. Of a thing. (Chiefly with sing. reference.) a. In direct questions.(1) 1375 Barb. xviii 39 (E).
‘Quhat sayis thow?’ ‘Schyr,’ he said, ‘perfay As my falow has said I say’
a1400 Leg. S. iii 264.
Quhat sal I haf, gywe … Thi sone liffand I gyf to thé
Ib. xxv 632.
Quhar has thu ben? quhat is done?
c1420 Wynt. iii 215, 216.
Quhat than the lyowne is starkare And quhat than huny is suettare?
Ib. vii 1545.
Quhat dyd thé mast dysplesans here?
Ib. 1539. 1456 Hay I 9/7.
Bot quhat was of that that the visioun sais that the thrid part of the treis was brynt [etc.]?
Ib. II 14/16.
Bot quhat understandis thou, redare, be a lorde?
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2300. a1500 K. Hart 445.
‘Quhat war ȝour will?’ ‘I will cum in, but dout’
a1500 Seven S. 903.
‘Quhat will ȝe, fader,’ said he, ‘I do?’
Ib. 394, 1505, 1965, etc. 1535 Stewart 72.
‘Madame,’ I said, ‘quhat is that mannis name?’
1540 Lynd. Sat. 1302.
Jenny, my Joe, quhat dois thy daddy?
Ib. 788.
Quhat salbe my Godbairne gift?
c1550 Id. Meldrum 963. c1552 Id.Mon. 326. 1562-3 Winȝet I 7/24. 1567 Sat. P. iii 10.
My friend, quhat makis thé sa way?
c 1569 R. Wedderburn in Misc. S.T.S. 184.
This round ball quhat, that is in thi rycht hande?
1570 Sat. P. x 407. c1590 Fowler I 313/25. 1609 Skene Reg. Maj. i 63.
Bot it is demanded, quhat is to be said to the clerk or person of that kirk, quha [etc.]
(2) a1500 Seven S. 1128.
Quhat devill is it makis that dyn thair owt?
1540 Lynd. Sat. 1958. 1643 Orkney Witches in Misc. Abbotsf. C. I 175.
‘Quhat sikane morneing, think ȝe, haid I ȝesterday?’ Quha ansuerit ȝow ‘Quhy, quhat glangoir war ȝe doing in that ill weather?’

b. In indirect questions.In dependent finite clauses, objective to verbs, also to nouns of answer, statement etc., to preps., and in infinitive clauses.Also, in early texts, quhat that or at.Also Quhat-to, -till.Also with ellipsis of the verb.Passing into 12.(1) 1375 Barb. i 586.
For God wate weill quhat is to do
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2935.
Rycht more I sall thé tell Quhair [B. Quhat] by thir beistis may be figurate
a1500 Bernardus 214.
Attende Quhat falowis eftyr or quhat sal be the ende
a1500 Quare Jel. 121, 122.
And to my selfe I thocht … Quhat may this mene? Quhat may this signifye? I can nocht wit quhat is the cause or quhy This lady suffrit [etc.]
1494 Loutfut MS 12a.
And gif thai demand quhat is a cheiff
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 238. 1582 Waus Corr. 241.
Luiking to vnderstand be your anser quhat salbe certanlie lippynnit for at your hand
1597 James VI Dæmonol. (S.T.S.) 4 heading.
What kynde of sin the practizers of these vnlawfull artes committes. … And quhat are the meanes that allures any to practize them
1680 Soc. Ant. XLV 245.
Seek much of the mind of the Lord annent quhat is called for at your hands
(2) 1375 Barb. ii 246.
And othir fele folk … Bot I can nocht tell quhat thai hycht
c 1390 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 21.
We can nocht wytt qwat he suld do [etc.]
1405 Facs. Nat. MSS II liv.
Requirande me to do yhou to wyte … qwhat my full will be to do o that mater
c1420 Wynt. ii 1283. 1456 Hay I 257/3. c1475 Wall. iii 260. a1500 Seven S. 156, etc. a1500 Lanc. 522.
God wot What this shude men, for mor ther of we not
1496 Treas. Acc. I 285.
To a man to pas to Leith to se the kingis artailȝery, and quhat misterit
1513 Doug. iii ix 39, etc. 1525 Douglas Corr. 99.
At I may have perfyct knawlaige thaire in quhat I ma lyppine to do
1530 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 107.
To preiff quhat he is vor quhen he resaiffit hyme
1531 Bell. Boece I 245. 1544 Blackfriars Perth 202.
Your ansuer agane with the berar quhat we sall lippyn to haif
1556 Prot. Bk. G. Grote (S.R.S.) 11.
I kend nocht [ed. now] quhat the soume was, nor ȝit be quhome the rauersioune was maid
15.. Dum Wyf 56.
Guid tent he tuik To heir quhat scho suld say
1560 Rolland Seven S. 8399.
The father said, ‘Sone … , Quhat the bird singis mak interpretatioun'
1562-3 Winȝet I 33/28.
Think quhat it is to maling contrare Christ, [etc.]
Ib. II 13/5.
Rinnand and ruscheand without knaulege quhat thai othir do or say
1567 G. Ball. 1.
Quhen thay heir it sung in Latine, the quhilks thay wait not quhat it is
1585 Waus Corr. 339.
And send me your vtter anser quhait your l. will gif for the same
c1590 Fowler II 93/12.
Pape Alexander the 6 … did shaw quhat a pape might achtehefe
1596 Dalr. I 6/1.
Sa plentifull is the ground, that mekle esier ȝe sall expone quhat it nocht beiris, than quhat it beiris
1604-31 Craig ii 102.
That triall might be tane what I intend
c1616 Hume Orthog. 2.
[I] began to fear quhat might betyed my sillie boat in the same seas
1653 Inverness Presb. 254.
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2859.
And in his wit socht besely Quhat that his dreme betakin micht
c1475 Wall. iv 735.
Quhat at thai wrocht I can nocht graithly say
Ib. ii 299.(3) 1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 682.
He demandit myn answere, quhat I sayd?
1567 Sat. P. vii 5.
I vnderstuid thair sentence quhat thay wald
1649 Wemyss Chart. 232.
This is my will quhaitt sall bei doun uithe my iouls and bodei klothes
1654 Lamont Diary 66.
[To] giue him a rentall of ther seuerall rowmes, what they payed yearlie
(4) 1375 Barb. i 318.
Quhen he herd his fadir was Put in presoune … He wyst nocht quhat to do na say
1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 56.
I watt nocht quhat to wryt
c1590 J. Stewart 34/142.
All dririe droukit doutsum in deuyis Quhat for to do in that disert alon

c. What amount, how much (of extent, quantity, value or worth)? c1475 Wall. vii 696.
Quhen Rukbe saw quhat at thair power was, He tuk sewyn scor off gud archaris was thar [etc.]
c1500-c1512 Dunb. G. Targe 274 (Ch. & M.).
I knaw quhat thou of rethorike may spent
1574 Misc. Maitl. C. I 109.
To inquire of euery inhabitare quhat thai will bestow frelie upoun the saidis puris ouklie
1626 Glasgow B. Rec. I 357.
Sett doun quhat the regentis sould haue yeirlie
1634 S. Leith Rec. 23.
To meit … certaine of the sessione and cognoss upon the land and qt can be most had for it

d. ellipt. in to know not what (to think etc.). e. The phrase I (ȝe) wat not quhat, used as a noun, = something unknown or extraordinary.d. 1698 Fam. Innes 36.
This brought him to jealous, though he knew not what
e. a1568 Scott xxx 39.
Thay luve no man effeminat, And haldis thame bot I wat not quhat, That can noch[t] be without thame
1570 Sat. P. xv 115.
Ȝe worke maist lyke ȝe wat not quhat With your politick heidis

2. Of a person or persons, in reference to name or identity, and thus = Who? a. In direct questions. 1375 Barb. vii 245.
Gud dame, quhat is he That garris ȝow haue sic specialte Till men that traualis?
?1438 Alex. ii 1753.
‘Quhat be he?’ than said the king
c1420 Wynt. v 2575.
‘Lord,’ he ansuered, ‘quhat ar yhe … [that] callys on me?’
a1500 Seven S. 1942. 1490 Irland Mir. II 37/26.
And quhen the legiouns of deuillis saw his gret clernes … thai cryit hyduusly quhat is he this?
1513 Doug. i vi 112.
Bot quhat be ȝhe, finaly wald I wyt, Or of quhat cuntre cummyn?
1549 Compl. 120/3.

b. In indirect questions, passing into a definite compound relative pron. (cf. 12 c below), and also, in some instances, perh. in reference to rank, character or the like, rather than identity.Also quhat (th)at.(1) 1375 Barb. ii 156.
[He] tauld him haly all his state, And quhat he was
Ib. v 342 (E).
Iames off Dowglas off thar cummyng, And quhat thai war, had witting
Ib. vi 47 (C). a1400 Leg. S. i 24.
Had he wittin … Quhat he was suld Criste betraise
Ib. xli 77. c1400 Troy-bk. i 310, 314, etc. ?1438 Alex. ii 4527. c1420 Wynt. ii xvi h. of ch.
Now tellis the next chapitere Qwhat the Amazones were
Ib. v 3933.
Yhe suld wyth yhoure-selff record Quhat yhe have bene and is to be
Ib. viii 1814.
Fast thrang [in] the Inglys men … Or thai wyst welle quhat thai ware
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 163. c1475 Wall. iii 313. 1549 Lamb Resonyng 35/5.
And quhat his father wes I traist the wallis of every guid toun will tell quhar abbayis stuid
1560 Rolland Seven S. 392.
For fra greit men get knawledge quhat he be Thay will couet daylie his companie
1622-6 Bisset II 222/13.
The admirall and his deputtis therefoir suld tak guid tryell … quhat they war that aucht the schip
1624 Dunferm. B. Rec. II 145.
Being challengit be thame [sc. the watch, they] wald not only kyth thameselffis be telling thair names and quhat they wer bot also be misusing the watch in evill language
(2) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 162 (C).
Wpone no maner mytht be thar Perseyved wele what at thai war
c1420 Wynt. viii 962.
Before the rychtwys dwmmys man Quhat that thow art to say than
15.. Clar. iv 581.
[He] told him all the maner and the meine; What that thay war and how thay war arayit

3. Quhat … for (a), Quhat for (a), of what quality, kind or character, what sort of. Of a person or persons and of a thing.(1) c1590 Fowler I 37/24.
I willinglie than first would know quhat art thow for a man
1637 Monro Exped. i 47.
He lacked the courage … to have once tryed what for souldiers we were
1665–7 Lauder Jrnl. 14.
I know not what for a man he'el prove
(2) 1678 J. Brown Hist. Indulgence (1783) 211.
But what for a possession this liberty is, the charter, by which it is confirmed, may tell us

4. In rhetorical questions, expecting the response ‘nothing at all, nothing else or further.’ a. Non-personal.With (3) cf. Quhat reckis.(1) a1400 Leg. S. xxxviii 215.
Quhat sal I say, quhat sal I do, That sic a man is couplit to?
c1420 Wynt. v 5262.
Gyve I swa be, Foule wreche, quhat is that for thé?
Ib. vii 2311, viii 2591, 7031, etc.
Quhat wes thare mare?
c1475 Wall. i 220.
Gyff me thi knyff. Quhat dois thi ger so mete?
Ib. vi 149.
‘Quhat suld a Scot do with sa fair a knyff?’
Ib. 41. a1500 Seven S. 2108.
He bad hir tell the maner haile, Scho said, ‘Quhat makis it avale?’
a1500 Quare Jel. 248.
Quhat sall I say? quhom sall I awite … ?
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 173. c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) v 23, xii 9. a1538 Abell 103b.
Quhat will ȝe? It hapnit heir [etc.]
1554 Knox III 96.
Unto the angellis what prevallit the prevaricatioun of man
1562-3 Winȝet I 5/1.
Sen ȝour godly leving garnisit with chastitie [etc.] … (quhat nedȝ mair), is patent to al man!
Ib. II 19/24, 26.
Qvhat sall heirfor a Christiane catholik do, gif ony portioun of the kirk sall cut the self fra the commonioun of the catholik fayth? Quhat treulie bot that he præfer the helthe of the haill body to ane … corruptit membre?
1603 Philotus 1265.
Gude sirs, quhat is thair mair ado? Ilk ȝouth his lufe hes gotten lo
(2) 1513 Doug. iv Prol. 234.
Quhat is bot turment all hys [sc. Love's] langsum fayr … ?
1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 78.
Quhat has brocht sik miserye amang ws bot ciuill weris?
a1568 Bann. MS 224a/34.
Quhat may I do bot to that heynd behald?
1584 Colville Lett. 50.
Quhat restis moir bot to preserve thair lyif the best way thai can?
c1590 Fowler I 202/1.
Quhat more can I performe or thow exspect Then consecrat to thé my lyfe … ?
Ib. II 21/2.(3) 1540 Lynd. Sat. 2940 (Ch.).
Quhat devil raks thé of our preiching vndocht?

b. In reference to persons, with respect to their character, nature, rank or the like. c1420 Wynt. ix 1183.
Qwhat is he off ony wyte That wald drawe sic in this wryte?
1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 91. 1556 Lauder Off. Kings 61.
Qvhat is thir kings more than the pure Except thair office … ?
a1585 Maitl. Q. lxv 89.
Then quhat ar we to trust into our strenth Our wisdome [etc.]?

c. In exclamatory questions which express an aroused, concerned or astonished state of mind rather than seek information by way of reply.(1) 1375 Barb. vi 154.
Quhat sall we say quhen we cum hame Quhen a man fechtis agains vs all?
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2590.
Cosing, what etlis thow to do? … Thow sla nocht heir Thyne eld-fadere
c1420 Wynt. viii 890.
Quhat is that, lord, that yhe now spek?
a1500 Henr. Robene & M. 72.
Quhat alis lufe at me?
c1475 Wall. vi 33.
Quhat is this luff? It is bot gret myschance
a1500 K. Hart 597.
Quhat haue I done that thus hes crabbit ȝow?
c1590 Fowler I 275/11. 1603 Philotus 1037.
Quhat is the mater … Quhat garris ȝow braid?
(2) c1450-2 Howlat 799 (A).
Quhat dele alis thé?

5. In elliptical sentences with advs., conjs. or preps.

a. Quhat of, quhat now, quhat than. b. Quhat gif (geve), = let us suppose, supposing. 1513 Doug. iv Prol. 199.
Quhat of bewte, quhar honeste lyis ded?
1540 Lynd. Sat. 1354.
Quhat now, huirsun? begins thow for til ban?
1560 Rolland Seven S. 5753.
That wemen bene … richt subtell for to tyist ony man, As thay think gude, bot not the les quhat than
1587-99 Hume 78/323.
I grant that may be trew bot quhat of that?
1603 Philotus 889.
Maistris quhat now? me think ȝe dreme, Or than to be in sowne ȝe seime
b. 1556 Lauder Off. Kings 75.
Quhat geue thay boith to heuin ascend, … Sall this gret king be sett more hie … Than the pure sely naikit wycht?
1562-3 Winȝet II 19/28.
Quhat gif sum cankir makis to defyle nocht onlie a portioun bot the haill kirk at anis?
Ib. 20/1, 6. a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 135 (W).
‘Quhat gif,’ quod he, ‘it cost thee nocht Bot rander it againe?’

6. As an exclamation of surprise, also of indignation, followed by a question. 1375 Barb. ix 228.
Quhat, think ȝe, schir, thusgat to fair To ficht?
Ib. xii 449. c1420 Wynt. viii 3550 (C).
Qwhat, sal I eyk to Goddis wengeance?
c1420 Wynt. viii 6655.
Quhat, are noucht Inglis dowchtyast men
c1475 Wall. xi 615.
Quhat, trowit thir v for to hald Wallace doun?
1513 Doug. iv x 75.
Son of the goddes, quhou is this heir thou lyis? Quhat, may thou vndir sa gret danger sleip?
1682 Lauder Observes App. iv 307.
Favor (qwoth a chield … ) what, show favor to such a loun as he?

II. The interrogative adj. 7. Of a thing or things, in direct questions. a. Chiefly in reference to nature, quality, and the like: What kind of, what sort of? ?Also b. in reference to identity: Which? 1375 Barb. v 596 (E).
Ȝon men will slay ws & thai may. Quhat wapyn has thow?
a1400 Leg. S. xviii 889. c1420 Wynt. v 3815.
Than quhat pennans Has thow yhit done … ?
Ib. viii 2041.
‘Quhat caus has thow to were the grene?’ ‘Na caus bot for to mak thé tene'
Ib. 5189.
Syne sayd he, ‘Lordis, on qwhat manere Will yhe ryn at this justyng here?’
c1475 Wall. v 493.
Quhat word of him? I pray you graithlye tell
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) lxxiv 3.
Quhat tydingis gossep, peax or weir?
c1520-c1535 Nisbet Matth. xi 7. c1552 Lynd. Mon. 5259. 1588 King Cat. 146.
Quhat obstinacie maks sinne agains the Haly Ghaist?
1601 Elgin Rec. II 95.
Quhat invy is this that your brother the minister hes at me?

8. Of a thing or things, in indirect questions. a. In reference to identity: Which. In some instances distinction between this, and b or c below is arbitrary. Some examples might also equally be assigned to sense 14.Also qualifying nouns of manner, without preceding prep., forming adv. (interrog. or conj.) phrases: see Quhat-gate, -maner(e, -way, -wayes, -wys.Also Quhatkynd as adj. (with ellipsis of of) and cf. Quhatkin.Also quhatsa ever. Also in ellipt. construction.(1) 1375 Barb. iv 202.
He bad thai suld him say Quhat toune wes that
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2495. c1450-2 Howlat 627 (A).
Of the said tre I tell nocht the teynd, … Quhat fele armes on loft … The said pursewant bure
1456 Hay II 72/1.
Quhat kynde of sapience effeiris to kingis
Ib. 73/15.
Quhat kyndis of metis are best for man
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 170.
The king Philip … meruelit gretlie quhat thing this mycht be
1466 Acts II 87/1.
Quhil his henes se quhat fredomes … thai sal haf
a1500 Rauf C. 30.
Thair wist na knicht of the court quhat way the king raid
c1500 Harl. MS 4700 fol. 282a.
Till haif tane lauchful witnes … quhat tyme & quhat ȝere and be quhat personis or party & quhat day and quhair in his distrublance wes maid
1513 Doug. vi xiii 4, 5.
And rekkyn … Quhat glor and honour beis of ws tocum And quhat successioun or posterite … sal discend of thé
Ib. vii xi 6, 7, 9, 11.
Ȝhe Musys now … til endyte me leir Quhat kyngis dyd remufe furth to this weir, Quhat rowtis followit euery prynce in feild … , With quhat maner of valȝeand men … Ital flurist tha days, With quhatkyn armys it enflambit schane
1515 Reg. Privy S. I 408/2.
To tak inquisitioun quhat landis, croftis, annuellis and fyschingis the said William had umquhile in fe
1540 Lynd. Sat. 3131.
Quhat craft hes thow, declair that to me plaine
1574 Cochran-Patrick Coinage I 142.
To note quhat schippis departis laidynnit and empty and likewyis with quhat kynd of gudis or marchandice thay returne chargeit
c1590 Fowler I 41/124, 125.
[He] can not tell quhat syde Or yit quhat way to turne him to
1622-6 Bisset II 131/1. 1540 Lynd. Sat. 3173.
Cair thou nocht quhat estait sa ever he be
(2) 1375 Barb. vii 527.
He tuk avisment vith his men, On quhat maner thai suld do then
1385 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 8 (i).
To schaw how and for qwat caus … thai halde … the landys [etc.]
a1500 Seven S. 2270. 1521 Doug. in Facs. Nat. MSS III xv.
To schaw me in quhat place & quhat tyme I sall cum to your grace
1573 Macritchie Gypsies 63.
Gevand knawledge … be quhat honest meane craft or industre they have dedicat thame selffis to leif
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 68/58.
With my opinioun for quhat subiectis ilk kynde of thir verse is meitest to be vsit
1611-57 Mure Dido & Æneas i 119.
Show to quhat soyle owr cowrse sall be addrest
c1616 Hume Orthog. 17.
Next the consonantes are to be marked … with quhat organes of the mouth they be broaken
1654 Conv. Burghs III 389.
Togither with the saidis magistratis [sc. of Haddington] dilligence [? to] thair treadsmen … wpon quhat ground they exact auchte penyes [etc.]
1690 Cramond Kirk S. III 7 Jan.
That publick intimation be made … The day appointed for weekly sermon and at what a clocke it is to begin
(3) ellipt. c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2888.
At his moder he gan inquer Quho was his fader … And quhar he duelt & in quhat land
c 1400 Edinb. Univ. MS 27 fol. 288.
Or than sal he thole sodayne deede Unwetand qwen or in qwat stede
1456 Hay I 285/33.
And gif the caus movis of dett … or of ony othir singular caus, he suld … inquere how and quhare and in quhat place and for quhat caus and of quhat tyme and all the circumstancis
Ib. 265/4. 1596 Highland P. I 189.
He folded a lap of it, for quhat caus I know not
1600 Crim. Trials II 186.
Saw his majestie … gang furth … but to quhaitt place I knaw nocht

b. In reference to nature, quality, character, and the like: What kind of, what sort of.Also with that, at following the noun.(1) 1375 Barb. i 141.
And fra he wyst quhat charge thai had
a1400 Leg. S. xli 72. c1420 Wynt. vii 539.
I askyd … than qwhat remede This mycht helpe
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 2634.
[That] Thay wald him tell quhat ded that he suld de
a1500 Henr. Fab. 179.
To se quhat lyfe scho led vnder the wand
c1475 Wall. ii 299.
His mastyr speryt quhat tithingis at he saw
Ib. v 712.
Off thar talk … I can tell yow no mar … , quhat band that thai maid thar
a1500 Seven S. 709.
He sperit quhat medicyne he gaf
1513 Doug. vi ix 179, 182.
For nocht declar can I Quhat diuers kyndis of torment ȝondir thoil thai … ; to rekkyn I tak na keip Quhat mysforton thame plungis in ȝon deip
Ib. iv x 76. 1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 121.
To be exempill to all pepill quhat frute procedis of rebellioun aganis the Romane maieste
a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 842 (W). 1584 Cal. Sc. P. VII 62.
To see quhatt redresse ve might heve of hir majestie for our sustenit skaythe
c1590 Fowler I 241/44.
To latt the world know Quhat furious rage hes sett my thoughts in fyre
1601 Crawford Mun. Invent. II 215 (2 June).
To se wuhat medecin the lard hes for this veikit grawell
a1650 Row xvii.
1704 Salmon Borrowstounness 120.
Anna Wood … was interrogate what envye she had at Robert Nimmo
(2) c1552 Lynd. Mon. 4587.
Quhat chaistytie thay keip in Rome, Is weill kend ouer all Christindome
(3) a1400 Leg. S. xviii 393.
Quhat, quhyne, & of quhat state, & for quhat cause, thu me late, Thu has bene sa lange tym here
c1420 Wynt. viii 3671.
On qwhat manere that wes dwne Yhe sall heyre here-efftyr swne
c1475 Wall. vii 293.
The justice innys thow spy … , And in quhat feir that thai thair lugyne mak
1490 Irland Mir. II 22/26.
We se in quhat errour thai ar fallin in in our tyme
1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 41.
Nocht knawand be quhat ingyne he mycht distroye thame baith
1544 Corr. M. Lorraine 99.
Qwhelkis mayd menschown in qwat stayt I was in at that taym
c1616 Hume Orthog. 14.
I waet not be quhat corruption, we see, … one symbol to have sundrie soundes
1633 Aberd. Council Lett. I 379.
The bearer quha wil mak yow particularlie acquaint … both efter quhat maner I wil have it to be done and for quhais subsidie and help [etc.]
(4) 1596 Dalr. I 48/6.
And … thairwith thair infantes to fortifie … I knawe nocht against quhat evil
1660 Glasgow B. Rec. II 453.
To tak wp the names of all persones, … who keepes Scotis schooles … , by quhat warrand

c. In reference to amount, size, degree or number: = How much, how great, how many.But the Barbour and the Wallace quots. may belong in b (or perh. 11).With pl. nouns it may be uncertain whether to gloss ‘how great’ or ‘how many’.(1) pl. 1375 Barb. vi 647 (E).
Quhat strakys thai gaiff I can nocht tell
1444 Melville Chart. 28.
Gif the said Schir Jamis and the saide schirray accordis or discordis, qwat sowmis may be recouerit for Jon of the Wemys mariage
1498 Treas. Acc. I 318.
I haf resauit ane othir steik of tanne, … and the pris nocht maid, and of quhat elnis I knaw nocht, becaus the steik is hale ȝit
1654 Balmerino 408.
To stent and sie what bolls of victuall everie heritor was
(2) sing. c1475 Wall. iii 227.
And tauld him off thair cair, Quhat gud thai lost and quha in feild was slayne
a1500 Seven S. 1687.
Sperand quhat gold and quhat tressoure Thai wald gif to distroye that towre
1513–14 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 26.
Thai promittit to … stak the said corne and quhat boll it wald extend to sekarlie he misknawis
1519 Ib. 52. a1578 Pitsc. II 68/1.
My lordis as for holie watter quhat strenth it is of I taucht nevir
1587 Edinb. B. Rec. IV 497.
To consult vpoun … sum platt of the forme of the hows and quhat money micht do the sam

9. Of a person or persons, in reference to identity or to character, nature or the like: Which; what sort of? a. In direct questions. b. In indirect questions; also with that or at following the noun.a. ?1438 Alex. ii 3077.
Bot quhat chyld be that thé by, That salust me sa courtesly?
c1475 Wall. v 1102.
The capteyne speryt ‘Quhat bellamy may thow be That cummys so grym?’
1513 Doug. viii Prol. 120.
Quhat bern be thou in bed … Lurkand lyke a longeour?
1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 150.
Than said Banquho, ‘Quhat wemen be ȝe quhilkis bene sa vnmercifull to me [etc.]?’
a1568 Scott i 194.
Giffe sawis be suth to schaw thy celsitude, Quhat berne sould bruke all Bretane be the see?
a 1630 Lindsay Cat. in S. Leith Rec. II 280/1.
Quhat [ed. Qahat] a ane is God?
b. ?1438 Alex. ii 262.
Quhat man he is, I sall ȝow say
c1475 Wall. vii 129.
I can nocht witt quhat qweyn at it suld be, Quhethir Fortoun or Our Lady so fre
a1500 Bk. Chess 44.
Schawin sall be … Under quhat king this gentill sport began And quhat man that first this sporting fand
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 1962.
Full fast at hir I franit Quhat folk thay war
1531 Bell. Boece I cv. 1533 Gau 3/15.
Thay sal rekkine al thair sinnis to thair schrift fader in quhat maner and vith quhat persone thay var dune
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 3270.

10. In rhetorical questions, expecting the response (a) ‘not one, none’, or (b) ‘no-one, none’. Qualifying a. non-personal, b. personal, nouns.a. (1) c1420 Wynt. v 3818.
Quhat medycyne can thow lat se Till … ras thame agayne That … thow gert be slayne?
Ib. vii 76.
Gyve thow thynkys to sla me, Quhat tyme na nowe may bettyr be … ?
1456 Hay I 296/6.
For quhat loving war it till hym to governe wele othir men, and mak a fule of him self?
a1500 Henr. Fab. 232.
Quhat plesans is in feistis delicate The quhilkis ar geuin with ane glowmand brow?
a1500 K. Hart 608.
Quhat blame serve I, thus way to be supprysit?
a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 568.
Pilat said, ‘Quhat ewill hes he done?’
1562-3 Winȝet I 5/34.
Geue thir thingis maiste speciall throw ignorance … be brocht fra thair puritie, quhate maruell is it that materis of les pryce … to be at this tyme corruptit?
Ib. 123/25.
And gif ȝe abolise all thing that is abusit, quhat thing sal ȝe leue nocht abolissit?
1565 Facs. Nat. MSS III xlix.
To discovir the poyson that befoir lay hid in thair hartis … For quhat vther thing mycht move the principall rasaris of this tumult to put thame selffis in armes aganis ws [etc.]?
For quhat vther is this bot to dissolue the haill polecy … ?
(2) 1533 Bell. Livy II 101/8.
To quhat effect sall ony tribune of pepil ryn blyndlingis to ieoperde him self in dangere quhare na proffitt is following?
1549 Compl. 104/17.
Than to quhat effect suld ony Scottis men adhere til Inglis men to gar them selfis be cum sklauis?
b. 1513 Doug. vi Prol. 105 (Sm.).
Quhat cristnit clerk suld hym haue consalit bettir, Althocht he nevir was catholik wight?
1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 224. 1567 Sat. P. vii 42.
Quhat lordis hart culd luik on this and lest?
c1590 Fowler I 275/1.

c. With plurals or collectives, appar. passing into: What number of, how many? 1375 Barb. xix 293.
‘Quhat folk ar thai?’ ‘Schir, mony men’
?1438 Alex. ii 2866.
How the pray suld sesit be At the ȝet, and with quhat menȝe
a1568 Scott i 75.
It maid na mis quhat madinnis thai miscareit On fasting dayis
1659 Glasgow B. Rec. II 426.
To tack notice what weomen hes seats sett in the Laigh Kirk who hes chyres in wther kirkes

11. In exclamatory use: How much, how great, ‘what a’.(1) c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 1974.
Quhat los quhat honour quhat renoun Was spokin of him
1513 Doug. iv Prol. 229.
Lo! with quhat thocht, quhat byttyrnes and pane Lufe onsylly bredis in euery wight
1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 78.
Quhat miserye sustenit oure faderis … quhen thai wer constrenit [etc.]
Ib. II 257.
O Wallace, quhat presumptuus foly is in thé … to fecht … aganis the pyssance of [etc.]
1540 Lynd. Sat. 2290 (Ch.).
Quhat kind of daffing is this al day?
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xcvi 27.
Inemete is ane rycht wickit seid, Quhat deidlie feid it wirkis
c1590 Fowler I 247/1.
Quhat euill presage is this that I behold?
Ib. 310/15. 1600 Hamilton Facile Tr. 133.
Quhat folie war it to infer thir inept conclusions?
(2) 1513 Doug. ii v 41, 44.
O God! quhat skath! … Ha, walloway, quhat harm and wo eneuch!
c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus i 549, 550.
I can nocht tell the teind … Of misfortounis … be that luf … : Quhat heretage, quhat biggingis coft & sauld, Quhat deid, quhat slane throw lufis destenie

b. In clauses objective to verbs of thinking, perceiving, making known: How great (a), how much; how many.With mixed exclamatory and interrogative force and in some cases scarcely to be distinguished from 8 b or 8 c; for the uncertainty, in (2) between ‘how great’ and ‘how many’, cf. the note to 8 c.(1) 1375 Barb. i 93.
Haid ȝe wmbethocht ȝow enkrely, Quhat perell to ȝow mycht apper
Ib. viii 253 (E).
Thynkis quhat glaidschip ws abidis Gyff that we may … Haff wictour
1490 Irland Mir. II 22/26.
We se in quhat errour thai ar fallin in in our tyme
1513 Doug. xii i 80.
Sen syne in quhate chance I stand and danger And quhou fers batellis now persewys me, Full weill thou wait
1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 18.
Wee beleif it is nocht vnknawing to thi hienes in quhat extreme dangere the catholik pepill has standin … be cruelte of Saracenis … , quhat novmer of pepill bene slane thairwith, quhat landis and townis brynt [etc.]
Ib. I 57. 1568 Reg. Morton I 35.
Desyring ȝour lordship to respect quhat inconvenient it is to me to pas to Glasgo
a1578 Pitsc. I 6/26.
I pray thé schaw him … Quhat troubill quhat cummer and quhat dissentioun Fell in this cuntrie be lordis thrie
c1616 Hume Orthog. 15.
I am not ignorant quhat a doe the learned make [etc.]
(2) a1400 Leg. S. iii 671.
Thu blissit croice, … leile folk wat quhat gyftis thou And ioy [L. quanta … gaudia, quanta munera] in thé has grathit now
a1578 Pitsc. I 17/33.
Quhat troubillis be intollarabill arrogance and quhow money diuers oppressouris … we haif susteined … evirie ane of ȝow knawis perfytlie

III. The compound relative pron. 12. In definite sense: That or those which.Also quhat that (at).In many examples, more or less indistinguishable from the interrog. use in indirect questions (1 b).Some examples also are ambiguous with 13, q.v.For some further examples see 16 b below.(1) 1375 Barb. ix 91.
Se quhat he dois, that swa fowly Fleis thus for his cowardy!
a1400 Leg. S. iii 194.
[He] gert the ȝonge man son apper, Quhat his modir wald say, to her
c1400 Troy-bk. i 62.
Quhen Jasone of this messinger Had herd the wordes quhat thai wer
c1420 Wynt. v 3722.
Thir wordys all the empryowre … Herd and consayvyd welle Quhat fell to presthad ilke dele
Ib. iv 882, 2590, v 3781, etc. 1456 Hay I 301/10.
And tharfore suld a prince tak gude hede quhat he dois in his … ire
c1475 Wall. iv 521.
Als till hyr son [she told] quhat hapnyt was be cas
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 336.
Quhill I oucht wantit of my will or quhat I wald desir
Id. Flyt. 12. Id. (O.U.P.) iii 143. 1515 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 32.
The said Rechert to bring quhat he hes for him within xv dayis
1521 Perth Hammermen 16.
Giffin to Andro Scot of quhat wes awand him, … iiij s.
1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 226.
And quhet your masterschip wyll hyf doun in this roumes, writ to me
1554 Duncan Laideus Test. 156.
Now, gude fallowis, harkin quhat I say to yow
1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 13.
Quhair … thay sal declair publicly quhat thai haif profettit be thair industrie
c1590 Fowler I 217/8.
In yow he hethe maid placed for to bee Quhat most was raire, quhat most is faire
1596 Dalr. I 40/9.
Farther because nathing is althrouch fortunat and happie, quhat ane way abundes with ws, another way inlakes with vs
Ib. 46/27.
The antiphrastiks, that is, thay quha quhat thay speik meines contrare
1622-6 Bisset I 78/16.
And sua quhat I have done heiranentis desyris the godlie … reidaris to tak in guid pairt
1658 S. Ronaldshay 25.
Sending for quhot is necessary to their particular familyes
1662 Red Bk. Menteith II 166.
Tak nothing but qhat is your dew
1663 Ib. 168.
Be uhat itt will
1667 Ib. 169.
It's too reall a truth, uhat I have wreatten, uich I am most sorie for
(2) c1420 Wynt. viii 970.
Quhat that folwyd efftyrwert … To that buke I tham remyt
Ib. 2923.

b. That extent, degree, amount or number which, so or as much as.Also quhat that. 1470 Lennox Mun. 81.
That ȝe deliuer … the lede that ȝe haue in keping of oure said Castel of Bute, indenting witht him quhat that ȝe deliuer
1570 Leslie 228.
The Inglismen … doing quhat thay culd with schot of artailyerie … to ding thame back
1587 Gray Lett. & P. 147.
Be the quhilk assurance Fintrie did qwhait he cwld to haif renewit the frindschipe twixt them
1587 Edinb. B. Rec. IV 504.
My lord prouest hes travellit quhat he can that the toun may be frie of this present raid
1698 Donaldson Postscript Husbandry 22.
Its as probable, the father will not have so many children as uhat I have supposed
If ye had a third more rent than uhat ye have

c. Of persons: see 2 b above.

13. In indefinite or generalised sense: Anything that, whatever.It is possible to interpret many examples as belonging to 12 rather than here.Also, in early use, quhat that (at).(1) 1375 Barb. v 620 (E).
Thow may say quhat thow will on fer
a1400 Leg. S. xxxvi 512.
Aske me quhat thu wil, … Tho it be half of my kinryke
c1420 Wynt. v 3702 (C).
And thoil [R. that] qwhat God wil on thé sende
1456 Hay I 294/10.
To do quhat him lykit withe
c1475 Wall. iv 319.
Thar hors thai tuk and quhat thaim likit best
Ib. x 35.
Quhat thaim thocht best, off fyn harnes thai waill
Ib. v 308. c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) lxxxii 49. 1508 Reg. Privy S. I 264/2.
With power to tak up to his use the dowbill and singler avale of the said mariage quhat may be recoverit thairof, etc.
1513 Doug. viii Prol. 27. a1585 Arbuthnot Maitl. Q. xxxv 111.
To wemen than, say quhat ȝe can, Sic giftis first wes lent
1564 Misc. Wodrow Soc. 285. 1659 Glasgow B. Rec. II 417.
It being grantit that he sould … speak quhat he pleased
(2) ?1438 Alex. ii 6086.
Thus thay leuch and made solas And said quhat that thare lyking was
1419 Thanes of Cawdor 6.
And quhat that he dois to be unrevokyt … throw me or my ayeris
c1420 Wynt. ix 1923.
And in al thing full suth to say Is nocht neidfull … , Bot quhat at [C. qwhat that] suld writyn be Suld be al suth of honeste
Ib. 1929. 1456 Hay I 196/14.
Quhat that a man dois in hete of brethe of ire suld excus him that dois it
1466 Acta Aud. 5/2.
That quhat that beis decretit … turne him … to na preiudice

Any or whatever class or kind b. of a substance, c. of persons. 1456 Hay I 261/20.
Sum othir … that knewe … the worthynes of the woman—or lady, or quhat scho war
1682 New Mills Manuf. 37.
Allowes the master to use six or eight pound of what of our wool he pleases itt being for his personall use

d. Introducing a conditional-concessive clause: No matter what, whatever. c1420 Wynt. viii 6570.
That nane reprowe ws, quhat may fall
a1500 Henr. Fab. 74.
To swoping of the hous thay tak na tent, Quhat be thairin, swa that the flure be clene
c1475 Wall. xi 227.
I sall, quhat be the kingis will, At my power rycht glaidly to fullfill

IV. The compound relative adj. 14. In definite sense: The or that or those … (that), such … as; also passing into expression of quantity: so much … as.Some examples are ambiguous with the indefinite sense (15 a), and some might equally be treated as indirect interrogatives (sense 8). 1439 Acts II 54/1.
That quhat thing the saidis personis did in that matter … thai dide it of gude zele [etc.]
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 1620.
I saw how be Vlixes with greit ioy Quhat wise Achill was found and brocht to Troy
Id. Æn. xi 95.
Behald … Quhat sweit savour … from hir spryngis, Quhatkyn vissage hes scho
1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 388.
And ȝe sall haif quhatt … revarde that I may geif
1543 Corr. M. Lorraine 41.
I … sall tak quhat pyne I may indure to keip the contreth at rest
1612 Edinb. B. Rec. VI 92.
Knawing quhat paynis, travell and lawbour it will be unto him
1649 Grant Chart. 243.
To … pay quhat prejudice the bounds of Knockandoche … hes sustained
1651 Stirling B. Rec. I 198.
For lening of what money may be had amongst thame
1673 Sc. Hist. Rev. XL 61.
1689 Acts XII 60/1.
To the value of quhat damnadge shall happen to the wooll they furnish

15. In indefinite sense: Any … that, whichever, whatever.When introducing a clause also with conditional or temporal-conditional force, = if any, if and when any, whenever any.

a. Qualifying non-personal nouns. Also, quhatso or at ever.Sometimes ambiguous with prec., q.v.Also, esp. in early use, with that (at) following the qualified noun.(1) 1419 Thanes of Cawdor 6.
And for to dispone apon tha landes in quhat maner or forme it best lykis to the saide Gilbert
1420 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 384.
Haffand ferme and stabyle quhat thyng the forsayd schir Alexander doyis for tyll … recovyr the forsayde warde
1424 Acts II 3/2.
That na man of quhat estat degre or condicioun he be of … haif ma personis with him na may suffice him or till his estate
1442 Charter (Reg. H.) No. 307.
That na man of quhat degre or auctorite he be tak on hande til molest … the tenandis
1458 Sc. N. & Q. 1 Ser. I 19.
They sall haue thair laires quhen thai discesses free in quhat place of the kirk it plesis them to ly
1470 Prestwick B. Rec. 17.
Ane of the cunnaris sall fill a cop of quhat pechar he plessis
1518 Edinb. B. Rec. I 180.
Sa that the inhabitantis … be nocht compellit to lay thair gudis bot to quhat schippis thai pleisis best
1596 Dalr. I 289/21.
To vaig in quhat lust or leicherie lyket thame best
1400 Facs. Nat. MSS II liii.
Ore in qwat other resonable manere that yhow likis
c1420 Wynt. i Prol. 62 (E).
He man … be personeir Off quhat kynd [v.rr. qwhat kyne, quhat kin] blame that I suld beir
c1475 Wall. ix 676.
His gret seyll he him gaiff Off quhat lordschip that he likit till haiff
1489 Acta Conc. I 116/1.
Alexander sall mak quhat securite that the foresaid Henry and his frendis can … devise
1439 Edinb. Chart. 64.
Ferme and stabil haffand … al and quhat thingis so euer the said schir Robert … in oure name … ledis to be done
c1450 Cr. Deyng 61.
It is to wyt quhat temtacioune at euir the deuill putis to man sal nocht noy hyme bot gyf he wylfully consent thar-to
(2) 1424 Cambuskenneth Let. to Jas. I.
Qwat emplesance, seruice, or kyndnes that we may … do to ȝour said kyngis maieste
1456 Misc. Bann. C. III 100.
Quhat gold, joells [etc.] … that I have … forȝet
c1475 Wall. xi 789.
King Eduuard hecht, quhat thing at Wallang band, He suld it kep
1482–3 Perth Guildry p. 104 (21 Feb.).
Throw his necligens and scleuth that quhat scaith that the said William … sustenis … that he sall … recompence the said William thar of
15.. Dum Wyf 41.
Quhat kynd of taill … That thow of hir reqwyreis, Scho sall spek out
1568 Mary Facs. Nat. MSS III lviii.
Quhat commissioun that ye think salbe necessare with the counsalis adwyse … caus mak it in sic forme as maye be neidfull
1555 Edinb. B. Rec. II 220.
That thairfor quhat skayth or danger cum to the said kirk … throw the occasioun forrsaid [sic in pr.] that the samyn be nocht input to him
c1590 Fowler II 177/20.
That quhat syd of thame ran best suld have [etc.]
1622-6 Bisset II 233/18.

b. Qualifying personal nouns.(1) 1439 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 190.
Wytht qwhat four of thir fornemmyt at hym likis
1508 Reg. Privy S. I 268/2.
To sell … his landis … to quhat persoun or persounis he ples
(2) c1420 Wynt. ii 1495.
And quhat barnys ware gottyn thare Quhen thaire modyrys delyver ware Off knaw barnys thai walde sla mony
14.. Burgh Laws c. 32a (A).
Quhat burges beis nocht at thai mutis … he sal gif iiii d.
1434 Aberd. B. Rec. I 390. 1476 Acta Aud. 51/2.
Stevin sal mary at the wil of the said Johne quhat persone aggreable that he gevis & profferis to him
c1475 Wall. iv 189.
Wallace resawit quhat man wald cum him till
Ib. v 846.
Quhat ane he hyt grewyt the Scottis no mar
Ib. vii 909.
Quhat gentill man had nocht with Ramsay beyne Off courtlynes thai cownt him nocht a preyne
1491 Cart. S. Nich. Aberd. I 257.
That quhat chaplan of the college happinnis to deceis gif he hes nay gudis of his awin … the college sal bringe him furtht on thar expens [etc.]
c1520-c1535 Nisbet Luke xv 8.
Quhat woman, havand ten besandis (of gold) and gif scho has tynt a besand, quhethir gif scho … sekis diligentlie till that scho find it?
1525 (1527) Reg. Great S. 97/1. 1535 Stewart 2813. 1567 (c 1650) Dundee B. Laws 33.
That what nighbour … desires inhibitione of ane baillie to be put to his nighbours wark … that he lay in pledg [etc.] … xx s.
1425 Acts II 9/2.
Ande quhat stranger at bringis merchandice within the realme … ande takis mone thairfor he sal hafe witnessing … that [etc.]
1427 Acts II 16/1.
Quhat liperous at keipis nocht this statute that he be banyst … of that burgh
1432 Ayr B. Ct. 15 Dec.
1434 Aberd. B. Rec. I 390. 1456 Hay I 117/8.
Quhat knycht or capitane that takis wagis of a lord and levis him … suld be … distrussit of hors and gere
1471 Peebles B. Rec. I 167.
Quhat women at flytis [etc.] … , thai sal be led [etc.]
c1475 Wall. v 966.
Rays neuir agayne quhat ane at he hyt rycht
Ib. iii 383. a1500 K. Hart 311.
(The ladeis sweit thai mak sic melodie) Quhat wicht that micht it heir suld iuge sone To angell song

c. Quhat … that (sa) ever: Any or every, no matter what, whatsoever. Also quhat … so. Chiefly introducing or within a conditional-concessive clause.(1) 1375 Barb. i 481.
Bot quhat pite that euer he had Na contenance thar off he maid
c1420 Wynt. i 926.
And in that se … The watterys that cummys rynnand owt Off the flwme Jordane tays entre Qwhat wyis sa ever thai rynnand be
Ib. vi 1182.
Quhat evyre he wes that brak his pes, Off qwhat condytyown sa evyr he wes, He suld thole the payne off dede
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 2212.
[He] maid Alexander are of all But reuocatioun quhat case that evir befall
a1500 Henr. Robene & M. 118. c1475 Wall. ix 288.
Quhat gud that euir yhe spend
1529 Edinb. B. Rec. II 13.
That na maner of person … tak apone hand to … ressett ony maner of personis within thar houssis quhat pairt that euer thai cum fra
1558 Q. Kennedy Tractive 98.
Quhat sect or opinioun that evir thou be of
1596 Dalr. I 55/27.
Out of quhat arte sa euir the wind blawe, schipis may sail baith in and out without al danger
(2) 1423 Buccleuch MSS 33.
Hafand … ferm and stabyl quat thyng so euer the saydis Adam, Steuyn or Hu … ledis to be doun
(3) c1475 Wall. viii 1383.
Prynsace or queyn, in quhat stait so thai be, In till hir tym scho was als der to me

V. 16. Rarely, and late, the simple relative pron.: That.Cf. Quhilk 7, 8, 9. 1576 Orkney Oppress. 67.
Henrie Spence … , had ane servand, quhat at his masteris comand past to his masteris scheip cruiff [etc.]
1672 Rothesay B. Rec. 227.
The bearer quhat went to know our proportione of men being not returned
1701 New Mills Manuf. 255.
About 50 peice whyt quhat are in the loombs in yearne and dressing

b. The following, which might be taken as early instances of this use, seem rather to be examples of 12 in particular collocations: 14.. Burgh Laws c. 22 (A).
At [= in order that] thai herd that thing quhat at thai sal suer befor at thai sal suer [B. at thai may here that thai sal swere or thai swere]
c1475 Wall. iv 384.
Hys stwart Kerlye brocht thaim in fusioun Gude thing eneuch quhat was in to the toun
1562 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 4.
Ten Commandements … quhairin is contenit all quhat He villeth his peple to do and quhat to liff vndone

VI. adv. and conj. 17. Interrog. adv. For what reason, wherefore, why; to what extent, how; ? whether.Chiefly in rhetorical questions expecting a reply like ‘for no good reason, to no point, not at all’.(1) c1450-2 Howlat 144 (A).
Quhat suld I tell ony mair of thir materis?
c1475 Wall. i 143.
Off cornikle quhat suld I tary lang?
Ib. 313, iv 47. 1513 Doug. i Prol. 246. c1520-c1535 Nisbet Mark xiv 6.
Quhat ar ye heuy to hir? scho has wroucht a gude werk in me
Ib. Matth. xix 7. 1596 Dalr. II 270/23.
Quhat suld mekle? The Scotis vttirlie refuises, The Inglismen declairis weiris
1596 Misc. Spald. C. I 85.
Thow, in ane divileche furie … ansuerit and said, Quhat wirreys thow me?
1587-99 Hume 18/55.
Quhat sall I all the gifts recount?
(2) a1500 Seven S. 394.
He said, ‘Sir, quhat may that me speid The child that I deliuer wald Gif he be deid or I haf tauld?’
c1568 Lauder Minor P. i 472.
Quhat differs dearth frome creuell briganrye Quhen that ȝe mak the pure for hunger dye? No thing at all!
1638 Cant Serm. 13 June 1638 (1741) 16.
As some say, What better is this feast nor the feast we haue at home?
(3) a1500 Peblis to Play 176.
I wait [nocht] weill quhat it wes My awin gray meir that kest me

b. Introducing exclamatory statements: How greatly, how much. Chiefly following other exclamatory interjections or phrases. Appar. only in early verse. 1375 Barb. i 215.
A! quhat thai dempt thaim felonly!
Ib. vi 325.
A! quhat vorschip is prisit thing!
?1438 Alex. i 1269.
‘A! dere God,’ sais Pyrrus, ‘quhat I Am of this meting richt happy!’
Ib. ii 1656.
‘Allace!’ said Alexander … , ‘Quhat me misfell in mekill thing, At Gaderis, quhair that he was dede!’
Ib. 1483, 8801. c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 3708.
Lord God quhat he was wa!

18. conj. Introducing the first or both or all of two or more alternative or co-ordinate expressions, as quhat … (and) quhat, quhat … (or) quhat, quhat … and, quhat … or: Some … others, both … and, partly … partly, whether … or.Chiefly early.(1) c1420 Wynt. viii 3937.
For gud men, For pete had thare presowneis then, Quhat thare, qwhat in to the fycht, Sawfyd mony a worthy knycht
1456 Misc. Bann. C. III 94.
The Erl of Suthyrland tuk of my gold, … , jeoullys [etc.] … mair than a thusand pundis, quhat first quhat last
1456 Hay I 57/25.
Thare deid … fourty thousand … quhat of the partyes of Couloigne, quhat othir thair allyes
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 2741.
Quhill at the last quhat leddering, quhat with myne, Quhat schot of gun quhat bumbard quhat ingyne Thay wan the castell
Ib. 3288.
Sic distructioun was of mannis blude Quhat in the feild quhat drownand in the flude
Ib. 3969.
Of the kingis ost alsua, Quhat hurt, quhat dede, a thousand knichtis … vas liand on the grene
1671 Lauder Notices Affairs I 16.
Heritrix of a considerable forton, what in land, what in money
(2) ?1438 Alex. i 274.
Thretty thousand And ma, quhat lord and quhat seruand, Ar cummand on vs sudandly
Ib. ii 8555.
With ten thousand And ma, quhat lord or quhat seruand
(3) ?1438 Alex. ii 10924.
At the citie of Effezoun, Quhat out-with and within the toun, Thare was ane full great assemble
c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus i 797.
Or my deputis quhat thay be greit or small

b. Freq., introducing adv. phrases formed with prepositions indicating agency, means, cause, occasion or the like, as be (by), for, of, throw.(1) c1420 Wynt. viii 931.
Quhat be awe, quhat be thret He gert thame thare decrete retret
1456 Hay I 215/17. 1652 Aberd. Council Lett. III 196.
The … inhabitantes, quhat by povertie, quhat by debt, ar almost redactit to nothing
(2) 1375 Barb. ix 721.
Adame of Gordoun fra the ficht, Quhat throu slicht & quhat throu mycht Eschapit
Ib. xiii 211, 214.
Quhat for thame that with thame faucht … And quhat for arrowes that [etc.]
c1420 Wynt. viii 4393.
And qwhat for luwe and qwhat for awe Till Scottis pes can hym drawe
(3) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 1579.
Quhar-throw the towne was maid, Quhat of thaim & of vtheris seir Richt populus
Ib. 2150.
So, quhat of this tale & the tothir That Oetes also gan tell, Sche tuke so cruell hart and fell Aganis [etc.]
c1420 Wynt. vi 1779.
Quhat be falshad and flechyng The crowne he gat
Ib. vii 2257.
Quhat for corruptyown and inwy, Thare charge thai dyd noucht detfully
c1475 Wall. x 437.
Quhat be Stwart and syn be wicht Wallace, For all his prys, King Eduuard rewyt that race
?a1500 Dewoit Exerc. 231.
Ȝe begouth to worth richt … waik, allace, sueit Lord, na marwall, quhat throu fasting of fourty dais … and syne [etc.]
c1500-c1512 Dunb. G. Targe 46.
Quhat throu the mery foulys armony And throu [etc.]
Id. Tua Mar. W. 7. c1590 Fowler II 177/35.
For quhat be the braverye and strange apparell of the persons theme selfs, and be the dyvers schapes of the beastes [etc.]

c. Introducing a single adv. phrase without alternative; quhat for = in consequence of, as a result of. 1513 Doug. ii vii 89.
Quhat for walyng of irus wordis fell Agane reskewit said by the damycell, Grekis flokkis togidder

19. As a conj. introducing a clause of proportion, possibly after L. quo (followed by eo): In proportion as, by the amount that, as. c1420 Wynt. iv 1921.
Quhat the oys is seldynyare, It hapnys all the cruellare

Quhat pron., adj., adv., conj.

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"Quhat pron., adj., adv., conj.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 8 Aug 2022 <>



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