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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1990 (DOST Vol. VII).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Rif(e, Rive, Reif, v. Also: riffe, ryf(e, ryff(e, ryve, rywe; ryif, ryive; reve, reiv(e, ra(i)ve, raif-, reave. P.t. raf(e, rave, rawe, raif(e, raiff, rayf, raive, reav, reaf, raef(f, reif(f)e, roif, rive; reft, raifeit, ryv-, rywed. P.p. riff-, riv(v)-, riw-, ryv(e)-, ryw-; rev-, rew-, reif(f)-, reiv-; reav-; rav- and -en, -in(e, -yn(e, -ein, -ing; also ryfe, ryve; rift, reft, raft; ryved; raifit; (rewand). [ME and e.m.E. riue (Cursor M.), ryfe (Rolle); also, -reue (a1400 in OED, s.v. to-reave v.), reve (c1560), reaue (1558); p.t. rof (c1275), rofe (Manning), roof (Chaucer), roue (1535); raue, raf (both Cursor M.), rafe (north., c1440); ref (north., 14th c.); also ryued (a1513); also, refde (a1225), raft (Cursor M.), reft (a1400–50); p.p. riuen (Cursor M.), rifen, ryven; reuin (14th c.); also ryue (Cursor M.), reve (1460), ryued (a1513); ON rífa.Forms with stem vowels in ?e(i), ea, a(i)° and p.t.°,° p.p.° forms in ?-(i)t° are prob. due to confusion with Ref(e v.1In early use, chiefly north. and midl.]

I. tr. 1. To tear or rend (clothes, books, etc.); to rend or lacerate (skin, flesh, etc.), also, transf.; to tear (a person or animal) apart; to tear in(to) pieces; to tear out; to bite or gnaw holes or tears in. Also absol.See also 16 c below.(1) pres. 1375 Barb. xx 258 (C).
And … knychtis … as wode men thair clathes rif
1456 Hay I 227/30.
Oft tyme a woodman … ryvis his clathis
a1568 Bann. MS 134a/16.
Schirro, ȝour thowmis, ȝe ryfe my sark
1621 Jurid. Rev. XLVII 351.
They sall neither … tak away anie bukis furth of the said librarie, ryve or blot or misuse anie of them
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 237.
Auld rags are eath to ryve
1638 Baillie I 76.p.t. a1400 Leg. S. ix 286.
The kinge for ire thane raf his pal Of purpur
Ib. xxxviii 93.
Rafe
1558 Old Dundee II 331.
His swine whilk rave Mathew's claith
(b) 1502 Treas. Acc. II 37.
Claith … to the king quhen he raif his sark
1538–9 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 203.
And Jok Michelhill raif his clathis
1606 Inverness Rec. II 40.
Raife
(c) 1684 Kirkintilloch B. Ct. 130.
And beat the said Jonnet and reav hir cloathes
(d) 1669 Holmains Baron Ct. 11 Oct.
In a dispute … when John ryved Williams coatt
(e) 1437 Ayr B. Ct. 22 April.
He deforsit the said seriand & reft his slewe
1671 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 161.
Robert … did cast the said Janat out over ane stooll and reft [ed. rest] and abused hir cloathes
p.p. ?1438 Alex. ii 9495.
Of coit-armouris … Reuin and rent and euill dicht
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 1726.
Bot rewyne all thar salis braid
1537 Treas. Acc. VI 300.
Certane chissablis … revin with the rattonis
1563 Dumfries B. Ct. fol. 238b.
The samin [letter] vas revin raklesly be his barne
1570-3 Bann. Trans. 364.
He came ower a grit part of the wall out at a windoe, with his scheitis rewen and made in lenth
1591 Edinb. Test. XXIII 209b.
Courteins … ane pair rewin
1616 Aberd. B. Rec. II 345.
The ald enseingȝie … is all lacerat and revin
(b) 1456 Hay II 7/6.
A syde goune alde … and evill farand with mony holis, ryvin and rent for grete age of wering
1506 Treas. Acc. III 188.
To mend the … palȝoun quhen it wes riffin
1519 Reg. Episc. Aberd. II 174.
Blankatis riffin with rattovnis
Ib.
All the forsaidis beddis clovtit and riffin and holyt
(2) pres., p.p. a1400 Leg. S. xxviii 338.
The tyrand gert hir flesch ryf With irne camis
?1438 Alex. i 3238.
That his fare flesch na ware Reuin with beistis, hede nor hare
c1450-2 Howlat 839 (A).
He cryid: ‘Allace, … revyn is my reid’
a1500 Henr. Orph. 560. a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 374.
The ravyns sall ryve … thy tong rutis
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) 8/55. 1513 Doug. iv xii 57.
With nalys ryvand reuthfully hir face
1533 Boece 137b.
His mutulate carioun rent and revyn was castin in ane vile privye
1560 Rolland Seven S. 5522.
Wyld rauins sall ryfe thy beif
a1568 Bann. MS 31b/36.
Brissit my body, ryvin bayth hyd and hair
1578 Inverness Rec. I 265.
Thai … hes rewin his face and flesche wyth thair nales
a1605 Montg. Flyt. 329 (Hart).
Reivin
?a1648 Polemo-Mid. 102.
Et totam rivabo faciem
transf. 1604-31 Craig v 30.
Yee … trees … Still bloome … Though I did ryue your ryndes & brake your tender barkes
p.t. a1400 Leg. S. xxxvii 257.
Rawe
1580–1 Perth Kirk S. in J. P. Lawson The Book of Perth 142.
His wife … rave her face and her luggs
1596 Dalr. II 46/33.
The rest of his body … the pynouris raue with an yrne tangs
(b) a1500 Seven S. 243.
Scho … with hir nalis raif hir face
c1515 Asl. MS I 214/11.
The haly man Sanct Fiacrie his belly raif and all his bowallis come out
15.. Sym & Bruder 115.
The first rynk raif his mowth a span
1571 Inverness Rec. I 208.
Katte Hendre … raiff my face, my beyrd, and my sark
(c) 1595 Misc. Spald. C. II 129.
Thy wyf reife the officiaris handis and claithis
(d) a1400 Leg. S. xxvii 251.
Scho … with hyr newis reft hir brest
(3) pres. a1400 Leg. S. xlvii 179.
Thai wald ryf & swely sone Mane or best
?1438 Alex. i 2888.
Fra the wolf that wald them riue His fellowis sa defendit he [etc.]
c1450-2 Howlat 797 (A).
Raike hir a rug of the rost or scho sall ryiue [pr. ryme] thé
Ib. 813 (B).
Rywe
1584-9 Maxwall Commonpl. Bk. fol. 9a.
Yow mot spolȝe him, mank him & rywe him
(b) a1500 Henr. Fab. 933.
I [sc. the lion] rug, I reif [Bann. ryve] all beistys that makis debait Aganis … my magnyficence
p.t. 1460 Hay Alex. (S.T.S.) 545.
Sum he reaf with his tuskis and thame ett
(b) 1513 Doug. iii ix 66.
Twa bodeys of our sort he tuke and rayf
(c) 1533 Bell. Livy I 68/3.
Ilk cheriott reft and dysmembrit sa mekil of him as was bund to the cheriot
p.p. a1400 Leg. S. ii 18.
Rewine
1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 272.
The lofting suld brek, and the horssmen … to be revin on stakis
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 5105.
And sum … Ar rent and rewin apone the ractis
1560 Rolland Seven S. 10696.
For his knaifrie … to be marterit, On the rattis reuin, hangit, drawin & quarterit
1576 Crim. Trials I ii 52.
Sche ansuerit that gif sche suld be revin at horis-taillis, sche suld neuir do that
(b) a1400 Leg. S. xxxviii 346.
Thane wes he … Rywine & rente & dungine efte
c1420 Wynt. vi 707.
A kyng off Frans Hapnyd … To be rywyn wyth a bare
a1578 Pitsc. I 109/28.
Ether to be hangit or to be riwin with wyle beistis
c1590 Fowler I 62/125 (see Mainȝie v. 1 (b)).(c) 1596 Dalr. I 150/4.
Thay almaist had reifen the legatis amang thame
(4) a1400 Leg. S. xxix 977.
Lyons … that rathly suld thaim ryf in twa
Ib. xxx 481.
A man, a best hade Slane & rewine in pecis sere
c1420 Wynt. v 1898 (C).
His westment rewyn [L. and raiff it] al in raggis
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 350.
I gert the renȝeis rak and rif in to sondir
1513 Doug. iii vi 115.
For tha partis … Be fors of storm war in sondir ryfe
1535 Stewart 18972.
In four pairtis thair bodeis bayth wer revin With four greit hors
1540 Lynd. Sat. 623. 1560 Rolland Seven S. 1202.
Scho raif hir clais all into screid
1596 Dalr. I 193/18.
Bot the … murtheris war … in duigis and bladis reiuen betuene horsses
1604 Crim. Trials II 408.
He rave the blanketts in four pieces
c1650 Spalding I 87.
The scolleris … rave thame [sc. the service books] all in blaidis dispytfullie
(5) absol. 1579, 1617 Despauter (1617) 108.
Admorceo, to riue with byting
1662 Crim. Trials III 611.
In the shap of cattis, we did nothing but cry and wraw, and rywing, and as it ver, wirrieing on an vther

b. specif. To tear up (a letter, document, etc.) so as to cancel or destroy; to do this to make public the loss or abrogation of certain privileges. Also absol.(1) pres. 1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 230.
I beseik yowr grace ryff this bill efter it be red
1570 Breadalbane Lett. 27 June.
I pray ȝow efter the redyng … that ȝe ryf the samyn
1615 Denmylne MSS in Highland P. III 205.
Allaster … saw Ronnald tak a lettre … and put it in his mouth and ryve it in peecis
c1590 Fowler I 139/8.
To cast my songs asyde and theme to ryve
(b) 1567 in Tytler Hist. Scotland (1864) III 247.
I wald ye reif this after the reading
p.t. 1480 Acta Conc. I 73/2.
Dauid Bowy tuke it [sc. a letter] again and rafe and distruyt it
c1610 Melville Mem. 117.
Then in my presens sche rawe all the angrie wretingis
1611 Reg. Privy C. IX 163.
[They] rave the same in small peiceis, and bad the said messenger cary the same revin letters to his majestie to [etc.]
(b) 1524 Acta Conc. Publ. Aff. 208.
[Jedburgh's servants] raif in pecis [the signet letters]
1552 Dundee B. Ct. II fol. 146b (4 April).
Robert raif the summondis in jugisment
1556 Melrose Reg. Rec. III 217.
Quha … wald nocht reid the said articlis bot raif thame
1560 Rolland Seven S. 1167.
Als sone as scho the chedull had out red, … with hir teith scho it raif, Thairof the text that na man suld persaif
1563 Glasgow Prot. III 44. 1595–6 Crim. Trials I ii 354.
And thaireftir … reft the same letteris and thair raif thame all in peceis
1603 Reg. Privy C. VI 589.
[He] raive and distroyit it [sc. a backbond]
1615 Denmylne MSS in Highland P. III 195.
Quhen the said Ronnald Oig wes apprehendit he had ane lettre whiche he tooke out of his sleif and raive and beit it with his teithe
(c) 1593 Prot. Bk. J. Inglis 22 April.
& athir of thame reiffe & brak thair vryttingis
(d) a1633 Hope Major Pract. I 95.
That the defunct befoir his deceis rive [sic] the said contract
p.p. 1564 Bk. Univ. Kirk I 51.
William Sutherland … had, in despyte of the said commissioner, ryven [Peterkin ryveing] his letters of charge therto
1591 St. A. B. Ct. 10 July.
His fals allegit letter of tak … aucht to be rywen and cassin away and to hawe na faith
1626 Anal. Scot. I 76.
The said writts … to be cancelled, rivvin, and destroyed
(b) 1591 Cal. Sc. P. X 542.
Lett nott my letters cum owt off your handis till itt be reiffin
(c) 1598–9 Reg. Privy C. V 539.
Haveing … revin and maist licht[l]ifullie lacerat and trampit under his feit his majesteis letteris of suspensioun
(d) 1609 Melvill 776.
In caise of agriement interchanging paperis may be brunt and ravein
(e) 1608 Crim. Trials II 564.
The said messinger … hes raifit [pr. raisit] his hienes letteris
absol. 1587 Milne Rental Perth Hosp. 117.
Read, rive, and keep secret
1608 Crim. Trials II 258.
Ather ryve and burne, or ellis send bak agane
(2) 1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 237.
The saids lieutennentis … raiff the saids personis armes
1593 Crim. Trials I ii 359.
The Earle of Bothuell forfaultit, and his armes rewine at Croce of Edinburghe be the heraldis
a1597-1617 Hist. Jas. VI (1825) 331.
[The king] ordanis us to cancellat and ryve thair armes
1611 Reg. Privy C. IX 209. 1645 Acts VI i 408/2.
And ordeanes the Lyoun King at Armes to ryve and deleite out of the Booke of Armes in face of parliament … [his] armes
c1650 Spalding II 389.
And thairfoir, I heir ryve thy armes in thy awin face
(3) 1657 Glasgow B. Rec. II 385.
His freidom to be cryd doune publictlie, his [burgess and gild brother] tickat ryvine, and his name to be scorit out of the book
1658 Dumfries Council Min. 25 Jan.
His burges tickett rivine & he declaired to be vncapable of being burges of Dumfreis
1662 Lanark B. Rec. 189.
Appoynts his burges ticket to be reavin with touck of drum att the croce
1668 Irvine Mun. II 226. 1691 Peebles B. Rec. II 137.
The clerk to extract it and delyver it to the officer to be ryved att the cros by tuik of drum

c. ? To wound (a person) grievously. a1597-1617 Hist. Jas. VI (1804) 85.
Nane was in account bot he that wald ather kill or ryve his nybour

2. To tear (something) fra, of, out of (another thing of which it is an integral part); specif. to tear (a leaf) out of a book. b. To pluck or snatch (a person or thing) from, fra, furth of, out of, of its place or a person. Also absol. Cf. Ref(e v.1 2 b with which there is some ambiguity.(1) pres. a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii 450.
Dacyane … gert men … with a scharpe yrne ryf syne Of al his lymmis … the skyne
1696 in T. Davidson Rowan Tree (1949) 262.
That he … cryed, it would rive the side from him
(b) ?1672 M. Bruce Sermon in Edinb. Tolbooth 2.
That which will hunt them … till it raive the throat out of them
p.t. c1420 Wynt. v 2723.
The modrys … fra thare hewyd the hare Tyte and rawe [W. raiff and ruggit]
c1450-2 Howlat 835 (A).
The tuchet … Raif his taile fra his rig with a rath pleid
1631 Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. IV 246.
[She] rave her haire out of her head
(b) a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 81.
Schir Kay ruschit to the roist, and reft fra the swane, Lightly claught … the lym fra the lyre
p.p. a1400 Leg. S. l 939.
The pappis first fra thi breste sall be rywine
1609 Acts IV 422/1.
The subscriptioun is ryvin fra this last letter
a1633 Hope Major Pract. I 95.
The name of the defunct being riven therfra
(b) 1509 Edinb. Hammermen 67.
For sewin one of the armis at was revyne of the blew westment
1533 Boece 303.
The ground was plennyst with cariouns and membris revin fra the bodyis
(2) a1633 Hope Major Pract. I 279.
His arms to be riven out of the book of arms
a1650 Row 67.
Here also a leaf is riven out of the register

b. pres. 1533 Boece 86b.
Gillus … , ryfing fra him princelie cognossance, … maid to flicht
1558 Knox IV 442.
Christ Jesus … , comming to ryve the spoile from the strong armed
c1575 Balfour Pract. 306.
Gif ony man ryvis or spuilȝies violentlie our soverane lordis letteris fra his schiref [etc.]
c1610 (1614) Lanark B. Rec. 121.
They rais as they wer in ane radg and they will ryve the lok of the bwtle dor
(b) 1533 Bell. Livy II 98/11.
Quhy wil nocht euery ane of ȝow reif ane fire brand fra ȝoure inemye
(c) c1552 Lynd. Mon. 6280.
Deith … rauis thame frome thare rent, ryches, & ringis
absol. 1553 Knox III 364.
Furth of my handis can nane reif
p.t. 1558 Melrose Reg. Rec. III 160.
Matho violentlie raef the samyn precept furth of our handis
1571 Misc. Spald. C. IV 97.
As vnnaturall childring they raif the mat from the mouthe of thair mother
a1578 Pitsc. II 98/2.
That they rave the Inglischemen frome thair horse
c1610 Melville Mem. 42.
[They] raif the sclaitis af the ruf
(b) a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 1045 (S).
The purpour claithis … thai raifeit [MS raife it] fra him on force
(c) c1552 Lynd. Mon. 4172.
God … Syne reft hym frome his ryches and his rent
p.p. a1585 Maitl. Q. xcv 15.
Sen thow that perle hes cruellie from vs reuin [etc.]
(b) 1513 Doug. vii iv 119.
The sobir levyngis reft from Troys fyre

3. To pluck or tug at (the hair) (as if to tear out); to tear out, or up, by the roots. b. transf. To tear at (the root of a tree), to tear up (trees). c. ? To pluck or tug at (straw). 1375 Barb. xx 255 (C).
Thair mycht men se men rif thar hare
a1400 Leg. S. xxi 93.
Scho … grat & rawe hir hare
a1500 Seven S. 278.
The emprys … be the rutis raif hir haire
1513 Doug. iv xi 11. 1521 Fife Sheriff Ct. 278.
Johne Lesly … tuke the said Margaret, … raif hyre haire [etc.]
1558-66 Knox I 329.
Monsieur Dosell and the capitanis … , efter the reading of thame, began to ryve thair awin beardis
1673 Holmains Baron Ct. 29 Nov.
He rave anithers hair
b. a1500 Seven S. 546.
The baire … To ryfe the rute [of the tree] than schupe he sone
1535 Stewart 53027.
And stok and rute out of the erd tha raif
1671 Sutherland Bk. II 188.
The people … did ryve ane number of tries
c. c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) 127/30.
My hyd to offer I am abell For evill schoud strae that I reiv wald

4. Of a person: To break, split or burst (something) by the application of force; to split or cleave (wood or stone).Const. p.p., also, specif., damaged, decayed.pres. a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 769.
Thai … Twynnis his ioyntouris, and rivis all his banis
1513 Doug. vi ii 141.
Be na strenth thou sal it [sc. a wand] ryve [Ruddim. ryffe], Nor kut in twa with wapyn, sword, or knyve
1539 Treas. Acc. VII 226.
Enterit four menne … to ryff the crag within the said munitioun hous
1627 Conv. Burghs III 243 (see p.p. below). a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 463.
Duble charges will ryve a cannon
p.t. c1475 Wall. v 203.
[Wallace] the burdis raiff in twyne
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 1415.
The thounder raif the cluddis sabyll
(b) a1538 Abell 126a.
And quhen the mes wes done he reft challis and brak it
p.p. 1466 Acts II 87/1.
At na merchandis gudis be revin nor spilt with vnresonable stollin
c1520-c1535 Nisbet Luke xxiii 45.
And the veile of the tempile was revyn in twa
1561–2 Edinb. Old Acc. II 160.
The lange gutter of leid, being rewin, cuttit and full of hoillis
1574 Edinb. D. Guild Acc. 41.
For pyk & tar to the said spowt beand rewand
1627 Conv. Burghs III 243.
That nane of theme tak vp in hand to ryve anie of the saids steps … vnder the payne of confiscatioun of the barrellis quhairin anie of the saids steps so reaving salbe fund
1643 Edinb. Test. LX 236.
Thrie dossane … pair of fusing irones rewing
(b) 1644 Elphinstone Mun. 200/1.
Of the fyue bells … tuo of the lesser … wer riuen and so … vnvsefull
(c) 1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 249.
Our greit artallȝery … has dong the tolbutht and reft an pece that [etc.]
(d) 1565 Prestwick B. Rec. 69.
Ane pynt stoyp raft & brokin
(e) 1693 Glasgow B. Rec. IV 73.
And that nane of the staves be rift or clift

5. To damage, destroy (a building). Cf. Rif(f)in ppl. adj. 1 c. 1473–4 Treas. Acc. I 65.
For the mending and theking of a hous … that wes revin at the ȝetting of the gwn
1529–30 M. Works Acc. (ed.) I 21.
To Johne Blair sclater … betand the kingis awine eting chalmeris in the abbay that wes rewyn with wynd
a1598 Ferg. Prov. No. 419.
He rives the kirk to theik the quier
1609 Hilderstoun Silver Mines I 85.
To mend the housis that the wind raif

6. To pierce with a pointed weapon; to penetrate through (outthrow).pres. c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) 7/91.
Thay rane ane rude speir in his syde And did his precious body ryff
a1568 Bann. MS 3b/172.
Quhen … grundin speir owtthrow thy hairt did ryve
p.t. 1492 Myll Spect. 283/17.
[She] set the pomell of the sword to the erd and roif hir self throw the hart
1513 Doug. iv xii 34.
[She] rave hir self to the hart
15.. Clar. iii 393.
He … so him raife all throuch the bodie out
p.p. 1513 Doug. ix vii 99.
The grundyn dart … smate Sulmonys scheild … with the dynt the rynde is revyn swa [etc.]

b. To sever with a cutting instrument. c1500 Rowll Cursing 224 (B).
And blame the scheiris that raif the skreid

c. To be revin be the throte, ? to have one's throat cut (or ? merely a further instance of 1 (3) above).Since however this line does not occur in Maitl. F., the text is perh. corrupt. c1500 Rowll Cursing 177 (B).
Thay salbe revin be the throttis For cutting of tha fowlis croppis

7. To plough up. = to rife out, see 13 c below. c1550 Corr. M. Lorraine 439.
That his tennandis hes rewin the cowmoun of Thornetown
1557 Inverness Rec. I 9.
[He] hes rewin and telit and sawin ane pairt thairof
1575 Aberd. Sheriff Ct. I 226.
[Leave] to teill, fauch and ryive ley and muir
1576 Inverness Rec. I 249.
Nother to rywe nor teill ony forder of our commontie
1580 Ib. 278.
Vpon quhatsumewir land laitlie rewin out or to be rewin
1628 Banff Ann. I 58.
The grein yeird and ground thereof to be uncassin up or riwin or away caried

8. fig. in various of the above senses.(1) 1562-3 Winȝet II 33/30, 31.
Nestorius haistelie of a scheip turnit in ane wowlf began to ryue the flok of Christe: quhen thir samin men quha wes revin and gnawin be him [etc.]
1572 Sat. P. xxxii 67.
We commounis all … That had sic … rest and vnitie, And now allace! ar rugit, reuin, and rent
1594 Colville Lett. 115.
To keip this man to be ane wage of his awin wood to ryif [ed. ryis] him
p.p. 1513 Doug. vii ix 111.
‘Allace,’ he said, ‘we ar tobroke and ryve By the fatis
(2) 1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 1165.
I will na mair thairon my foirheid riue
1562-3 Winȝet II 81/14.
Quha … ryueis his heid studiing to [etc.]
1572 Sat. P. xxxiii 44.
The malice greit, that ilk to vther beiris, Dois ryfe my bowells with thair ciuile weiris
(3) 1562-3 Winȝet II 65/30.
The doctrine of the Kirk to be reuin
1581 Hamilton Cath. Tr. in 1573-1600 Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 85/29.
All men presumes to haue the treu knaulage of theologie, ryuis [L. lacerant], intents and teaches it or they lerne the same
1598 James VI Basil. Doron II App. 309.
Thee seeds [of discord] … did so terribly spoile the … comon weill that it rywed asunder thee monarchie
c1610 Jok Uplandis Newis 7.
Have ye not rent rivin and givin away all the haill kirkes liveinges
(4) c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) 70/14.
Pansing of penuritie Revis that fra my remembrance
1549 Compl. 16/21.
Vitht oncoutht exquisite termis, dreuyn, or rather to say mair formaly, reuyn, fra Lating
a1568 Bann. MS 221a/19.
Quhill dethis rege vnto the rut me ryfe
Ib. 223b/10.
Fro out the rute rewthles ȝe haif it [sc. my heart] revin [: bene, ene, mene]
a1578 Pitsc. I 108/31.
To ryfe the lyfe out of my bodie
(b) 1596 Dalr. II 112/13.
He was … reft out of the choukis of deith
(5) 1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 106.
Quhen Phebus rose and raue the cloudis sabyll
c1590 Fowler I 82/144.
These wemen all that rave to reuth the skyes
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 25/138.
Still will ye riue the aire with cryes of loue?
Ib. 235/310.
The dinn … raue uith roaris the hiest heauen
(b) 1611-57 Mure Spirituall Hymne 237.
The hardest heart of flint he reaves

b. As in later Sc., in expressions or oaths referring to the destruction of the human soul by the Devil. Also absol. c1500 Rowll Cursing 138 (M).
And ruffy ragman … Sall ryff thair synfull saulis in raggis
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) 169/61.
Ane menstrall said, ‘The Feind me ryfe, Gif I do ocht bot drynk and swyfe’
1551 Acts II 485/1.
Deuill stick, cummer, gor, roist, or ryfe thame and sic vthers vgsume aithis
1619 Misc. Bann. C. I 203.
The devill ryve ther soules and bodies all in collops
1644 Dalyell Darker Superst. 35.
The devil ryve the saull out of ye befoir I come again
1688 Tryal Philip Standsfield 16.absol. 1644 Shetland Witch Trial in Hibbert Shetland Islands 600.
Ane common rank witch … consulting, riving with the devill in his caus

c. To rive (one's) chaft (= jaw) with laughing, to laugh immoderately, to ‘split one's sides’. a1689 Cleland 35.
Democrites he would … with laughing riven his chaft

9. To ransack (a place); to ‘take apart’ while searching. 1662 Highland P. III 16.
Mcgilchrist causing ryve McCarturs house for a childs coat that was stoline

II. intr. 10. lit. and fig. To part asunder; to burst open; to split, open up, etc.(1) a1400 Leg. S. ii 753.
That his wame bolnyt ner and rafe
Ib. xiii 71.
The tane of his schone rafe thare
1513 Doug. vii xii 120.
All kynd of eddir and … serpent … he couth gar ryfe and swell
a1682 Sempill P. 69/72.
There will be … skink to sup till you rive
(2) a1500 Henr. Orph. 108.
In pecis small this quenis hart couth ryf
1513 Doug. iii Prol. 21.
Quha … Chide quhil thar hedis ryfe [Ruddim. riffe]
c1620 Boyd Fl. Zion Exc. xiii/1.
If this continue, head and heart will rive
(3) ?14.. Ship Laws c. 22 (B).
And it [sc. the ship] hapnys to payre and ryve [etc.]
1535 Stewart 11713.
Rycht mony [sc. ships] sunk vpone the schald that rave [: clave]
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 5135.
Quhen schyppis apone roches ryuis
c1575 Balfour Pract. 619.
Gif … it happinis that scho, in hir voyage … perish, rive or wrak [etc.]
(4) 1513 Doug. i iii 49.
The storm ourset, raif rovis and syde semmys
1535 Stewart 11980.
Quhill ruvis raif
Ib. 21664.
Birneis did brek and all in pecis raif
1551 Hamilton Cat. 66.
The vail of the tempil raif in pecis
fig. 1549 Compl. 21/17.
Lucan … said that the vecht [infra the vecht of … inexorbitant extorsions] of Rome suld gar it ryue in mony partis
(5) c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) 9/83 (Asl.).
The erd did trymble the craggis raif
Id. Flyt. 15. 1525 St. A. Formulare I 270.
The yerd mot oppin ryif and cleyf
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 5998.
Than, with one rair, the erth sal ryue, And swolly thame, boith man and wyue
a1578 Pitsc. II 246/22.
Persaving the eird evir to ryve and to swoll
(6) 1513 Doug. v v 26.
For hundis queste it semyt the lyft ryfe wald
a1605 Montg. Misc. P. xlviii 189.
The cludis rave in shours of grit hailstanis
(7) 1650 Johnston Diary II 23.
Prerogative is a secret that ryves in the streitching, as K[ing] J[ames] 6 sayd
(8) 1535 Stewart 37226.
Quhill … fra the bane the lyre bowdin and raue
(9) 1460 Hay Alex. MS 16706.
Quhill baith the helme and hawbrek of him rave
1632 Prognostication.
And their [sc. trees'] roots to ryue out of the earth
(10) 1664 Sc. N. & Q. 3 Ser. VIII 237.
Delait for cursing off Mr. Patrick Andersons wife … viz. for saying I wish God she may rive on the broadsyd

III. With adv. compl.Chiefly tr.

11. To rife doun (done, etc.), to tear or pull (down or off).(a) a1400 Leg. S. v 305.
He the tempil suld … gere ryve done
Ib. xlix 165.
His mane … scho wan, & rawe of it a gret part done
1460 Hay Alex. (S.T.S.) 1090.
His hors … hors and man with his teth wald ryfe doun
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 2956.
The heych montanis Scho gart ryue down
1560 Rolland Seven S. 1170.
Scho … Raif doun hir clais and all hir riche vesture
1566 Prot. Bk. Thomas Johnsoun 148.
James Callendar … raif done and brak all the burdeis and treis abone the said mett awmre
1596 Dalr. II 401/12. 1628 Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. II 590.
[They] rave doun … the leid … for making of … drappes to their hacquebutts
1657 Aberd. Council Lett. III 279.
Housses that in tyme of burneing are ravin doune
(b) 1584 Reg. Privy C. III 681.
[They] tirrit and reft doun the faill and thak of hir … byris

b. To scratch, tear. 1560 Rolland Seven S. 1205.
Quhen scho had all reuin doun hir face Scho cryit … allace [etc.]

12. To rife furth(t. a. To tear forth, or out; to burst out. b. To tear (a leaf or document) out (of a book).a. a1538 Abell 123b.
Quhill his hart wes rewin furth
1560 Rolland Seven S. 2002.
Ane infant was swellyit with ane sow, The guttis raif furth
b. 1546 Ruddiman Epist. 352.
That the samyn [answers] be revin and tane furth thairof
1584 Crim. Trials I ii 132.
And his arms to be revin furth and deleit out of the buik of armes

c. To plough up. = 13 c and 14 c below. Cf. Riffin-furth ppl. adj. 1536–7 Sc. Hist. Rev. VII 358.
Landis quhilkis gaif sik playntie of cornis efter thai war telit and revin furth
1553 Reg. Cupar A. II 131.
It sall nocht be leifsum … to ryve furtht ony forder of the landis of the said commonte
1572 Peebles B. Rec. I 337.
The landis of Caidmuir newlie rewin furth
1580 Reg. Privy S. VII 432/2.
That the said park be na wayis revin furth nor teillit bot keipit and haynit to the use … of our said soverane lord
1595–6 Edinb. B. Rec. V 150.
It sall nocht be lesum … to ryve furth thairof na mair nor is presentlie revin, to witt to ryve out nane fra be sowth the north dyke
1600 Glasgow B. Rec. I 205.
That ane parte of thair said commone landis salbe reivin furth and put to proffeit of the towne and commone weill
1611 Reg. Panmure I xcviii.
The first tennants quha hes rewine furthe newe landis and broucht them to tilthe be plewine [etc.]

13. To rife out. See also Outrive v. a. To tear, or pluck, out. b. To tear (a leaf) out of a book.a. a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 423.
The ravyns sall ryve out bath thine ene
1535 Stewart 3676.
Sum rycht rudlie raif out all thair hair
1596 Dalr. II 401/15.
In al kirkes al ornamentis tha ryuen [sic] out
a1605 Montg. Sonn. lv 12.
Rigour ryvis the hairt out by the root
(b) a1578 Pitsc. II 281/30.
The kingis lordis … reavand out the benefices out of all the papistis handis
b. 1597 Maxwell Mem. II 187.
It apeiris thay haif revin out sum instrumentis that makis aganis thame
a1651 Calderwood III 430.
Becaus there wanteth two leaves rivvin out

c. To plough up (untilled ground); to bring under the plough. Cf. Riffin-out ppl. adj.In early use, only Sc.: cf. north. Eng. riving, in this sense (1619–53). See also 7 and 12 c above, and 14 c and 15 (3) below. 1535 Reg. Episc. Brechin. II 186.
Wilȝam Dempstar [and others] … has rewyn out telit and sawyn ane part tharof [sc. the common]
1536 Reg. Great S. 394/2.
Licence … to ryfe out, breke, and teill yeirlie 1000 acris of thair … landis
1540 Wemyss Chart. 158. 1549 Aberd. B. Rec. I 274.
That na maner of takismen … takis, birne, ryif out, wyne of new, ony landis … without thair teill ryge of auld
1562 Bk. Old Edinb. C. XV 49. 1572 Sat. P. xxxiii 271.
Now mon thay … Ryue out the Mures, the bestialls gers intak
1575–6 Reg. Privy S. VII 74/2.
With power … to ryve out and birne and win new corne landis upoun ony part … of the … infeild or … outfeild
1576 Ib. 102/1.
The quhyit medow … quhairof a part is now revin out
1580 Inverness Rec. I 278 (see 7 above). 1582–3 12th Rep. Hist. MSS. App. viii 102.
The tennentis of Cokbrandspeth hes … revin oute … my propir lands of Dunglass and alswa pasturit thair gudis thairon
1597 Rec. Earld. Orkney 322.
Power to mak outbrekis, to ryve out corne land and girse [etc.]
1600 Acts IV 228/1.
Diuers persones hes ryvin out parkit [etc.] … great portionis of the samin commounteis
1621 Urie Baron Ct. 36. 1670 M. P. Brown Suppl. Decis. I 615.
The Moor of Dunnikeir … he might rive out and labour three acres thereof for his own use
1692 Peebles B. Rec. II 138.
That the saids herds shall … not ryve out any lea or build any folds
1693 Stitchill Baron Ct. 110.

d. To dig up, excavate. 1539 Reg. Privy S. II 455/2.
Full poware … to breik and rife out his landis of his heretage and serche and seik gold ure tharin

14. To rife up. a. To pull, tear or pluck up (freq. by the roots, or with force or violence). b. To remove (a lock) by force; to pluck away.In Doug. iv x 112, both hynt and rave are appar. complemented by up.a. c1500 Rowll Cursing 22 (M).
And raif his erbis vp be the rute
1513 Doug. ii vi 16.
The burn on spait … Ryvand vp rede erd as it war wod
Ib. iv x 112.
Thai hurl away, ankyrris vphynt and rave [Sm. raif]
1540 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 223.
Geif onland townmen cuttis or ryffis up be the ruttis to be inditit thairof
15.. Christis Kirk §12 (L).
The wives cam foirth & vp thay reft him & fund liff in the loune
1589 St. A. B. Ct. 16 Dec.
The said James … had revin wp the stringis of the mussillis
1621 Black Bk. Taymouth 372.
He raif up sum sauch and haisseill to teill land
1628 Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. II 596.
[They] pryssed and rave up the clouse of the said damme
b. c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) 105/13.
Thai brak up durris and raeff up lockis
1540 Lynd. Sat. 1562 (B).
Swyth, hursone smaik, ryve vp the lokkis

c. To plough up. = 12 c and 13 c above. 1612 Reg. Privy C. IX 349.
[They] rave up and tillit over agane [the said lands]

d. To lacerate. 1650 Justiciary Cases III 844.
He … rave up hir secreit pairtis to the effusioun of hir bluid … be ryveing and renting of hir flesche

e. To damage, do damage to. 1668 Reg. Privy C. 3 Ser. II 485.
[They] did ryve up and destroy loftings and uther plenisheing of his house

15. Also with other adverbs.Rife in, to plough up. = rife out, see 13 c above. Rife of(f, to tear off; ? to cut off. Rife throw (throche), to tear or cut from one side to another.(1) c1552 Lynd. Mon. 6256.
The sewin planetis … Ar reft about with coursse contrarious
(2) c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) 9/60.
The clayth … Thay raif away with ruggis rude
1559 Inverness Rec. I 31.
To be hed to the trone and to be bundyn to he be nalit … and hymeself to ryf away his luge
(3) 1620 Grant Chart. 319.
Libertie … to teill, ryif in, and win, fauldis
1671 Inverness Rec. II 250.
Such persons as … doth … incroach on and rywe in the towns comontie
(4) a1400 Leg. S. xx 189.
[He] gert thame keme his tendir flesch … til al was Rewyne of til the banis bare
?1438 Alex. ii 5461.
I sall haue thyne helm … Or ellis thy hede I sall of ryf
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2545. 1531 Bell. Boece I 66.
Gillus … raif of his coit-armour and fled
c1530-40 Stewart Bann. MS 36a/71.
Thai … bak and syd couth fla And raif of all my panis to renew
a1605 Montg. Flyt. 341 (T).
Ay ryvand of ane reif of venymeous water
1590–1 Crim. Trials I ii 222.
His nailes … were riven and pulled off with an instrument called in Scottish a turkas
1685 Stranraer B. Ct. 7 Sept.
& violently ryved off her busskines & linanis aff her heid
(5) c1552 Lynd. Mon. 2960.
Gret Orontes … Tyll hir palyce to draw ane louche, By fors of men scho raif it throche
a1633 Hope Major Pract. I 95.
The contract wes blank in some parts, interlyned, and almost riven throw

IV. 16. Coupled with rug, in various of the above senses, in tr., intr. and causative use. Of a person: a. To tear or pull (hair) from (of) the head. b. To tug (at) vigorously; to struggle or contend.a. c1420 Wynt. v 2751 (W).
The moderis … of thare heid the haire Raiff and ruggit
1694 Hawick Ann. 94.
And for having fallen upon the said bailie and rugged and rave the hair off his head
b. 1680 Cloud of Witnesses (1714) 49.
The people of God should be at holding and drawing, rugging and riving er'e the enemies of our Lord possess his crown
1692 Presb. Eloq. (1692) 99.
The foul thief and I tugg'd, rugg'd, and riv'd at one another
(b) 1596 Dalr. I 323/6.
The Moray men … began to rug and reiue, stryk and stick ilk vther

c. Of a bird or animal: To tear at with the beak or teeth; to tear into pieces. 1513 Doug. vi ix 140.
Ane hydduus grype with bustuus bowland beyk … sparis nocht to rug, ryfe, and gnaw
1525 St. A. Formulare I 271.
Ther bodeys … to be hangit syne revyn and ruggit with doggis [etc.]
1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 1148.
The rauin began rudely to ruge and ryue, Full gormondlyke
a1700 Mare of Colinton 175.
With dogs ye shall me rug and rive, If I make not for Currie

d. To rob or plunder (people). Cf. sense 9 above. Also const. up.(a) 1572 Sat. P. xxxii 67.
We commounis all … That had sic peice … now allace! ar rugit reuin and rent, Our steidis are stowne, our cattell reft trewlie
(b) a1568 Scott i 125.
Sum ar … fairsing full thair bellie, … Ruging and raifand vp kirk rentis lyke ruikis

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