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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 2002 (DOST Vol. XII).
This entry has not been updated but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Wer(e, Weir, War(e, n.1 Also: ver(e, uer, weire, veir, weyr(e, veyr, werr(e, wear(e, weair, wearr(e, vear, weer(e, wier, vier, wiar, wy(i)r, wair(e, warr(e, uar(r. [ME and e.m.E. werre (a1200), weorre (a1225), worre (1297), wer(e, werr (all Cursor M.), warre (c1350), warr (1441), war (1573), late OE wyrre, werre, north-east OF werre, OF guerre, med. L. werra, guerra, OHG werra confusion, discord, strife.]See also Bodin p.p. and ppl. adj., Civil(l adj. 3, Hat(e adj. 5, Het adj. 2 (3), Intestine adj., Move v. 3, Mufe v. 2 a and Opin adj. 4 d for further examples.

1. Warfare. a. A state or period of hostilities and combat existing between political groups, esp. realms or nations; also, specif. the warlike activity appropriate to knights, and also sometimes applied to the skills involved (see (3) below and cf. some quots. in 2 (1)). b. Hostilities, strife, etc. between (groups of) individuals pursuing private enmities.Also personified.Also const. to distroy, conqueir, etc. of, on, with (= by means of) were, and const. def. art.a., b. (1) 1375 Barb. xv 444.
Gif ik euer his baner May se displayit apon wer I sall assembill on him
1375 Barb. xix 247.
James Stewart that ledar wes … Off all his bruderys men in wer [C. weir]
1386 Rot. Sc. II 85/2.
That ferme trewes abstinance of were and special assurance sal be bytwix thaym
1398 Liber Melros 489 (see Commoun adj. 2). c1400 Troy-bk. ii 1628.
Thai ware abile to bere Armes and tuke knychthed in were
c1420 Wynt. i 1588.
Were or pestilence
14.. Acts I 113/2.
Indurand the tym of were evir ilk lawyt man … sal haf … a basnet [etc.]
1456 Hay I 175/18.
Gif a man has tane a prisonare in lawfull were
c1475 Wall. i 170.
Thai wald no kyrkis forber; Bot gryppyt all be wiolence of wer
1507 Treas. Acc. III 396.
Spere hedis for were
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (STS) lxxi 33.
Grit wer and wandrecht hes bene ws amang Sen thy depairting
1513–14 Acta Conc. Publ. Aff. 11.
For furnissing of the said castell with men, vittalis, artalȝery, fewell and sic uthir thingis as is necessar for keping tharof in tyme of were
1517 Acts XII 38/1.
We hald and reputis the auctorite ryall in all thingis wele exercit and in speciall the foresaid prorogacioun of were past concludit and approbate
(b) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2708.
Agane Pirrus weire to manteyine
?1438 Alex. i 2670.
Ane knicht that was wicht in weir
a1447 Bower Chron. II 232 n. (see Wer(e v.1 2).
a1500 Rauf C. 460.
Mekle worschip of weir worthylie he wan
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 57.
Sen thy will is to wend, wy, now in weir [etc.]
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 842.
Ane knight … Anairmit of weir
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2613.
I counsell men … To … fall not with thair better in debait … It settis na seruand for to vphald weir
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 157/213.
The Devill … thame of knychtheid cold depryve Dischairgeing thame of weir
1513 Doug. iii viii 68.
Weir and debait thir stedis signyfyis
1523 Exch. R. XV 38 n.
Now throw weir and truble within our realm the course of merchandice cessis
1532 Treas. Acc. VI 106.
That all men … be reddy … in fensable maner for weir
1535 Stewart 204.
His landis … war waistit all with weir
1535 Stewart 5270.
Men The quhilk of weir all prattisis do ken
1546 Lynd. Trag. Card. 106.
Quhair throch thar rose gret weir & mortal stryfe … On ather syde did mony lose thare lyfe
1549 Compl. 90/3.
Quhat castel can be lang kepit quhen the enemeis seigis it cruelly vitht out and vitht in the said castel ther ringis mortal veyr amang the soudartis
1560 Rolland Seven S. 4926.
It come to sic het point of weir That
1560 Rolland Seven S. 4843 (see Red(e adj. 12 b). 1573 Sempill in Sat. P. xxxix 76.
At Leith thay landit … Not laiking na thing that belangit to weir
1597 Skene Verb. S. s.v. Gverra.
Gverra … vtherwaies called verra, battel, weir. And signifies nocht onelie publict weire and hostilitie, quhilk is proclaimed and denunced be the lauchfull authoritie of the prince: bot also private deadlie feede quhen onie particular person wauld revenge onie privat injurie
1692 Rothesay B. Rec. 485.
Donall is to have the tounes weights and measures against Mertimes suficient and is to restore them back to the toun in the same condition except eill and weir
(c) a1500 K. Hart 833.
Ware, I wait, ȝe haue at hand, Quhilk sall assailȝe ȝour wallis hie
1533 Boece 588b.
Barkis and carwellis weill garnist for waire
1595 Cal. Sc. P. XI 571.
That thay twa nobilis howssis enter nocht in wair
(d) c1520-c1535 Nisbet I 14.
Weare and feythtyng cummis of woluptuusnes
1573 Reg. Privy C. II 218.
Sic change and fortoun of weare
1594 Douglas Corr. 375.
As ȝe desseir presentlie peax or weare
(e) 1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 197.
(f) 1513 Doug. ii viii 66 (Sm.).
1547–8 Corr. M. Lorraine 213.
This fasson off wyr … to slay nobill men efter thay be randeritt
(g) c1620 Boyd Fl. Zion Exc. xxi/2.
Craftsmen aside in warre their lumes doe lay
1665 Aberd. B. Rec. IV 214.
This coast … through his Majesties ingadgment of warr with Holland, might possiblie be invadeit
personified a1500 K. Hart 818.
To the ȝet come rydand … Wirschip of Weir
1611-57 Mure Dido & Æneas i 37.
Now bloody warre, (the mistres of debait, Attendit still with discorde, death, dispair … With visage pale [etc.])
(2) a1400 Leg. S. xxvi 590.
With gret were, The Turkis … Distroyt the towne of Myrre
?1438 Alex. i 3268.
I trow neuer to conqueir Castell, citie, na land of weir
c1420 Wynt. ii 10.
All Asy, … Wytht were and batayle dawntyde he
c1420 Wynt. vi 553.
He wan off were all Galluway
c1450-2 Howlat 564 (A).
He gaif it to the Douglas … gif he couth wyn it on weire
1456 Hay I 46/13.
[He] wan him wichtly of were
(3) ?1438 Alex. ii 4824.
I hait the weir and luffis the peis
1456 Hay I 84/35.
Usage makis him … expert, be oft hanting of the were that he is wont till
1460 Hay Alex. 1016.
Betaucht him for to teche to Tholome For he was wysar of the were then he
a1570-86 Maitland in Maitl. F. 330/44.
My hoisting geir Now may be sald I am not habill for the weir I am so ald

2. pl.Hostilities, warfare, those activities carried on in war or by armies or combatants, sometimes applied to the skills involved. Also const. def. art.Some examples may belong in 3 b.(1) ?1438 Alex. ii 350.
Bachleiris That wald win lofe or pryse in weiris
?1438 Alex. ii 4160.
That worthy war and wicht in weris
c1420 Wynt. viii 5990.
He wythdrw hym, for wys wes he And in till weris awysse
c1450-2 Howlat 327 (A).
Gois halkis war governouris of the gret oist … in charge of weris
1456 Hay I 195/27.
A man of grete age war othir wayis prouffitable, as to be of gude counsale and conduyte of weris
1456 Hay I 301/20.
Quhen a man is our delytabily … governyt in his ȝouthede he may nocht dure langsumly in the travailis of weris
a1500 Bk. Chess 2100.
Vnto a quene be richt it is nocht meit To go to batall weris to sustene
1533 Boece 205b.
Angusiane … maid instance to the king of Pichtis he suld nocht fostir civill weris betuix Scottis and … Pichtis
1552 Prot. Bk. W. Douglas 251b.
The said Androw sall serue ws … in oisting and warris
1560 Rolland Seven S. 9297.
Gwydo is stout and strang, And hes bene vsit in actis of weiris lang
a1570-86 Maitl. F. 126/31.
Ȝe say thair gaddering in to weiris May nocht exceid fyve hundreth speiris
1581 Hamilton Cath. Tr. in Cath. Tr. (STS) 74/20.
Your maiesteis cuntrie oppressit be famine and intestine vearis
a1595 Descr. Isles 433.
In March, anno 1577, weiris and inmitie betwix the said Clan Renald and McCloyd Herreik
1596 Dalr. II 443/18.
Quhen weiris war now throw al Scotland be the hæreticks pretendeng religione for quhat euir vice or crime tha did
(2) c1500 Crying of Play 95.
Ane thousand ȝere is past … Sen I was generit … Baith the King Arthour & Gawane … Ar deid and in the weris slane; Sen I couth weild a speire
1532 Aberd. B. Rec. I 144.
Considering the truble and ueris that is able now to cum be our auld ennemeis
1549 Compl. 14/12, 16.
He dar be sa bold … to disput … the maneir of the veyris ande of the batellis … he hes ane smal iugement of sic maters, or ellis he estemeis vs to be litil experimentit in the veyris
1549 Compl. 15/11.
The prettik of the veyris is mair facil to be leyrnit on the feildis of Affrica, nor in the sculis of Greice
1562-3 Winȝet II 17/13 marg.
Mony passis the bakwart way, fra the monastik life to the weris
c1590 Fowler II 154/22.
Philipp of Macedone … did … maintene for many yeres the wares aganst his armed enmeyeis
1596 Dalr. I 202/7.
Thay sal adioyne thame selfes to thame in battel, and in the weiris keip cumpanie with thame
1600-1610 Melvill 81.
Captan Robert Anstruther … wha haid spendit his haill lyff in the warres in France

3. A particular war or episode of warfare or fighting. a. sing.b. pl.Freq. const. possess.a. 1375 Barb. iv 239 (C).
A were … Betuix France and [the] Flemynnis
1375 Barb. xvi 178.
In all the wer off Irland Sa hard a fechting wes nocht sene
1375 Barb. xix 167.
And ȝe think ȝowr wer to bring To ȝour purpos … Lang trewys with him tak ȝe
?1438 Alex. ii 1739.
Now will I gang, efter the were, In Babylon
?1438 Alex. ii 1951.
This weir full lang may nocht lest
14.. Reg. Maj. c. 105.
It is leffull to the lord sic thing to ask of his mene … til his were to be mantenit
1454 Southesk MSS 8.
In the tyme of the were betvux ourez cusynges
c1475 Wall. i 55.
Eduuarde Langschanks had new begune hys wer Apon Gaskone
c1475 Wall. ix 173.
‘Commaund thi men,’ quoth Wallace, ‘ … Thar schot off gown … to ces' … The Rede Reiffar commaundyt thaim … 'Lat be your wer, thir ar our freyndis at ane'
c1515 Asl. MS I 192/11.
Ane gret weire and lestit lang tyme
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 1670.
Betwene thir pepill rais ane langsum weir
1513 Doug. i contents 231 (Sm.).
The twelf [sc. Book xii of the Aeneid] makis end of all the were
1513 Doug. v x 102.
Weir of Troy
1533 Boece 35a.
In begynnyng of this were Gathele brocht his power to the feild
1535 Stewart 81.
Wallace weir
1542 Ayr Common Good Acc.
To ane boy that past to George Gude to get novellis of the weir
1549 Compl. 124/10, 11.
The veyr is cryit contrar Ingland, bot the actis of the veir is exsecutit contrar the lauberaris
(b) 1570 Leslie 215.
Ane uther company … began to shaw thame selffis … and yit that band was bot of the meaner sort of peple … notwithstanding … thay appered to be licklie men, and well appointed for the war
(c) c1590 Fowler II 145/18.
(d) c1616 Hume Orthog. 3.
Neither thought he it unworthie of his paines to wryte a grammar in the heat of the civil weer
b. ?1438 Alex. ii 3002.
He askit than of Clarus … of his weres
c1475 Wall. iii 49.
Brucis weris
1492 Myll Spect. 286/1.
Agamenon … ledar of all the Grekis in the said weris
1523 Carnwath Baron Ct. (SHS) 2.
For the non furnissin of ane cariage in to the kingis veris
1531 Bell. Boece I iv.
Thair weris lang continewing aganis the Romanis, be support of Scottis
1540 Antiq. Aberd. & B. II 252.
To serve the said reuerend fader … in oure soueranne lord and his successouris weeris
1549 Reg. Cupar A. II 59.
[Tha] sall furnis tuay furnist speris to the quenis weris, hostingis, and radis
1549 Lamb Resonyng 13/13.
The Scottis and Inglis weiris … hes continewit thir mony hundreth ȝeiris
1595–6 Elgin Rec. I 221.
Weill armorit as effeirs to pas to the kingis wyris
1595–6 Elgin Rec. I 221.
1596 Dalr. I 159/11.
At thair cuming baldlie and with scharpe weiris thay meit thame; in quhilke battel was fochtne [etc.]
1598 James VI Basil. Doron 154/6.
Beginne … youre first uarris upon youre mother
1622-6 Bisset II 44/12.
King Mordoch … repaired many abbayis … distroyed afoir be the weiris of his elderis
1628 Fraserburgh Kirk S. II 8 Oct.
The king of Denmarkis warris
c1650 Spalding I 272.
Montrose in his warris … brunt his castle of Ashintullie
1681 Colvil Whig's Suppl. (1681) i 34.
Wars, rebels, horse races Proclaim'd at several mercat-places

4. a. To hald, have, mak, rais wer(is, to start or carry on a war or warfare. See also Move v. 3.sing. 1375 Barb. ix 292.
The erle … him assegyt thar And he that wald hald were [C. veyr] ne mar Na bargane with the nobile king Come syne his man
1424 Acts II 3/1 (see Amove v.1 2). 1456 Hay I 7/30.
How Nabugodonosor maid were apon the peple of Israel, and put thame in grete thraldome
1456 Hay I 108/27.
Na man may mak were … but leve
1456 Hay I 125/15.
Quhen ever a baroun risis to mak were on his king … he fallis in the crime of lese mageste
1456 Hay I 126/11.
Gif … the king of France has were agaynis the Inglis men
1456 Hay I 153/7.
Suppos a baroun mak rycht were of defence agayne ane othir baroun
c1515 Asl. MS I 204/18.
The said Henry … maid gret weire throw all Yngland
1560 Rolland Seven S. 5351.
Thair is na kings that dar rais weir nor strife In ȝour contrair
1570 Leslie 98.
To mak weair aganis Ingland
pl. 1456 Hay I 153/2.
Gif the said weris be maid be commandement of a prince

b. To be, etc. in (of) wer(is (apon, with someone), to be at war (with someone).sing. 1375 Barb. viii 494.
Quhen he had ȝemyt a ȝer In wer as a gud bachiller The … castell off Douglas That to kepe sa peralus was Than mycht he weile ask a lady Hyr amowris
c1420 Wynt. vi 2271.
Gyff the thayne off Fyff in were, Or in till ost wyth hys powere Ware
14.. Acts I 113/2.
For quhi that the kyngis land is of wer it behufis nocht for that the kynrik be puryt be alienaciounis of gudis
1456 Hay I 3/17.
Almaist na realme in cristyndom bot it is in were
pl. 1456 Hay I 251/7.
The king of Fraunce is in weris apon Goddis inymyes
c1515 Asl. MS I 253/20.
The quhilk nobill man was in gret weris with Charllis

c. To be, ride, go, etc. to (at) (the) wer(is, to be involved in fighting a war, to go to war.sing. 1375 Barb. x 309.
He sped him to the wer Till help his eyme
c1475 Wall. vi 32.
To wer I will
1572 Sat. P. xxxiii 263.
Quhair sic wer wont to ride furth to the weir, With jak and sword … Now mon thay [etc.]
1584 Sempill in Sat. P. xlv Pref. 38.
Cumand to the weir Contrair thair conscience
1645 Shetland Witch Trial in Hibbert Shetland Islands 594.
He took resolution to go to the war
pl. 1456 Hay I 119/35.
Suppos a knycht have bene at the weris lang tyme
1577 St. A. Kirk S. 428.
That sche is clethit witht ane husband, quha is passit to Flanderis as scho allegit to the wearis
1626 Fraserburgh Kirk S. II 5 July.
He … is feit to gang to the warris
1660 Boharm Kirk S. 8 Jan.
Having once ane husband who went to the warres and no certaintie of his death

d. In (tyme of) pese and were or were and (once, as) (in) pese, with reference to the circumstances both of peace and war, at all times, freq. in bonds of manrent. a1400 Leg. S. vii 462.
Josaphus, prince wes … bath in pese & vere
?1438 Alex. ii 272.
Gaudefere, That worthie was in peax and were
14.. Reg. Maj. 5a.
Bath in tyme of werre and pece
1452 Douglas Chart. 79.
Byndis thaim … to be witht him … bath in were and in pese … to gif him lele and trew consell
1484 Misc. Spald. C. II 254.
a1568 Bell in Bann. MS 367a/35.
How this cuntre baith in peice & weir Bene governit
1549 Bk. Carlaverock II 476.
In vere and in pece
1557–8 Reg. Cupar A. II 142.
1561–2 Reg. Privy S. V i 258/1.
In tyme of weir as peax
1597 Acts IV 153/2.
Being ane meist necessair refuige … in tyme of peax and veir

e. proverb. 1535 Stewart 42825.
Of all weiris peax is the latter end
a1598 Ferg. Prov. MS No. 425.
For chanc of wear no man should murning mak
1604-31 Craig v 34.
Peace, saith the proverbe, puts end to all weire

5. Const. of(f (for) were.a. With non-material terms. b. With castell, etc., a stronghold. See also Place n. 9 c. c. Instrument of (for) were, etc., equipment for the pursuit of war. See also Fere n.4 2. d. Man (men) of(f were, a soldier, soldiers, also ? a warship, see Were man n. b. Also, ost, counsall, etc. of were. e. Land of wear, a land experiencing warfare. f. As of were, in a hostile or warlike fashion. 1375 Barb. xvi 496.
This poynt of wer [C. weir] … Wes wndretane full apertly And eschewyt rycht hardely
c1420 Wynt. viii 5356 (see Punȝe n.1). c1420 Wynt. viii 5981.
A rade off were He made wyth displayid banere
1456 Hay I 166/11.
Quhethir gif a man be awand me gudis and I be of power to tak my payment be dede of were quhethir aw I to mak persecucioun agayne him
1611-57 Mure Early Misc. P. i 12.
Ane ensigne displayed In sing of ware he bair
1651 Johnston Diary II 58.
For if … Stirling … be taiken by the enemy, the registers would have been in their power by the law of warre
b. 1375 Barb. xvii 243.
Apparaill … till assaill Castell of wer
c1420 Wynt. vi 1962 (see Hous n.1 1 b).
Hows … off were
1581 Reg. Privy C. III 382.
To fortefie … the samin … as ane hous of weir
1611 Misc. Maitl. C. III 17.
The yle of the loiche of Lochkitterine whilk thay haif fortifeit with men [etc.] … to keepe the same as ane place of wear & defence for … resisting of his majesties forceis
c1650 Spalding II 272.
Places of warr
c. a1400 Leg. S. vii 465.
Alkyne instrument of were, As gyne, slonge, darte & spere
1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 58.
Thar is trewys … Neuertheles … thar is cummyn a barge of werre garnyst with Inglischmen
1456 Acts II 45/2.
It is thocht spedfull … to mak cartis of weire and in ilk cart twa gunnys
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 549.
Wedis of vier
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 587.
Wapnis of were
c1475 Wall. ii 105.
Wallace bauldlye drew a suerd of wer
1514 Irvine Mun. I 35.
Al uther maner of abilȝeamentis, wappinnis and instrumentis for were
1540 Aberd. B. Rec. I 173.
To the prepairing of the schip of veir
1560 Prot. Bk. William Gray in Orig. Par. II ii 763.
In feir of wyir
1558-66 Knox II 48.
1587–8 Aberd. Council Lett. I 21.
c1650 Spalding I 25.
That this fyre could not be raisit … except be force of ingyne of warr
1685 Soc. Ant. LVIII 349.
[At a funeral] the horse of wair led by two footmen
d. (1) c1420 Wynt. viii 2189.
All [Allyrdayle] as man off were That tyme he brynt
1456 Hay I 42/10.
The hardiest and maist worthi men of were
1473–4 Treas. Acc. I 68.
For a leueray colare of the kingis, gevin to him in the recompens of his colare that was gevin be the king to the Dens man of were
c1475 Wall. i 205.
The constable a felloun man of wer
c1490 Irland Asl. MS 20/13.
He suld speir at … baronis & men of weir anentis reif, murthour and stouth
1502 Acta Conc. III 190.
For the furnising … the schip callit the Egyll, til haf furit men of weyre in the raid of Leith
1549 Compl. 6/20.
Men of veyr ande vthirs that lyuit vitht out lau
1551 Dundee B. Ct. II 119 (27 Nov.).
To pay ten s. … for the sext part of ane man of weris wage
1565 Thirds of Benefices 191.
To the … furnessing of the twa schippis, thair kippages, cumpanyes and men of weare that past oute of Dundie
a1570-86 Maitland in Maitl. F. 37/14.
I saw no gysaris … Bot kirkmen cled lyk men of weir
1570 Leslie 47.
Thair wes certaine garnisonis of men of weare placeit in Berwyk
1569-73 Bann. Memor. 117.
About ane hundreth horse and seventy futmen, als guid lyk men of warre as vses to cum out of Argyle
1572–3 Cart. S. Nich. Aberd. II 383.
For walking of the kirk at the men of wairis passang to Swadin
1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 223.
1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 250.
1607 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 57.
The sessioun fearing throw occasioun of the wear schip off Dunkirk being heir … that ony barne be borne and alledgit to be begottin be ony of the men of wear
(2) c1420 Wynt. ii 1568.
Quhen the Grekys assegeand wes The town off Troy … Thare wyth hyr ost scho come off were [C. weyre, W. weir]
1549 Compl. 42/2.
Ȝe soldartis & conpangȝons of veyr, mak reddy ȝour corsbollis
(3) 1621 Crim. Trials III 503.
Making thame subiect vnto the said counsall of wear
1648 Acts VI ii 91/1.
[The] petitione of the committee of warr … of Fyff for continueing the levie
e. a1500 Sir Eger 720.
Put upon you all your gear, As ye would ride in land of wear
f. ?1438 Alex. ii 1226.
Clarus … straucht his speir And he to him come, as of were. Cassamus hit him in the scheild [etc.]

6. transf.or fig.a. Hostility, disputation, conflict, quarrelling, contention. Also pl.b. pl.Troubles, troublemaking.a. c1420 Ratis R. 720.
Thir sewyne giftis … With sewyne vicis thai are at were
1456 Hay I 5/4.
Apon this mater … we see twa partis … amang the quhilkis is grete discorde discensioun and were
1460 Hay Alex. 1129.
He louit ȝow neuir bot held ȝow ay in were
1461 Liber Plusc. I 385.
Thair is nocht heire bot vayn and vanite … Weire and invy
a1500 Bernardus 404.
[They] Quhilk mary … bot for thar gud ande ger, Qwhen that is gane, thar is bot lestande wer. For … thane wyl tha fecht and flyt
c1490 Porteous Noblenes 49 (Ch. & M.).
Gif thair cumis to hym wexation werre or trouble
1551 Hamilton Cat. 194.
In baptyme we ar markit to the spiritual weire
1560 M. Napier Mem. J. Napier 67.
Advys gif be your jugement ye will condame your self for that thing quhilk is cumin to me throu my father, for ony weyr that may be maid me, without that chance of poverte compell me
1567 G. Ball. 26.
All Christin man tak tent and leir, How saull and body ar at weir
a1568 Scott i 126.
Sum … raifand vp kirk rentis lyke ruikis As werrie waspis aganis Goddis word makis weir
pl. 1604-31 Craig ii 90.
Canst thou not see those sad and ciuill weairs Which are within … my heart
b. 1456 Hay I 8/15.
To speke of the weris and tribulaciouns of the haly kirk, efter the incarnacioun
a1568 Bann. MS 30a/65.
Betuix ws varlo and thy weris All Chrystis passioun we put compleit

7. Just(yng), cours, to just of were, jousting with weapons of war, single combat fought between knights in the course of conflict during a war, in skirmishing before a battle or at a tournament, to joust in this fashion. Cf. note to Pes(e n.1 1. 1375 Barb. xix 524.
[Aucht] dayis … swa thai lay That Inglis-men durst nocht assaill The Scottis-men with plane battaill … Thar wes ilk day iustyn of wer And scrymyn maid … And men tane on athyr party
1375 Barb. xix 795.
The discourrowris that thar Ridand befor the ost war Off athyr ost has gottyn sycht And thai that worthy war and wicht At thar metyng iustyt of wer
c1420 Wynt. viii 4781.
Thaire dyscoverowris athir sawe Sum off thaim justyd off were
c1420 Wynt. viii 5153.
He … askyd thre cours off were At hym … Alysawndyre the Ramsay thare was … at that justying … And at the tothir cours off were The Dowglas hit, and brak his spere
c1420 Wynt. viii 5301.
Till the knycht the prys gawe thai, That smate Wilyame the Ramsay … And sayd, it wes justyng off were, And [he] that mast engrewyt there Suld have the grettast prys
c1420 Wynt. viii 5512.
Dawy the Berklay … Askyd at Jhon the Brws justyng Off were
c1420 Wynt. viii 6001.
The knychtis that sawe his wyth-drawyng … folowyd … owt off alray Qwhill off thare folk … lewyd noucht fyfty Togyddyr Than Ogill turnyd, and abade; And thai in hy apon hym rade, And justyd off were … Thare wes a bargane off felny
c1420 Wynt. ix 1046, 1049 (W).
Quhasa come to ask iusting Suld twiche ane of thai with a spere And gif it were a speire of weire The knycht suld at the armes baire Thre cours of weire ryn till him thare And gif his speire of pes were he Suld than of pes deliuerit be Thre cours, and sa of pes and weire Thai iustis entermellit were
1456 Hay I 258/1.
Oure haly fader … forbidis that maneris of provis, of bataillis in liss or justis of were
?a1500 Rosw. & Lillian 453.
To come and just a course of wier; Before him and his queen

8. The word ‘war’, with reference to its pronunciation. c1616 Hume Orthog. 20.
Lykwayes we sould keep the vouales of the original … from guerrum, the north were, the south war

9. attrib. and possess.attrib. 1456 Hay I 123/35.
For defence of the kingis persoun … and of the commoun prouffit of the realme is fer mare privilegit na is ony rychtwis querele of pursuyng, or were making till his awin legis
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 198.
Were wedis
1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 241.
He biggit ane were hous [L. castellummunitissimum] in Atholl to resist thair oppressioun
1538 Treas. Acc. VII 39.
For jm weir genȝeis, price of the dowsoun xviij s.
1539 Treas. Acc. VII 49.
For xij lycht weir sadillis
possess. 1573 Cal. Sc. P. IV 600.
[To follow the] weiris kair [with one tried company of good horsemen]

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"Wer n.1". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 29 Nov 2022 <>



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